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Digitized by 


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Digitized by 


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In Thirty Volumes 















Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Cue 364 

Copyright, 1918 


The Encyclopedia Americana Corporation 

coMPoamoN, electrotvpino, preuwouk, amDiNO 


Digitized by 




Editor of " A System of Pediatrics." ''," 


ftaitof of "The Herald of CSospel Liberty" 



American Lawyer in Paris 


Editor in chief of " The Banner " 


benhett, Charles e., LittJ). 

Professor of Latin, Cornell Uoivsmtjr 
CICERO'S letters 


Professor of Old Testament Interpretation ftfld 
Semitic Longuatfes, Colgate University 


Professor of English, Columbia Uoiveiaity 


Professor of Moral Tbeolof y< Holy CrotM CaSkga 





Professor of History and Political Sciance, West 
Vir(^a Univerrity 


WtTH • 



Professor of Romance Languages, Umverstty of 

CHARACTERS ■'' '• ' 


Author of " Rsligioos Forces in the United States," 
etc. ■ ' •■' 




Profeiaoti of Morphology and Cytology, University 
. of Chi^igo 

CELL -• 



CLARKE, FRANK W^ 83., D.Sc., LLJ>. 

Chemist for United States Geological Survey 


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Contributors to Volume VI— Continued 

DUWN, WALDO H., Litt.D. 

Protester pt tnfVA .LateuaK< 
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ISAACS. LEWIS M., Pli3., LL3. 

Musical Critic and Comixxer 





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Digitized by 




far, father 


fate, bate 

a or a 

at, fat . 


air, care 


ado, sofa 


all, fall 


choose, church 


eel, we 

e or i 

bed. end 


her, over; also 

Spall, a,' as in MKan (c^'yiih), 
pihon (pen'ySn) 

eu, as in neufi and^cfu, as in 
boeuf, coeur; Ger. 5 (or oe), 


befall, elope 


agent, trident 


off, trough 


gas, get 


anguish, guava 


hat. hot 

A or H 

Ger. ch, as in nitht, waeht 




file, ice 

i or 1 

, him, it 

between e and i", mostly in 
Oriental final syllables, as, 

j gem, gemus 

kw quaint, quite 

h Fr. nasal m or tt, as in embon- 

point, Jean, temps 


mingle, singing 


bank, ink 


no, «»p^ 

or 6 

not, on 

6 ' 

com, noT' 


atom, symbol 


book, look 


oil, soil ; also Ger. eu, as in heutel 

oor oo 

fool, rule 

ou or ow 

allow, bowsprit 


satisfy, sauce 


show, sure 


thick, thin - ■ 


father, thither 


mute, use 


but, us 


pull, put 

ii between u and e, as in Fr. sur, 

Ger. Muiler 

V of, very 

y (consonantal) yes, young 

z pleasant, rose 

zh azure, pleasure 

'(prime), '(secondaty) accents, to indicate 
syllabic stress 

Digitized by 


■■: . i/.l»ll-i > ■■ill 
• I ■/llillil f»l\ > 

CASTE, a social class whose burdens 
and privileges are hereditary. The 
word is from the Portuguese casta, 
race, and was applied by the Portu- 
guese, who became familiar with Hindustan, 
to the classes in India whose occupations, 
privileges and duties are hereditary. 'This 
term is sometimes applied to the hereditary 
classes in Europe; and we speiik_ of the 
spirit or the prerogatives and usurpations of a 
caste, to express particularly that peculiar con- 
stitution of society which makes distinction de- 
pendent on the accidents of birth or fortune. 
The division into castes, where it appears inits 
most typical form, comes to us from a period 
to whidi.the light of history does not extend; 
hence its' origin cannot be clearly traced : but 
it is highly probable that wherever it exists it 
was originally grounded on a difference of 
descent and m modes of living, and that the 
separate castes were origjhally separate races 
of people. This_ institution has been found 
among many nations. According to the ac- 
counts collected by Clavigpro, some traces of it 
were apparent among the Peruvians and Mexi-. 
cans; but it prevails principally in the East, 
where it has existed frorn the earliest times, 
and has become blended with the political con- 
dition of the people. The division into castes 
was entirely interwoven in the whole fabric of 
civil society, in ancient Egypt, in India and 
ancient Persia. In Egypt mis division was 
supposed to have been perfected as a political 
institution in the flourishing period of the 
Pharaohs; and the lines of separation which 
had been drawn in earlier times by a difference 
of descent and different modes of living were 
dien rendered still more distinct The number 
of castes in that country is variously stated 
by Herodotus, Plato, ESodorus and Strabo. 
Recent evidence however has made the exist- 
ence of a strict caste system in Egypt rather 
doubtful. The institution of caste is best 
known to us as it exists in Hindustan, where 
it is well known to have existed since perhaps 
1,500 or 2,000 years before the Christian era. 
The great Indian castes are four in number, 
namefyi the Brahmans or sacerdotal class; the 
Kshatriyas or military class; the Vaisyas or 
mercantile class; and the Sudras or servile 
class. The division of castes in ancient Persia 
was essentially sitnilar, as one would expect on 
the basis of the intimate relation between the 
religions of two countries. The three Indian 
castes first named are regarded as being al- 

A)N\ ■... - 

~>C'Cy\// lli OM-Jllflll 

I /ll/.ttr-[/ •.nii! -jfl'l" 
III -nil 'i) iiK i) ni>>.\ii(\nt%i 
vii;iii!iTi -Jill pi ^ijIT .ilni 

M , .. ■:.!,, .:. 1 . 

together of a higher character than the fourth, 
rejoicing in the peculiar religious distinction of 
bemg "twice-born* as contrasted with the "once- 
born* Sudras. This distinction is undoubtedly 
ethnical in its origin, the twice-born castes 
being descendants of the Aryan invaders and 
conquerors of the country, while the once-born 
are the representatives of the conquered. 
Caste, however, is a much more complicated 
thing than would be supposed from this brief 
statement, since the principle of caste classifi- 
cation according to employment as well as to 
race has long prevailed and from early times 
there has been an intricate mingling of castes. 
At present, marriage within the caste is gen- 
eral. However, the wife is allowed to be of a 
lower caste tluin the husband, provided the 
children revert to the lower or to an inter- ' 
mediate Caste. The Brahmans are the sacer- 
dotal caste, but, according to Sir W. W. Hunter 
(<The Indian Empire^' 2d ed., 1893), "Even 
among the Brahmans, whose pnde o£ race. and 
continuity of tradition should reqder them the 
firmest ethnical unit among the Indian castes, 
classification by employment and by geograph- 
ical situatiqn, plays a very importaiu part; and 
the Brahmans, so far from being a compact 
unit, are made up of several hundred castes, 
who cannot intermarry or eat food cooked- 
by each other. ... In many parts of India, 
Brahmans may be found earning their liveli- 
hood as porters, shepherds, cultivators, potters 
and fishertnen, side by side with others "who 
would rather starve, and see their wives anrf 
little ones die of hunger, than demean them- 
selves to manual labor, or allow food prepared 
by a man of inferior caste to pass their lips." 
Altogether some 1,886 separate Brahmanical 
tribes have been enumerated, and the Ksha-, 
triyas or Rajputs now number 590 tribes in dif- 
ferent parts of India. *In many outlying prov- 
inces we see non-Aryan_ chiefs and warlike 
tribes turn into Aryan Rajputs before our eyes. 
Well-known legends have been handed down 
of large bodies of aliens being incorporated 
from time to time even into the Brahman 
caste.* While there has been a tendency in 
the different provinces for every separate em- 
ploymentto develop into a distinct caste, there 
are also instances pf castes changing their em- 
ployment and raising themselves in the social 
scale. Thus the Vaisyas, who were anciently 
that Aryan caste upon whom the tillage of the 
soil fell, have become the merchants and bank- 
ers of India, leaving to the Sudras and mixed 

Digitized by 



castes the labor of cultivation. *Each caste is 
to some extent a trade-^ild, a mutual assur- 
ance sodety,^ and a religious sect. As a trade 
tmion it insists on the proper training of the 
youth of its craft, regulates the wages of its 
members, dealt with trade delinquents, supplies 
courts ot arbitration and promotes good fellow- 
ship by social gatherings. . . . The caste 
or. guild exercises a surveillance over each of 
its members, from the dose of duldhood until 
death. If a man behaves well he will rise to 
an honored place in his caste; and the desire 
for such local distinctions exercises an import- 
ant influence in the life of a Hindu. But the 
caste has its punishments as well as its re- 
wards. The fine usually takes the form of It 
compulsory feast to the male members of the 
caste. This is the ordinary means of purifica- 
tion or of making amends for breaches of the 
caste code.' A person who has become an 
*out-caste,* or lost his caste position and 
privileges, mav generally recover them in this 
way. In southern India the castes are divided 
into two large classes, those of the right hand 
and those of the left band. The su^estion 
has been made that this is a survival of 

Bibliography. — Bhattacharya, Jogendra 
Natk, <Hindu Castes and Secte> (1896); 
Buchanan, F. H., 'A Journey from Madras' 
(London 1807); Crooke, W^ 'Things Indian> 
(London 15)06) ; Geiger. 'Civilization of the 
Eastern Iranians' (tr. 1885) ; Hopkins, <The 
Mutual Relations of the Four (Pastes according 
to the Minavadharmasastram' (1881) ; Rhys 
Davids, I. W., 'Buddhist India' (London 
• 1911) ; Rislcy, 'Census of India Report' (Oiap. 
XI, Vol. I, Clalcutta 1901) ; Senart, 'Les Castes 
dans rinde' (Paris 1896). 

CASTEL VETRANO, va-tra'n«^ Sicily, 
town in the province and 27 miles southeast ot 
Trapani, on a rocky hill. It lies in a fertile 
district, is regularly built, has several churdies, 
grammar school with municipal museum of 
antiquities, many of whose objects were found 
at Selinus, in the vicinity. Grapevines, olives 
and rice are extensively cultivated. The white 
pine produced in the neighborhood is esteemed 
the best in Sicily. Articles of coral and ala- 
baster are manufactured here. Pop. 2S,0(X). 

CASTfiLAR, kas-ta-lar', Y RIPOLL, 
Emilio, Spanish orator and statesman: b. 
Cadiz, 8 Sept. 1832; d. Murcia, 25 May 1899. 
He was left an orphan when quite young and 
his early life was spent in boarding schools. 
At the Institute of Alicante (1845-48) he was 
distinguished for his ability to memorize, for 
his intellectual grasp and his oratorical powers. 
His knowledge of philosophy, history, litera- 
ture and the Latin and Greek classics was 
very extensive, in fact, much more so than of 
law, which he went to Madrid to study in 1848. 
He obtained his degree in law in 1852 and that 
of doctor of literature the following ycar._ On 
leaving the university Castelar entered political 
life as a member of the Progressive party and 
before the end of the year he had already be- 
come a noted character, thanks to his wonder- 
ful oratorical ^fts, and one of die shining 
lights of republican democracy. His youthful 
speeches were collected, published and spread 
broadcast by the ultra-Republicans, and the 
press of Madrid opened its arms to him. He, 

accepted a jxisition as editorial writer on El 
Tribuno, which he left some time later, when 
the latter went over to the monarchy. He 
joined the staif of the Soberania Nacional, 
which he also left when the latter became alto- 
gether radical. Finding La Discusion, whose 
staff he next joined as chief editorial writer, 
too timid in its advocacy of Rep(d>fican prin- 
ciples, he founded La Democracia, dedicatir^ 
it to the overthrow of the monarchy and the 
house of Bourbon (1864-66). He took part 
with the Democrats against the Socialists. It 
was at this period that he wrote and published, 
i& the Ateneo, <La historia de la civihzaci6n en 
Ids cinco primeros siglos del cristianismo' 
(1855-58). In the latter year he became pro- 
fessor of Spanish history in the Central Uni- 
versity. This gave him an opportunity to 
preach from two great tribunals, the university 
and the press, his democratic^ ideas. He was 
finally deprived of his chair in the university 
on account of his radical republicanism. Tlie 
substitute _ professors in the department of 
Spanish history at once resigned out of sym- 
pathy with Castelar ; and this was followed by 
a revolutionary demonstration which was put 
down with considerable bloodshed (10 April 
1865). But the revolutionary fire was still 
smouldering and very active plotting went on 
in secret _ Castelar, arrested in 1866 for par- 
ticipating in revolutionary activity, was tried 
and condemned to be hanged; but ne succeeded 
in escaping, in dis^ise, to France, where he 
continued ms editorial, journalistic and literary 
work and wrote 'Semblanzas,' 'Un afio en 
Paris,' 'Recuerdos de Italia,' 'Vida de Lord 
Byron' and 'Introduction al estudio de , la. 
historia.^ He was one of the most active 
spirits among the revolutionary party in Paris, 
and on the triumph of the latter in 1868 he 
returned to Spain, resumed his chair in the 
university and was elected a member of the 
Cortes, where he became the leading advocate 
of republicanism and the most distinguished 
orator of the_ nation. On the establishment of 
the republic in 1873 Castelar became Minister 
of State. He was instrumental in the abolish- 
ment of the military orders of Santiago, Cala- 
trava, Alcantara, Montesa and San Juan de 
Jerusalcn; and later on, those of Carlos III, 
Maria Luisa and Isabel la Cat61ica. On 6 
Sept 1873 he was elected president of the 
executive, a position he held until the follow- 
ing January, when a counter revolution once 
more forced him into eidle in France, where he 
continued actively his literary work. He fin- 
ished his 'Historia del movimiento republicano 
en Europa' and the second part of 'Recuerdos 
de Italia,' 'La rcdcncion del csclavo' (poem) 
and 'El ocaso de la libertad.' Returning to 
Spain in 1876 he_ was elected to the Cortes, 
of which he remained an active and prominent 
figure for 17 years, always dreaming of the 
ultimate establishment of the Spanish republic 
by peaceful means. Thus his discountenancing 
revolutionary means to gain revolutionary ends 
helped the cause of the monarchy and of law 
and order, although he continued the leader 
of the_ opposition. Gradually he greatly modi- 
fied his republican and revolutionary attitude 
until he had come, in 1893, to see that Spain, 
was not yet fit for any other than a monarchical 
form of government. 

Castelar was the mouthpiece of the Repub- 

Digitized by 



lican ideal in Spain, which his briUiaat ora- 
torical gifts, his writings and his ceaseless 
activity kq>t constantly before the people. _ He 
fought for universal sttifrage and the abolition 
of slavery in Porto Rico; he defended the 
principle of religious liberty ; advocated the 
election by popular vote of the alfoldes; and 
he was a powerful champion of universal mili- 
tary service. He strongly influenced the poli- 
tics of his age in Spain; and this^ influence 
extended to all the Latin countries in Europe' 
and America. His literary works, which are 
very voluminous, include, in addition to- those 
already mentioned, the following: <La revo- 
luci6n religiosa'; <Perfiles de_ persona jes y' 
bocetos de ideas' ; 'Estudios hist6ricos sobre 
la Edad JMedia' ; <La f 6rmula ^1 progreso' ;' 
'Defensa de la formula del progreso'; <La 
Cttesti6n de Oriente' ; 'Cuestiones politicas y 
sodales' ; ^Cartas sobre polttica europea' ; 
*Recuerdos y esperanzas> ; 'La rendici6n del 
esclavo* ; 'La hcrraana de la caridad*_; _ 'His- 
toria de un coraz6n' ; 'Discursos politicos y 
literarios' ; <Fra Pilippo Lippi' ; 'Tragedias de 
la historia>; 'El suspiro del More'; 'Dis- 
curso de recepct6n en la Academia Espafiola' ; 
'Discurso en la Corufia sobre literatura gal- 
lega> ; 'Galena historica de mujeres c^lebres.'. 

CASTELKIN, kas'te-lln, Matthiis de, 
Dutch poet: b. Pamele (Oudenarde) 1485; 
d. 1549. He was the acknowledged lawgiver 
Mid jMtttern of all the Dutch rhetoricians of his 
time in his 'De Cunst van Rhetoriken' (1555). 
He composed many plays, but only two of 
them were published; one of these is the 
'Stoiy of Pyramus and Thisbe.> He wrote 
also a volume of 'Diversche Liedkens,' in 
melodious verse. 

CASTSLLAMARB, kas-tel-la-maVe, or 
seaport town on the Gulf of Naples, 17 miles 
southeast of the city, at the beginning of the 
peninsula of Sorrento, and 10 miles northeast 
of that town. It extends for a mile along 
the shore at the base and on the slope of a 
spur of Monte Sant' Angelo (4,735 feet high), 
a mountain which commands a splendid pros- 
pect. From its pleasant surroundings, shady 
-walks, sea baths and other attractions it is a 
favorite summer resort of the Neapolitans, as 
well as tourists, and has several good hotels, 
one of them formerly a royal residence. The 
harbor is protected by a mole and there is an 
arsenal with a dockyard It contains a tech- 
nical school, a theatre and a large royal arsenal. 
The principal imports are grain, coal and iron ; 
the principal exports wine and fruit. The 
fisheries are important, and there are macaroni, 
soap, leather and cotton factories. The town 
owes its name to a castle built by the Emperor 
Frederick II in the 13th century. C^stellwnare 
occupies the_ site of the ancient Stabise, ,over-< 
whelmed, with Herculaneum and Pompeii, by 
an eruption of Vesuvius, 79 A.D.; and it was 
here that the elder Pliny met his death by ap- 
proaching too near the mountain while it was 
m a state of eruption. The modern town was 
afterward built from the ruins of Stabtas. Here 
in 1799 the French general, Macdonald, defeated 
the allied English and Neapolitan forces. Pop. 
about 33,000. 

erly the owner or commander of a castle. Ia 

Flanders and France the ttde went witii the 
possession of certain districts, and in Nor-; 
mandy and Burgundy cbatelauis ranked next 
after bailiffs, wim both civil and military au- 
thority. In Grermany the chatelains were Im- 
Iierial officers with military and civil jurisdic* 
tion in fortified places. Consult Lucbaire, 
'Manuel des mstitutions fran^aises' (Paris 

CA8TBLLANB, kas't£l-»n', Bsprit Vic- 
tor Elizabeth Boniface, Count of, French 
marshal: b. Paris, 21 March 1788; d. Lyons, 16 
Sept. 1862. He entered the army in 1804 and 
took part in most of Napoleon's campaigns. 
After the Restoration he became colonel of the 
Hussars of the Royal Guard. He fought in 
Spain (1823) and at the siege of Antwerp 
(1832), and as lieutenant-general commanded 
the Army of the Pyrenees. In the February 
revolulixin (1848) he lost his command, and in 
consequence went over to Louis Napoleon. In 
1850 he became commander at Lyons and in 
1852 marshal and senator. His 'Memoirs,' 
published in 1896, though crude in style, are 
valuable for their' mass of minute detail. 

CASTBLLANETA, cas-tel-la-ni-t9, Italy, 
dty of Bari delle Puglie province, 24 miles 
northwest of Taranto. It is a thriving trade 
centre for local produce, olives, fruit, wool and 
cotton, and is a bishop's see with an interesting 
cathedral. Pop. 11,550. 

CASTELLI, kas^ens. Benedetto, a pupU 
of Galileo: b. Brescia 1577; d. Rome 1644. He 
was a monk and became abbot of a Benedic- 
tine monastery of the congregation of Monte 
Cassino. He afterward became a professor of, 
mathematics and taught with distinguished suc- 
tess both at the University of Pisa 4nd at the 
CoUegio della Sapienza at Rome. Torricelli 
Was his pupil. He distinguished himself in 
hydraulics and rendered important services to 
Urban VIII in his projects for the regulation 
of Italian rivers. He may be regarded as the 
founder of that branch of hydraulics which 
relates to the velocity of running Water, thou^ 
his fundamental principle, that the velocity is 
proportional to the height of the reservoir, is 
nia()eut«te, and was demonstrated to' be iio> by 
Torricelli; who showed that the velocity is pro- 
portioned, not to the height, but to the square 
root of the height. In his investigations as to 
the measurement of time Castelli made use of 
the pendulum. His principal work, entitled 
^Della Misura dell' acque correnti,' published 
at Rome in 1628, was translated into French in 
1664. ! 

CASTELLI, Ignaz Franz, Austrian drama- 
tist: b. Vienna, 6 May 1781; d. there, 5 Feb. 
1862. He was educated for the law, but fol- 
lowing his indination for the drama, gained 
access to the orchestras of theatres as a' player 
of the violin. His< circumstances eompeUing 
him to look out for some means of support, he 
accepted various subordinate offices, biA using 
his- leisure in composing patriotic songs for the 
Austrian army, he was brought into favorable 
notice. His songs having given umbrage to 
Napoleon, he fled to Hungary. In 1815 h<9 
accompanied Count Cavriana as secretary to 
Paris, and af tfcrward he served in the same 
capacity witb Baron Mtinch von Belling^usen 
tH Upper Italy. Because of the success, of his 
•fieia, ■ 'Die . Schweixerfamilie? (mniiic by 

Digitized by 



Weigl), he -was appointed court poet at the 
Kamtnerthor Theatre. In 1840 he retired with 
a pension and the office of state librarian. The 
author of many poems, popular songs and mis- 
cellaneous writings, he was at various times 
connected with the press of Vienna, but is best 
known by his voluminous productions for the 
stage. Over 100 jilays, partly adapted from the 
French, partly original, are attributed to him. 
He was a zealous collector of plays, handbills 
of the theatre and portraits of actors, covering, 
the years from 1600-1862. The collections are 
now at Vienna in the Imperial Library. In 
1848 more than 100,000 copies of his political 
pamphlets in favor of the Revolution found 
eager purchasers. His most popular drama 
was <Die Waise und der Morder.' His last 
publication was his ^Memoiren meines Lebens* 
(4. vols., 1861-62). 

CASTBLLIO, kas-taii-d, Sebutianaa, 

French theologian and humanist, translator of 
the Bible into pure and classic Latin; he was 
a native of Dauphtny: b. 1515; d. Basel 1563, 
in exile and in extreme pover^. His family 
name was Chateillon, which he latinized after 
the fashion of that time into Castellio. At the 
invitation of Calvin he settled at Geneva, where 
he became professor of the ancient classic 
literatures, but because of differences regard- 
ing questions of religious belief he was deposed 
from the professorship and banished from 
Geneva. His Latin version of the Bible re- 
tained little or nothing of the profoundly 
Hebrew character of Ae scriptural writings, 
and was justlv censured by Calvin and the 
Calvinists. Theodore Beza, _ to offset this 
*'work of Satan,'* as he called it, made a Latin 
translation of the Bible hiinself, striving to 
retain the Oriental flavor of the original in 
every respect. Castellio also wrote a book in 
defense of the right to hold and publish views 
deemed by Churdi and state to be heretical; 
this, too. evoked a reply from Beza. Castellio 
wrote also a tractate on 'Predestination Op- 
posed to the Views of Calvin* ; it was published 
after the author's death by Faustus Socinus in 

CASTBLLO, kas-tel'Io, Gabriele-Laaci- 
lotto, Sidlian antiquary, Pkince op Torse- 
liuzzAi b. Palermo 1727: d. 1794. He studied 
science and arclueolog:^- He formed a splendid 
collection of the remains of antiquity found in 
Sicily. He bequeafhed a large quantity of 
bo<dcs, etc., to Uie public library of Palermo. 
At his death he was honorary member of the 
Royal Society and of the Academy at Paris. 
His important works are 'Storia d'Alesa, antica 
dtta di Sicilia' (Palermo 1753) ; 'Inscrizioni 
Palermitane' (175iB) ; 'Siciliat populorum vete- 
res nummi* (1781) ; 'Sicilia: et adjacent veteres 
Inscriptiones> (1769). 

CASTELLOBRANCO, Camillo, Porttt- 
guese novelist and poet: b. Lisbon, 16 March 
1825; d. 6 June 1890. He studied in Oporto 
and Coimbra with great irregularity and en- 
tered the career of letters. After a short jour- 
nalistic career in Oporto and Lisbon he entered 
the Episcopal Seminary and took minor orders. 
His restless nature prevented his adherence to 
this course and he abandoned it to resume 
a_ feverish literary activity. Having lost his 
sight, and suffering from a nervous disease, 
he committed suicide. He is the most popular 

of the modem romancists of Portugal, and at 
the same time the most national in tone, spirit' 
and form. He composed romantic novels, of' 
which the most notable are 'O Romance de un 
Homem Rico* and the series, 'Novellas do 
Minho.' _ To the romances he owes his reputa- 
tion. His novels of manners created a new 
style of_ narrative, in which he describes with' 
great nicety the social and domestic life of 
Portugal in the 19th century. In the domain 
of history, biography and literary criticism be 
is the author of 'Noites de Lame^e' ; 'Cousas 
leves e pesadas> ; 'Cavar em ruinas* ; 'Me- 
morias do Bispo do Grao Para*; and 'Bo- 
hemia do Espirito.* His verses are mediocre. 
His collected works have been published by the 
Companhia Editora of Lisbon. Con&ult Frei- 
tas, 'Perfil de Camillo Castello Branco^ (S&o 
Paulo 1889); Osorio, Paula, 'Camillo, a sua 
vida, o sno genio, a sua obra> (Oporto 1908). 

CASTELLON, kas-ta-yon', Francisco, 
Nicaraguan revolutionist: b. about 1815; d. 2 
Sept 1855. He was the leader in a revolt at 
Leon in 1853, which was unsuccessful, and 
fled to Honduras, whence he returned in June 
of the next vear. It was largely by his invita- 
tion that the filibustering expemtion under 
William Walker (q.v.) went from the United 
States in 1854. See Nicaragua, History. 

capital of the province of Castell6n, 40 miles 
north-northeast of Valencia. It stands in a 
large and fertile plain, watered by the Mijares, 
from which an ample supply of water is 
brought into the town by an aqueduct supposed 
to have been constructed by Jayme I of Ara- 

fon, who, in 1233, wrested Castell6n from the 
loors. It is well built and has considerable 
manufactures of sailcloth and woolen and 
hempen fabrics, ropes, porcelain, leather, cork, 
etc., and some trade in hemp, grain ana fruit 
The painters Ribalta, father and son, were bom 
here. The original town occupied a hill north 
of the present site. Pop. of town 32,309; of 
province, 322,537. 

CASTELNAU, kas-t£l'nd, Edouard de 
Calibres de, French general: b. Saint- 
Affrique 1851. He entered the Saint-Cyr mili- 
tary school in 1869, and in the following year, 
when the Franco-Prussian War broke out, he 
was given a commission. He served through 
the whole campaign and emerged with the 
rank of captain. During the Commune he took 
part in the street fighting. For over 40 years 
de Castelnau was one of that little band of 
French soldiers — Joffre, Gallieni, Foch, etc.— 
who devoted their entire stren^h to the prob- 
lem of preparing the army agamst a repetition 
of the disasters of 1870-71. He rose through 
the successive grades, passed the Ecole de 
Guerre, was promoted general in 1906 and be- 
came- chief of staff to General Joffre when the 
latter was designated (in 1913) as commander- 
in-chief in case bf war. The two men ha^ 
long worked together, and closely studied all 
possible aspects of a future war. At the cbm- 
mencement of the European War de Castelnau 
was placed in command of the Army of Lor- 
raine, charged with the defense of Nancy.' His 
forces were drawn up across the Gap of Nancy 
to prevent 'the arti^ of the Cfown Prince of 
Bavaria . from ttsnung the Allied, front The 

Digitized by 



fiercest fighti<ig «tn this dectoi* begfati 6 Sept. 
1914, when - the Bavarians were incited to tnalcd 
a desperate, overwhelming -assault. Without- 
intermissidn the battle raged for three days. 
By the 12th the main fighting was over; Nancy 
was- saved: de Castelnau's resistance contrit)- 
uted directly to the victory oi the Mame. In 
1915 he commanded the Freiich offensive in 
Qhampagne and was ' tnade chief of the gen- 
eral staff when General Joffre was appointed 
commander-in-chief of all the armies of 
France. General de Castelnau lost three sons 
on the battlefield during the first two years 
of tfie war. 

CASTELNAU»^ Francis, CbM-rs os, French 
traveler: b. London 1812; d. Melbourne, Vi5:- 
toria, 4 Feb. 1880. He traveled extensively in 
Canada, the United States and Mexico, and 
under the protection of the French government 
undertook an exploration of South America in 
1843, accompanied by D'Osery, a botanist; 
Weddell, a botanist ; and Devill^ a taxidermist. 
After his return to Prance, in 1847, Count Cas- 
telnau published 'Expedition dans les parties 
centrales de I'Amiriqne du Sud> (1850-51), tc 
work in six volumes, of whidi one was hy 
M. Weddell. Castelnau afterward traveled in 
Arabia, and was successively consul at Bahia, 
the Cai»e of Good Hope and Singapore, and 
at the time of his death was consul-general at 

CASTELNAUDARY, kas-t51-n6-da-r€, 
France, a town in the department of .Aude, on 
a height above the Canal du Midi, 22 miles 
west-northwest of Carcassonne. It was built 
by the Visigoths on the site of a rich town 
which had been destroyed, and was named Cas- 
tellum Novum Arianorum, from_ which its 
present name is corrupted. It rises in the form 
of an amphitheatre, and was anciently the cap- 
ital of a district and strongly fprtified. It was 
the scene of much barbarity by the inquisitors 
in 1237, was almost totally destroyed' by Ed- 
ward the Black Prince in 135^ ana is famous 
for the battle fought beneath its walls in 1632 
between the troops of Louis XIII and those of 
Gaston of Orleans, ivhich resulted in favor of 
Louis chiefly in consequence of the inactivity 
'of the Duke of Orlejins. The Duke of Mont- 
morency was wotmde'd in this battle and tsdcen 
prisoner, and afterward executed at Toulouse 
by order of the King, Louis XIII. It is in- 
differently built/ has triaaufactures of coarse 
cloth, several distilleries and tanneries and one 
of the largest grain. and flour maxkets in the 
south of Prance. It contains specimens of 
mediaeval architecture, among them the church 
of Saint Michel (I4th century). Pop. about 

CASTELNOVO, k5s-t81-n6'v6, Leo di. 
See PxjLLt, Leopoldo, Count. 

CASTELNUOVO. kas-tel-nwo-vo; Enrico, 
Italian novelist: b. Florence 1839. His stories 
have attained grpat popularity; asK>ng them 
•Prof. Romualdo* (wS) ; 'Two Conventions>, 
(1885); 'Reminiscences and Fancies' (1886). 
He is one of the acknowledged Italian masters 
of the *novel of th^ inner life" (romanq 

CA8TELVBCCHIO, Riecacdo, r«-cir'dA 
kas<^t61>vSk^e-& • See Puix^ GaauOi Counk 

PROCESS. S«e Euctrochemicai. IirDus-nuBS. 

CASTI, kis'te, OiambattisU; Italian poet: 
b. Montefiascone 1721 ; d. Paris, 7 Feb. 1803. 
He studied at Montefiascone, became professor 
diere, was appointed a canon and made a jour- 
ney to France. Receiving an invitation from 
the Prince of Rosenberg, who became ac- 
quainted with him in Florence, he went to 
Vienna and was presented to JJoseph II, who, 
knew how to appreciate the genius of the poet, 
and delighted in his conversation. Casti took 
advantage of every opportunity of -visiting 
other courts and joined several embassies with- 
out office or title. Catherine it received him 
in' the most flattering manner. He -visited also 
the court of Berlin and several other German 
courts. After his return to Vienna, Prince 
Rosenberg, the director of the Imperial Theatre, 
caused him to be appointed poeta Cesareo on 
the death of Metastasio. After the death of 
Joseph II Casti requested his dismission and 
retired to Florence, where he wrote many of 
his works. In 1783 he went to Paris. His 
'Novelle galanti' were republished at Paris 
(1804),_ under the title 'Novelle di _ Giamb. 
Casti* in three volumes. They are 48 in num- 
ber. Almost all are of a licentious character. 
but written in a lively, ori^nal and graceful 
style. The same may be said, of his £dactic- 
satirical poem, 'Gli animali parlanti, poema 
epico di Giamb. Casti* (Milan 1802. S vols.). 
There arc translations of it in French, German 
and English. Casti's 'Rime anacreontiche' are 
pleasing, and his comic operas, 'La grotta di 
Trofonio' and 'II re Teodoro in Venezia,' etc., 
are full of wit and. originality. His letters 
ha-ve been published in 'MisceHanea di storia 
italiana> (Vol. XII, Turin 1883). Consult 
Tommaseo, N., 'Dizionario d'Estelica* (Vol. 
II, p. 75, Milan 1860) ; Foscolo, <Opere» (Vol. 
IV, Florence 1850-62). 

CASTIGLIONS, kas-tel-yo'na, Baldas- 
Mre, Italian writer: b. Casatico, in the terri- 
tory of Mantua, 1478; d. 8 Feb. 1529. He 
studied at Milan, and entered into the services 
of the Duke Ludovico Sforza, and afterward of 
the Duke of Urbino, of whose elegant and 
splendid court he soon became an ornament 
By him he was sent as an envoy to H^nry VII 
of England, and afterward in the same capacity 
to Louis XII, at Milan. In 1513 Castiglione 
appeared as ambassador at the court of Leo X, 
where he became intimate with the most distin- 
guished literati and artists. In 1521 he obtained 
for the new Duke of Urbino, Federigo. the 
command of the Pagal troops, and in 1524 was 
employed by Pope Clement Vll to conduct his 
negotiations with Charles V, When Rome was 
plundered by the Constable of Bourbon in 1527 
he was accused of negligence and his health 
was undermined by chagrin. He refused to 
accept the rich bishopric of Avila, which was 
offered to him by the Emperor, until the Poije 
should be reconciled with Charles. Among his 
works, the ^Libro del Cortegiano> is the most 
celebrated. It teaches the art of succeeding at 
court. The best edition is by Cian (Fk>rence 
1894). His few Italian and Latin poems are 
elegant. His letters are valuable contributions 
to political and literary history. (See II Cor- 
nsiAMo). Consnlt Cartwright, Julia, <Baldas- 

Digitized by 



sare Castiglione: His Life and Times' (New 
Yoric 1908, trans, by Opdycke, New York 1903). 

CASTIGLIONE, Carlo Ottavio, Couj^'^ 
Italian scholar: h. Milan 1784; d. Genoa 10 
April 1849, His magnum opus, published in 
1826^ is a work in which he seeks to ascertain 
the origin and the history of the towns^ in Bar- 
bary whose names are found on Arabic coins. 
Out of _ Italy, however, he is best known by 
his edition of some fragments of the Moeso- 
Gothic translation of the Bible by Ulfilas. 
wJiich had been discovered in 1817 by Cardinal 
Mai among the palimpsests of the Ambrosian 
Library. His biography has been written by 
Biondelli (Milan 1856). 

CASTIGLIONS, Ciovanni Benedetto, 
Italian painter: b. Genoa 1616- d. Mantua 1670. 
He was a pupil of Paggi and Ferrari, studied at 
Rome, Florence, Pamia and Venice, and formed 
his style on the best masters. He is particu- 
larly celebrated as a painter of animals, and 
in these subjects, as well as his other paint- 
ings, is remarkable for softness, elegance and 
beauty. Of his larger pieces, the most cele^ 
brated are the *(!;reation of the Beasts,' 
*Their Entrance with Noah into the Ark' and 
'Jacob's Return with His Family and Servants, 
His Flocks and Herds' at the Uffizi, Palazzo 
Bianco. Genoa, Dresden, Vienna. He also <Us- 
tinguisned himself as an engraver, and from 
his skill in the production of light and shade 
has been called the second Rembrandt. In 1564 
he became court painter to Duke Charles I of 
Mantua and in that city he lived until his death. 
Consult Bartsch, *Le peintre-graveur' (Vol; 
XIX, p. 71) ; Hubert et Post, <Dictionnaire des 

ya'ra, Italy, a small city in the province of Man- 
tua, 17 miles southeast of the town of Brescia, 
22 miles northwest of Mantua. It is well buiUi 
surrounded by walls, defended by an ancient 
castle and contains a large square adorned with 
a central fountain, three churches and a town- 
hall. A well-attended annual fair is held in 
June. The French obtained here a decisive 
victory over the Austrians on 5 Aug. 179^ 
which gave to Marshal Augereau his title or 
Due de Castiglione. Its chief industry is silk 
spinning. Pop. 7,124. 

CASTILE, New. See New Castile. 

CASTILHO, kas-teryo, Antonio Felici- 
ano, Portuguese poet: b. Lisbon, 26 Tan. 1800; 
d. 18 June 1875. Though almost blindj he was 
educated b^ _ a brother and studied jurispru- 
dence at Coimbra. His first poetical compo- 
sition, 'Cartas de Echo a Narciso' (1821), pub- 
lished while he was a student, won him great 
celebrity. He excelled in pastorals ; and to this 
class belong his <A prima vera' and 'Amor e 
melancholia.' He had a deep sympathy with 
nature and was a master of elegiac verse. In 
prose he wrote a treatise on Portuguese versi- 
fication and 'Quadros historicos de Portugal' 
(Lisbon 1838; Rio de Janeiro 1847), 

CASTILLA, kas-4£rya, Ramon, Peruvian 
soldier and politician: b. Tarapaca, 30 Aug. 
1796; d. there, 30 May 1867. He served in the 
Spanish cavalry until 1821, when General San 
Martin proclaimed Peruvian independence. 
Castilla, then a lieutenant, joined the liberating 
army, in which he distinguished himself. He 

was appointed prefect of his province. In 1S30 
he became brigadier-general of the army; and, 
after the treaty with the President of Bolivia, 
went to Chile. There, in 1837, he joined the 
Peruvians in their attack on Santa Cruz, the 
President of Bolivia. Gamarra was proclaimed 
President of Peru, with Castilla as Minister of 
War. In 1841 he, was one of the leaders of 
the Bolivian invasion. He was elected Presi- 
dent of Peru in 184S. At the expiration of his 
term of office, in 1851, he was succeeded by 
Gen. Jose Rufino Echenique, but usurped the 
power in 1855, and was, by a majority of 70,374 
votes, re-elected to the presidency in August 
1858. He introduced several important re- 
forms, such as the abolition of slavery; and 
of the tribute paid by the Indians; the grant- 
ing of universal suffrage ;_ and the prohibition 
of the practice of all religions save the Roman 
(Catholic. After being succeeded by San 
Roman in 1862, Castilla lived in retirement till 
his appointment to the presidency of the Senate 
in 1865. Consult Markham, 'History of Peru.' 

CASTILLEJO, kas-tel-ya'ho, ,Cri8t6bal 
de, Spanish poet, the last representative of the 
ancient Spanish poetry: b. Ciudad Rodrigo 
about 1494; d. Vienna, 12 June 1556. He served 
first as page to the Infanta Fernando, younger 
brother of Clharles V. He took orders and in 
1525 became secretary to that prince. The en- 
nobling of his family in 1532 was another mark 
of royal favor, followed by his ap^intment in 
1536 to the benefice of Perdegge in the bish- 
opric of Passau. This he resigned in 1539 in 
order to accompany Mendoza, then Ambassador 
to Venice. He opposed the introduction of 
Italian styles into the poetry of Spain, and 
justified his opposition by demonstrating in his 
own work the competence of the traditional 
styles of Spain for the expression of all moods 
and all sentiments. Of his comedies, none are 
extant. A number of his poems survive, first 
collected at Madrid 1573. They include love 
poems, poems of every day life and religious 
and moral works. Some satires and ballads 
are also to be found in the collection. Con- 
sult Adolf o de Castro, 'Biblioteca de autores 
espafioles' (Vol. XXXII, Madrid 1854): 
Nicolay, C. L., 'Life and Works of de Castil-. 
lejo' (Philadelphia 1910). 

CASTILLIAN, The. See Wasp, Rein- 
peer, Avon and Castjixian. 

CASTILLOA BLASTICA, a lofty forest- 
tree, belonging to the Bread-fruits (Artocar' 
paceet). Some specimens have near the ground 
a circumference of from 10 to 12 feet. The 
tree is native to southern Mexico and the Cen- 
tral American countries and supplies the Cen- 
tral American rubber of commerce. This rub- 
ber, instead of being molded, as is Para rubber, 
is made into sheets (hence called sheet-rub- 
ber) and hung up to dnr. Castilloa elastica 
has been found to be cultivable in India and 

CASTILLON, kas-t5-y6n, France, town in 
the department of Gironde, on the right bank 
of the Dordogne, 33 miles east of Bordeaux by 
rail. Beneath its walls, on 17 July 1453, was 
fought the battle which terminated the Hun- 
dred Years' War, when the English met a sig- 
nal defeat, their leader. Earl Talbot of Shrews- 
bury, and his son, being slain. Part of the bat- 

Digitized by 



tie is described in the fourth act of Shakes- 
peare's 'King Henry VI, Part I». Pop. 3,300. 

CASTINB, kas'-ten, Vincent, Baron de, 
French soldier: b. Oleron 1650; d. 1722. He 
went to Canada in 1665, established a mercan- 
tile house at Penobscot (now the town and 
port of entry of Castinc, Me.), in 1687, and 
married the daughter of the Penobscot chief. 
In 1696 he captured Pemaquid, at the head of 
200 Indians. He assisted in the defense of Fort 
Roval,_ in 1706, and was there wounded the 
following year. His soil, who succeeded him 
in command of the Penobscots, was made pris- 
oner and taken to Boston in 1721. 

CASTING, the numing of melted metal 
into a mold, so as to produce an object in metal 
having the shape of the mold. Iron-casting or 
iron-founding is carried on bj; three methods, 
the first call«i "open sand-casting,' the second, 
*sand-castmg between flasks,'* and the third, 
'loam-casting.'* The casting of small articles, 
as type, is done by machines. See Composing 
Machines. See also Foundby Practice ; and 


AND MRS. ALBSHINB, The, a humorous 
story by Frank R. Stockton, in which the two 
delightful old ladies who give their names to 
the narrative are constantly before the foot- 
lights. They set out for Japan, and on the 
waythey are shipwrecked, but escape from the 
s|nldng vessel in a leaky boat which finally 
sinks under them. They make their way to a 
small coral island with their companion, Mr. 
Craig, where they take possession of the sum- 
mer place of the Dnsantes and make them- 
selves at home. A missionary and his daugh- 
ter are added to the party. The two old ladies 
decide that, as they nave come unbidden into 
the place, everyone should pay for his board 
so much a week ; and the money is put in a 
ginger jar. They also make up their mind that 
Mr. Craig should marry the missionary's daugh- 
ter; and ,they accomplish their ends in their 
own inimitable way. Escaping from the island 
they make their way to San Francisco, after 
the wedding; and from there they proceed to 
their home in the East, their sayings and doings 
on the way being fully as entertaining as those 
on the island. In a stage coach wreck they 
meet with the Dusante party and Mr. Dusante 
attempts to return the "board money" left on 
the island; and the comedy of the ginger jar 
enlivens the rest of one of the most character- 
istic of the Stockton stories. 

CASTLE, Bgerton, English novelist: b. 
12 March 1858. He was educated at Paris, 
Glasgow and Cambridge universities. After a 
brief military career he turned to litera- 
ture and journalism and has written: 
'Schools and Masters of Fence> (1884) ; 
'Saviolo,' a play (1893); 'The Light 
of Scarth«y> (1895); 'The Jerningham Let- 
ters' (1896); 'The Pride of Jennico> 
(1898): 'Desperate Remedies,' a play; 'The 
Bath Comedy > (1899); 'Marshfieft the Ob- 
server*; 'The House' of Romance* (1902); 
'The Rose of the World> (1902); 'If Youth 
but Knew> (1905); 'Flower o' the Orange> 
(1908); 'The Grit of Life* (1912); 'The 
Ways of Miss Barbara* (1914) • 'The Hope 
of the House*. (19i;S), etc The greater num- 

ber of his later novels h&ve been written 
jointly with his wife, Agnes Castle. 

CASTLE, Vernon, English actor and 
aviator: b. Norwich, England, 2 May 1887; d. 
Fort Worth, Tex., 15 Feb. 1918. Vernon Cas- 
tle Blythe, to give him his real name, was 
educated for a civil engineer at Birmingham 
University. He made his professional dibut 
in 1907 with Lew FieWs, as the Head Waiter 
in «The Girl Behind the Counter,** at Herald 
Square, New York, and later played minor 
parts in other productions. But his outstand- 
ing talent was dancing and inventing new fig- 
ures and steps. He opened a dancing school, 
which proved a most profitable venture, and 
after his marriage with Irene Foote of New 
Rochelle in 1911 devoted himself entirely, to 
exhibition dancing and teaching the art. Cas- 
tle took up aviation in 1915 and received his 
pilot's certificate from the Aero Oub of Amer- 
ica in February 1916, and a month later was 
attached to the British Royal Flying Corps in 
France. He served at the front for a year, 
making about 200 flights over the enemy hnes. 
He was killed in an airplane accident while 
acting as instructor with the Canadian con- 
tingent of the flying corps, which had been 
transferred to Texas for winter training. 

CASTLE, William Ernest, American zool- 
ogist: b. Alexandria, Ohio, 25 Oct. 1867. He 
studied at Denison and Harvard universities; 
became Latin instructor at Ottawa (Kan.) 
University from 1889 to 1892; in 1895-96 was 
instructor in vertebrate anatomy at the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin; and in 185fe-97 instructor 
in biology at Knox College. After instructor- 
ship at Harvard University, he became there 
in 1908 professor of ;EOology. His numerous 
articles on embryology, animal morphology and 
heredity appeared in the Contributions from 
the Zoological Laboratory of Harvard and in 
the Publications of the Carnegie Institution of 
JVashinpton. His published works include 
'Heredity in Relation to Evolution and Animal 
Breeding' (1911); 'Heredity and Eugenics* 
(1912) ; 'Reversion in Guinea Pigs and its Ex- 
planation,* with C. C. Little (1913). 

CASTLE, a word derived from the Latin 
castellum, a diminutive of castrum, a fortress 
or stronghold. The word castellum was fre- 
quently appUed by the Romans as a military 
term to denote a redoubt. The word has come 
to be used as the designation of those strong- 
holds which, in feudal times, served at once 
as residences and as places of defense for the 
nobles, and which continued to exist until the 
invention of gunpowder changed the whole 
system of fortificatioa The royal residences 
among the Franks resembled in some points 
both the Roman villa and the Roman camp, and 
those of the Prankish nobles differed little from 
those of the kings except in point of simplicity. 
Strictly speaking, only the grand feudatories 
had the right to erect fortified castles, and then 
only after receiving the royal consent; but the 
grand feudatories very early began to take it 
upon themselves to grant the privilege of erect- 
ing castles to their vassals, and these again to 
those of a still lower grade. In this way large 
numbers of castles began to spring up at an 
early period in France, Germany, England and 

The castles of the Norman Conquest in Eng- 

Digitized by 




land were probably the first stone buildines 
erected there. The great square keep of Roch- 
ester Castle is probably of this period; it is 
about 70 feet square, with projecting corner 
turrets, and as it now stands is 100 feet high, 
but the battlements have been altered and its 
original character lost A heavy wall divides 
the huge structure into two nearly equal parts, 
and within this wall a well is arranged which 
communicates with all three stories; the outer 
walls are_ 12 feet thick at the base and the 
masonry is very perfect. Little is known of 
the ancient disposition of the minor buildings. 
There is no doubt that a high and battlemented 
wall enclosed a court or perhaps two courts, an 
inner and an outer bail, as they are called ; that 
the keep was enclosed by the inner wall, but al- 
ways so near the wall that a postern could com- 
municate with the outer moat, and that within 
the enclosing wall, often built up against its in- 
terior face, were stables and storerooms, and 
also lodgings for the garrison, which last, how- 
ever, might be temporary structures. This wall 
was always surrounded bv a deep and broad 
moat, which might be filled with water in a 
low country, or, when dry, served merely to in- 
crease the effective height of the walls and to 
disarrange the approach of the besiegers. There 
was always a chapel, but in Rochester Castle 
this is buUt against the southeast comer of the 
keep and opens from its principal floor. In 
such an early castle the keep is the only very 
strong place, as a vigorous attack would breaca 
or scale the outer wall very soon. 

The castles of the 12th and 13th centuries 
were far more elaborate, and their tendency 
was toward separate posts, each defensible by 
itself. Eveiy tower could be shut up and de- 
fended, its little garrison resisting even after 
the neighboring works had been captured or 
rendered indefensible. This arrangement had 
the disadvantage that a very bold and sudden 
attack might capture the strongest parts of the 
castle, even the keep itself, before assistance 
could come to it. The typical castle of the 12th 
century is the famed Chateau Gaillard in Nor- 
mandy, and of the 13th century the famous 
castle at Coney, near Laon in northern France; 
and in the British Isles, Kidwelly in Wales, 
which remains in a perfectly traceable condi- 

The perfect castle was not developed until 
the time when gunpowder was about to make it 
useless. Thus the Chateau of Pierrefonds, 
north of Paris, and near Compilg^e, was built 
about 1400, and in this the faults of the earlier 
castles were avoided. The walls are every- 
where of nearly equal height, the galleries of 
defense are continuous so that the soldiers of 
the garrison may run easily the whole length 
of the walls, and these galleries are two or 
even three deep, allowing the defenders to 
throw a prodigious rain of projectiles upon any 
attacking party. These galleries, built of stone, 
replace the temporary wooden galleries, always 
put up on the walls of earlier castles when an 
attack was anticipated. It is to be noted that 
the attack and defense in mediaeval fortifica- 
tions was vertical; the higher the wall the 
more formidable was the blow delivered by a 
falling ball of stone, or a timber or iron bar; 
while the projectiles from crossbows and mili- 
tary en^nes would certainly lose nothing, and 
the garrison in this way was removed far above 

the assailant, who must come close under the 
walls to attack. This attack, then, consisted, in 
the case of a well-defended place, chiefly in 
breaching or undermining the walls. Escalade 
was only possibje where the garrison was weak 
or in poor condition or surprised. 

Castles often had outer works, thus the 
barbican or barbacan is strictly a defense built 
outside of the principal gate and intended to 
keep the enemy away from it for a certain 
length of time. When a castle was near a 
river an outwork would be built on the other 
bank, covering the bridge leading to the castle. 
When the site was high, with steep approaches, 
a covered way might be built to protect the 
whole of the path leading up to the castle, and 
the foot of this would have an outwork or 
strong post capable of some defense. 

The introduction of fire-arms and especially 
of cannon heavy enough to breach the walls 
compelled a change in the old castles, vyrhich 
were often ruined as consistent jjieces of me- 
diaeval fortification by having their towers cut 
down to accommodate artnlety of defense 
A round stone tower 200 feet iiigfa would be 
cut down to a kind of bastion 30 feet high, with 
a parapet and embrasures for cannon aroimd itA 
platform. Even this was only temporary, for 
It was soon found that the effect of artillery 
fire was irresistible by stone walls, and these 
were abandoned for the sloping rampart of 
earth introduced in the 16th century. See 

The term castle was applied to the sea-coast 
forts whidi defended our modem sea-ports pre- 
vious to 1870, and of which some still remain. 
It was held that the stone wall, 8 or 10 feet 
thick, carefully built of granite blocks, with the 
embrasures covered by wrought iron plates and 
allowing of a great accumulation of guns 
within a small space, were proof against the 
attack of a fleet ; and this because the fire from 
the decks of ships cannot be so exact as to pro- 
duce a breach. It was assumed that the enemy 
would not be able to make a landing near with 
effective guns. Thus,^ at the entrance to 
Savannah, Fort Pulasia was a Sea-coast cas- 
tit" of that type, but it was breached in a few 
hours by the rifled guns landed on Tybee 

In modem English nomenclature, a name 
compounded with castle (such as Castle How- 
ard, Berkeley Castle and the like) is used for 
habitable buildings which may have been 
erected on the site or immediate grounds of an 
ancient buildjng of defense or within its old 
walls; but this is a mere whim in the selection 
of_ an arbitrary name. On the other hand, 
Windsor Castle, the favorite residence of Queen 
Victoria, has retained much of its mediseval de- 
fensive character, but the rooms inhabited by 
the royal family are of the reign of George IV, 
and the only part of the ancient work which re- 
mains in full use is the great chapel dedicated 
to Saint George, a famous and beautiful build- 
ing completed in the time of Henry VII, See 
Castles, Historic. 

CASTLE GARDEN, the former immi- 
grant depot in New York, at the point of Man- 
hattan Island,^ in Battery Park. In the early 
days of the city the place was a small, forti- 
fied island a few feet from the mainland; 
later it became a public hall for assemblies and 

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concerts. Here Jenny Lin<) made her Amer- 
ican debut. Many years ago the island was in- 
corporated with the general area of the Bat- 
tery by filling the intervening space with earth 
and rock; new buildings were erected and the 
place was devoted to the purpose of landing 
steerage immigrants. In 1890 it ceased to be 
used as an immigrant depot and was turned 
over to the park commissioners of the city of 
New York. The old fort is now used as a pub- 
lic aquarium. 

Walpole's 'The Castle of Otranto,' published 
in 1764, owes its importance to the fact that 
it is the first example of the so-caHed Gothic 
romance, a t^e of fiction which, in the hands 
of writers like Mrs. Radcliffe, became highly 
popular in the late 18th century as a reaction 
against the sentimental and realistic novel of 
the school of Richardson, and prepared the 
way for _ the great exploitation of mediasval 
romance in the historical novels of Sir Walter 
Scott. Intrinsically 'The Castle of Otranto> 
is interesting chieffy_ by virtue of its absurdity. 
The scene is a mediseval castle, with frowning 
battlements, trap doors and intricate sub- 
terranean cloisters; the theme, the mysteries 
which it harbors within its walls. The plot, 
involving a gloomy tyrant, a persecuted wife, 
a lovely young pnnce and two romantic girls, 
and employing the supernatural crudely at 
eyeiy turn, is not worth rehearsing. A gi^n- 
dc helmet comes crashing from heaven into 
the courtyard. An ancestral portrait steps 
forth from its frame and becomes a ghost, 
Walpole was a mere dilettante, trying what he 
could do to wring sensation out of a spurious 
medisevalism. He is entirely lacking in the 
deKcate skill and the genuine historical sense 
of Scott. Yet the credit of originality cannot 
be denied him. He is the father of all those 
who cast reality to the. winds and carry the 
reader deep into the heart of romantic mystery. 
'The Castle of Otranto' was reprinted with 
a memoir by Scott in 1823; a convenient edi- 
tion is that m Cassell's National Library. Con- 
sult Beers, H. A., 'English Romanticism in the 
Eighteenth Century > (1898). 

James H. Hantokd. 

CASTLE PEAK, in Mono County, Cal., 
one of the highest peaks of the Sierra Nevada, 
rising to 12,S00 feet above the sea, in lat. 38 
IW N. and long. 119' 30' W. It is about 25 
miles northwest of Mono Lake. The lower 
slopes are covered with forests. 

CASTLE RACKRENT. This story, writ- 
ten in 1800. was the first of Maria Edgeworth's 
novels and is still regarded by many as her 
masterpiece. It belongs to that series of novels 
dealing with Irish life, which elicited the praise 
of Sir Walter Scott and other contemporaries. 
The opportunity which Miss Edgeworth had 
of studying Irish conditions a( first hand en- 
abled her m these novels to draw a powerful 
and substantially accurate picture of contem- 
porary conditions in Ireland. The theme of 
'Castle Rackrent> is the wasting fortunes and 
the final disaster of an honorable Irish family 
as the result of carelessness, improvidence, 
folly and absenteeism. The story, of only a 
few score pages, is told by a faithful old re- 
tainer of the famil)r, Thady Quirk, wlio lives 
through the successive reigns of Sir Patrick, 

who drank himself to death; oi Sir Murtai^ 
the ck>se-fisted, who wasted his substance in 
law-suits; of the dashing Sir Kit, an absentee 
land{ord who married a Jewess whom he 
despised and confined for seven years in her 
chamber, and who met his death in a duel; 
and finally of Sir Condy, under whose easy 
ways the estate finally passed from the haniu 
of the Rackrents into those of creditors, par- 
ticularly of Jason Quirk, the son of old Thady, 
who had bought the debts of _ the property. 
The story is told throughout in a vigorous 
phraseology and is full of local touches of a 
lively character. Leslie Stephens' article in the 
'Dictionary of National Biography >_ and 
Helena Zimmem's 'Marie Edgeworth' in the 
'Eminent Women Series' may be consulted. 
William T. Brewster. 

CASTLEBAR, Ireland, the capital of 
County Mayo. It is on the Castlebar River,- 
11 miles northeast of Westport, has infantry 
and cavalry barracks and some linen manu- 
factures. In 1641 the Parliamentary forces 
that held the city were massacred after die 
capitulation by the infuriated besie^^rs; in 1798 
Castlebar was held for a fortnight by the 
French general, Humbert; and in 1846-47 it 
suffered greatly from famine. Pop. 3,698. 

CASTLEFORD, England, a thriving man- 
ufacturing town in the West Riding of York- 
shire, on the Aire, here crossed by a bridge, 
10 miles southeast from Leeds. The public 
buildings include the church of All Saints, 
several denominational chapels, schools, a 
market-hall, mechanics' institute, etc. There 
are numerous collieries in the neighborhood; 
and the town has extensive manufactures or 
glass bottles, earthenware and chemi<^s. Pop. 

CASTLEMAINB, Australia, a municipal 
town in the colony of Victoria, in the county 
of Talbot, at the junction of Barker and For- 
rest creeks, 78 miles northwest of Melbourne, 
on the Melbourne & Exhuca Railroad. The 
town is pleasantly situated and well laid out, 
and the buildings, both public and private, are 
of a superior character. Castlemaine owes its 
importance to the mining industry carried on 
in its neighborhood, and it has a reputation as 
a resort for persons suffering from pulmonary 
complaints. Pop. 5,228, exclusive of aboriginals. 

CASTLBMON, Harry. See Fosdick, 
Charles Austin. 

CASTLERBAGH, kas'el-ra, Robert Stew, 
art. Viscount, English statesman: b. 18 June 
1769; d. 12 Aug. 1822. He was educated at 
Armagh and at Saint John's College, Cam- 
bridge. He entered the Irish Parliament in 
1790, became Viscount Castlereagh (1796). He 
turned Tory in 1795 and next year became 
keeper of the privy seal, but he continued a 
steadfast supporter of Catholic emancipation. 
Still, he believed that , emancipation with an 
independent Irish Parliament would mean sim- 
ply a transference of tyranny from the Prot- 
estant oligarchy to a Catholic democracy; 
hence, as chief secretary from 1797, he bent 
his whole energies to forwarding Pitt's meas- 
ure of union. Transferred by the union from 
Dublin to Westminster, he accepted office in the 
Addington ministry (1802) as president of the 

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board of control; but the true second era in 
his career was as War Minister under Pitt 
from July 1805 to January 1806, and again 
under Portland from April 1807 to September 
1809. His real greatness beg^ins with March 
1812, when, as Foreign Secretary under Lord 
Liverpool, he became the soul of the coalition 
against Napoleon, which, during the momentous 
campaigns of 1813-14, was kept together by 
him, and by him alone. He represented Eng- 
land at the congresses of Chatillon and Vienna 
in 1814-15, at the Treaty of Paris in 181S, at 
the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1818. As 
the leader of the Liverpool government in the 
lower house, he carried the suspension of 
the Habeas Corpus Act in 1817. The "Six 
Acts" of 1819 made him extremely unpopular. 
The retirement of Canning from the ministry 
(1820) threw the whole weight of business on 
.Castlereagh. By the death of his father in 
1821 he became Marquis of Londonderry. He 
was preparing _ to start for a congress at 
Verona, when, in a fit of insanity, he commit- 
ted suicide with a pen-knife at Foots Cray, 
his Kentish seat. Consult his 'Memoirs and 
Correspondence^ (12 vols., London 1848-53) 
and Hassall, Arthur, 'Viscount Castlereagh> 
(ib. 1908). 

CASTLEREAGH, Ireland, a market-town 
of Roscommon Coun^; also a barony in the 
county of Down. The castle stands on the sum- 
mit of a Danish rath and was once the seat of 
an O'Neil. It is pow the property of the Mar- 
quis of Downshire. The baronv gives the title 
of viscount to the Marquis of Londonderry. 

CASTLES, Historic. Of castles and 
ruins of castles to be found to-day, perhaps the 
most interesting are those of Germany. These 
•Burgen,» whether of the feudal lords or of 
the "Robber Knights,' on account of their 
rugged situation, protected by mountain fast- 
ness, forests and rivers, were peculiarly 
adapted to the feudal period, and their remains 
stand as representative of the best of that time. 
And nowhere else has greater effort been 
made to preserve these relics of the Middle 
Ages, or to keep alive the history and romance 
with which they have been identified. The 
district having the greatest number of especial 
interest is that along the Rhine, from Coblenz 
to Bingen, where in the course of a five-hour 
trip by steamer 20 or more castles may be seen ; 
however, below Coblent are a few notable 
castles, tor instance, near Konigswinter stands 
above the mountainous terrace the ancient and 
famous castle of Drachenfels, or Mragon's 
rock" (so called in reference to the dragon 
slain by Siegfried). It was erected by AmoldL 
archbishop of Cologne, in 1147 and bestowed 
by him as a fief on the Cassins Monastery at 
Bonn in 1149. The keep is one of the rare 
examples of pure ashlar work in the district 
of the Rhine. From 1176 on the castle was in 
the hands of the Burggraves of Drachenfels, 
whose race became extinct in 1530. The red 
wine grown on the southwest slope is known 
as "Drachenblut® or dragon's blood. The castle 
of Ehrenbreitstcin at the junction of the Mo- 
selle and the Rhine, just opposite the city of 
Coblenz, was an ancient stronghold of the 
Electors of Treves (Coblenz). It played an 
important part in the Thirty Years' War; it 
was taken by the French in 1799 after a gal- 

lant resistance. Since 1826 it has been a 

One of the most imposing is the Castle of 
Stolzenf els — «The Proud Rock» — near the 
village of Capellen. Built in 1250 by Arnold, 
archbishop of Treves, destroyed by the French 
in 1^8, it remained in ruins until 1823, when 
the city of Coblenz purchased and presented it 
to the Prince Royal Frederick William IV, 
who at an expenditure of a quarter million 
dollars restored and furnished it (1836-42). 
While greatly modernized, the original pentag- 
onal tower, 110 feet high, has been retained. 
Also on the Rhine near the village of Ober- 
lahnstein is the Castle of Lahneck, with its 
pentagonal tower, of the 12th century. De- 
stroyed by the French in 16^ it was restored 
during the last century. It is noted in litera- 
ture as being the mspiration of Goethe's 
'(»eistes-Gruss> (1774). Commanding Brau- 
bach is the Castle of Marksburg, 490 feet above 
the_ river. It is the only ancient fortress on the 
Rhine that has escaped destruction. Built in 
1437, it received its name from its chapel dedi- 
cated to Saint Mark; from 1479 to 1803 it 
belonged to Hesse-Darmstadt, in the latter year 
being turned into a state prison. Since 1900 it 
has been in the possession of the Society for 
the Preservation of German Castles, whioi has 
had it restored in ISth century style. Near the 
town of Saint Goar are the ruins of the Castle 
of Rheinfels, the most imposing and extensive 
on the Rhine. It was built in 1245 by Count 
Diether III of Katzenbogen, for the i>urpose 
of forcing payment of tribute for the right of 
navigating^ the river. The exactions of this 
robber knight becoming onerous, the neighbor- 
ing inhabitants rebelled and for 15 monUis be- 
sieged the castle in vain. The siege beinjg 
raised, a league was formed to relieve navi- 
gators oi the river from such tolls, as a result 
of which many of the Rhine castles were de- 
stroyed. Near Saint Goarshausen is the Oistle 
of Kdchenberg, built by Count Wilhelm I 
(1284), of Katzenbogen, rebuilt in 1319 and 
subsequently the_ residence of the governors 
during the Hessian supremacy. 

For romantic interest the Castle of Schon- 
burg is especially notable. Erected in the 12di 
century near the town of Oberwesel, it stands 
proudly to-day with its four towers. It was 
the birthplace of Frederick Hermann of Schon- 
burg, who, as Marshal Schonburg, was killed 
at the battle of the Boyne in the wars of Wil- 
liam, Prince of Orange, against his father-in- 
law, James II of England. Innumerable 
legends cluster about the castle, the best-known 
being of the seven beautiful daughters "of one 
of the Counts of Schonburg, who through their 
coquetry caused such havoc with their admirers 
that the Lorelei, the river fairy, to punish 
them, drowned the seven and turned them into 
rocks, which rocks are to-day pointed out by 
the boatmen during low water. Another is the 
Castle of Gutenfels, one of the most ancient 
on the Rhine. Built by the Knights of Falken- 
stein, it was sold, along with the little town 
of Caub, to the Palatinate in 1277. Its lofty, 
square-pinnacled tower still stands as originally 
built. Recently the castle has been restored. 
The Pfalz, near Caub, is a splendid example 
of the 14th centuiy castle, being well pre- 
served within and without. It has a pentagonal 
tower — a favorite form among the Rhine 

Digitized by 



1 WindMr Cutte, Bnglaiid 

2 CatUe at Coburg, Otniuny 

1, 8, Copyrigbl by rnibrwood i l-D<brwood, N. Y. 

3 Amndel Cutle 

4 CuUe Heidelbeif, Gcrnuuiy 

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Digitized by 




castles — and numerous turrets and jutting 
comers, loopholes and one entrance only, a 
door situated six feet above the rock and 
readied by a ladder. It was built on a led^ 
of rock in the middle of the Rhine by Loms 
the Bavarian for the purpose of exacting tolls 
from passing boatmen. 

The Castle of Stahleck (12th century), 
near the town of Bacharach, was formerly the 
residence of the Counts Palatine. Taken and 
retaken eight times during the Thiitv Yearl' 
War, it was finally destroyed by the French in 
1689, but its picturesque ruins are of great 
interest to travelers. Near it are the ruins of 
the Castle of Nollich, 580 feet above the Rhine, 
the subject of many a legend. Near the vil- 
lage of Rheindiebach is the Castle of Fuxsten- 
burg, also in ruins. It was here that in 1292, 
when Adolph of Nassau was on his way to 
be crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle, the garrison of 
the castle detained his vessel for the purpose 
of levying toll. It was destroyed by the Frendi 
in 16K>. The massive tower of the Castle of 
Heimburg (13th century), near Niederhetmr- 
bach; the Castle of NoUicli, near Lorch; and 
Sooneck (a.d. 1010), with its slender towe<, 
are interesting, as well as the Falkenburg — 
stronghold of the ''robber knights," and for 
this reason destroyed in 1252 by the Rhine 
League, but later restored and again destroyed 
in 1689. 

An example of a castle entirely surrouaded 
by water is the Mouse Tower, near Bingen, in 
the middle of the river. It was built in the 
13th century by Archbishop Siegfried as a toll- 
house. It fell into ruins, was restored in 1856 
and is now used as a signal station. The Castle 
of KJopp, at Bingen, stands upon the site of 
a former Roman fortification. It has been re- 
stored and is now the municipal seat of Bingen, 
and in it are preserved many of the antiquities 
of the Roman and Medieval periods. It was 
at this castle that Emperor Heniy IV wa6 
seized by his treacherous son — afterward 
Henty V — on Christmas Day, llOS. Other 
castles of interest are Ehrenfds (ruined) and 
Rheinstein, the latter one of the oldest castles 
on the Rhine. In 1825 it was purchased by 
Prince Frederick of Prussia and has since beea 
carefully restored, even to the interior {umish*- 
ings. Its collection of mediaeval armor is 

The Schloss Saarsbrikken is a splendid ex- 
ample of the feudal castle, having all the ap- 
purtenances of mediaeval times. Located on 
the river Saar, the castle was until 1793 the 
residence of the family of Nassau-SaarbFUcken^ 
when it was destroyed by the French. Later 
it was restored in part and was used as a 
nunnery. While it is strongly fortified, many 
of the buildings are devoted to residential pur- 
poses. Being situated upon a height^ its natural 
location is defensive. Its walls, with their 
towers and upper corridor, portholes, etc., are 
built for repdlirK _ attack from any quarter, 
and within is sufficient space to accommodate 
a large number of retainers or a garrison^ with 
living accommodations superior to the ordinary 
castle. The court is divided into two wards, 
in addition to the divided garden plot, the last 
a later development. 'The donjon is the tower- 
ing structure at the upper corner, overlooking 
the valley and inaccessiUe from the outside. 
In addition tlie wall is plentifnUy supplied witli 

watch and defensive towers. The lade of a 
moat is explained by the fact that the ground 
surrounding the castle slopes away in every 
direction. Another fine example of the mediae- 
val castle of the "robber knights* is Castle 
Wildenstein. Its location on a liigh cliff over- 
looking the Danube River is an ideal one for 
protection against sudden attack. Such loca- 
tions were usual for the castles of the free- 
booters of the Middle Ages. The stone tower 
in thie centre was connected by bridges that 
could be lifted or destroyed with the two castles 
on the cliff, and in case of siege, the knipht and 
vassals, talong refuge in the one on the isolated 
cUif, were able indefinitely to withstand attack. 

Other notable German castles are those of 
lower Bavaria planned and constructed by Lud- 
•wig II, the Mad King. They are the castles 
of Neu-Schwanstein, Hohen-Schwangau, Lin- 
derhof and Herrenschiemsee. The Neu- 
Schwanstein is modem, its construction being 
begun in 1869 on the site of the old castle, 
Vonder-Hohen-Schwangau, on a predpitous 
rock. Its style is Romanesque, and the great- 
est German architects of the day —i Hoffmann, 
Riedel and Von Dollmann — are responsible 
for its completion. Its fittings, while mod- 
ernized, are connected with the past, particu- 
larly in the mjrthological subjects known to us 
from Richard Wagner's operas, and events in 
the history and life of Louis XIV, King Lud- 
wig being particularly proud of both. .Its 
tower rises to a height of 195 feet, from which 
there is to be had a splendid view of the 
Pollat River with its gorge and waterfall and 
the surrounding country. Schloss Hohen- 
Schwangau (12th century), formerly called 
Schwanstein, was originally the seat of the 
house of Guelph; in 1191 it came into posses- 
sion of the Hohenstaufen Dukes of Swabia, 
and in 1567 passed to the Dukes of Etavaria. 
Fallen into ruins, it was purchased in 1832 by 
King Max II of Bavzrui, who restored it, 
decorating the interior with frescoes depicting 
German legends. Later, King Ludwig made 
additions. Schloss Linderhof, erected by King 
Ludwig II (1869-78) in tiie rococo style, is 
notable for its unique fumishings and garden, 
partieularly its grotto with a subterranean lake 
and swan-drawn boat, Moorish kiosquc and the 
cascades. Schloss Herrenschiemsee (1878-85), 
near the ancient castle of the same name, is 
another of Kin^ Ludwig's creations, and in it 
also the motive is Louis XIV and Wagner. The 
decorations are sumptuous and many of the 
halls are notable. The Gallery of Mirrors, 245 
{eet long, is lighted with 35 Instres and 2,500 
candles. One of the most novel features, how- 
ever, is its dining-hall with its taMe ascending 
and descending, so that no servant need be in 
the room. 

Other notable German castles are Heidel- 
berg, an interestii^ ruin with rich decorations, 
the statue of Charlema^e and other sovereigns 
in particular. Built m the 12th century, it 
has been added to and improved at various 
times since, and in it are the remains of the 
best examples of the different styles of archi- 
tecture through which it has passed. Destroyed 
by the French (1689), it has since remained a 
ruin, but perhaps one of the most picturesque 
to be found anywhere. The Hddelberg Tun, 
the casde cellar, is notable for its 800 hogs- 
heads of wine, and its general mediaeval ap- 

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peaiance.' At' Nnremberg are. two fanrans 
catties — Burgrafsburg and Kaiserburg, both 
of the Uth centuiy. The former is the-oldest 
building in the town. Its' only remains is the 
Pentagonal Tower, wherein are kept relics 
of the antiquity of the city and castle. Its 
moat is still to be seen, as likewise its well. 
338 feet deep. Kaiserburg, or the Imperial 
Castle, was formerly the residence of Fred- 
erick Barbarossa, who enlarged it. It has been 
added to from time to-time^ and. is to-day m 
a state of splendid preservation, being greatly 
modernized during the last century. Its fur- 
Bishings and decorations are magnificent, and 
at the same time representative of the age of 
the castle. 

A famous castle in Alsace is the Hoh- 
Kouigsburg; it is built upon a ridge mentioned 
in a document of 774 as the ^Stophanberch* 
(Staufeaberg) ; was in the possession of the 
Hohenstaufen family about 1147 and was later 
held in fee by the Counts of Werd. In 1462 
it was destroyed by the League of Rhenish 
Towns, but in 1479 it was rebuilt by the Counts 
of Thierstein. From 1533 to 1606 it was held 
in pledge Iqr the Lords of Sickingen, from 
whom it passed successively into the hands of 
the Lords of BoUw«iler and the Counts Fug- 
ger (1617). In the Thirty Years' War the cas- 
tle was destroyed by the Swedes (^1633). To- 
ward the end. of the 17th centunr it fell agaia 
into the hands of the Lords of Sickingen, who 
sold it in 1770. After various^ other duuiges 
of ownership it was acquired in 1865 by the 
town of Schlettstadt, which presented it to Em- 
peror William II in 1899. Tne Emperor caused 
It tp be rebuilt (1901-08) at the expense of 
Alsace and the German empire from the plans 
of Bodo Ebbhardt, who restored it as far as 
possible to its appearance in the 15th centuiy. 
Its huge walls and towers of red sandstone, 
towering above the dark-green chestnut wdod, 
are strikingly picturesque. 

Beyond Cofmar (Alsace) above the village 
Egishcim stands the castle of Hohen-Egisheim 
or Dreien-Egishcim, with its three towers, vii., 
the Wahlenburg and Wekmund of' the 11th 
century and Oagsburg of the 12th century, to- 

g ether known as the ''Drei-Exen.* In Egis- 
eim itself is the recently restored pal^e 
«Pfalz» that is said to date back to the 8th 

Near Strassburg is thc' ancient Imperial 
fortress Trifels. It was founded as earl^ as the 
10th centuiy, but the present scanty rums date 
from about the middle of the 12th century. Tri- 
fels was not infrequently occupied by the Ger- 
man emperors. Its walls protected the un- 
happy Henry • IV, when excommunicated by 
Pope Gregory VII in 1076 and deserted by hii 
nobles. It was here that Richard Coeur'de-'Lioa 
is said to have been confined for more than a 
year (1193-94) by the Emperor Henry VI, until 
his liberation was effected by the faithful 
BlondeL. After the Thirty Years' War the cas- 
tle fell to decay. The central tower, 33 feet in 
height, and the chapel have recently been re* 
stored. In cleaning the castle-well, the spring, 
cut in the rock, was discovered at a depth of 
270 feet. 

The Castle of Coburg (16th century) is a 
]ate-(jothic strtKture used as a fortress and 
later as an arsenal. At present it is a nmseum. 
Its collections of arms and armor, woodcuts 

(200(000), paintings relating- to German his- 
tory and natural histoity are notable. It was 
here that Martin Luther resided for a time 
(1530) and translated the Prophets and Psalms. 
In connection with Lather, the picturesque 
Oastle of Wartburg (12th century) at Eisent 
bach is of interest. This castle was the ccntrte 
of German'^ letters and art for many genera- 
tions, and in _ early days it was dte sCene of 
contests in minstrelsy for all Germany. Here 
Luther sought anrlum and.' found refuge 
when he translated the greater part of tne 
Bible. At Munich is the Schloss, a large 
group of buildings (1663-1728). It is in reality 
a palace, with beautiful grounds, conserva- 
tories^ cascades, etc., and its decorations are 
of the best of the rococo period. It is the 
residence of the king, and its fittings are in 
regal magnificence ; as an instance, the curtains 
of the Bedchamber are of gold brocade valued 
at ^400,000. Here also is the «Schatzkammer,» 
or Treasure Chamber, containing the crown 
jewels and other ■ priceless objects of historic 

At Wurzburg is the old Castle of Marien- 
berg (12th century), formerly the residence 
of the prince-bishops. It is a magnificent 
structure containing 285 apartments. Besides 
its Echtcr-Tor (1606) and Neu-Tor (1657), 
it has another tower, the •Afarm-Batterie" 
commanding the city. Especially notable is its 
'chiapel, richly decorated in the florid style of 
Louis XIV. A later Schloss, or Royal Palace, 
built 1720-44, is one of the finest specimens of 
18th century construction to be found, an ex- 
ample of the baroque Style from designs by 
Neumann. Its size is 550 by 290 feet, and it 
contains 312 rooms, a chapel and a theatre, 
all uniformly decorated in keeping 'with the 
general purpose of the structure. In connec- 
tion with the palace is an orangery of great 
beauty. At Schwerin, the Palace (1845-57) 
has been built on the site of a 12th century 
castle of the Princes of Mecklenburg, parts 
of the original structure, as rebuilt in the 15th 
and 16th century, being incorporated into the 
present building. It is an extensive structure 
vith lofty towers, enclosing a pentagonal court. 
Of its rooms, the Waffenhalle, Thronsalle and 
Gothic Chapel (1560-63) are especially notable. 

At Dresden there is a famous castle, the 
Ro}ral Palace, founded in 1530, and enlarged 
early in the 18th century, with extensive altera- 
tions during recent years. Its Grfines Tor is 
the hi^iest structure in Dresden (331 feet). 
The original staircase, towers at the four cop- 
aers and the gallery over the gate (1549-51) 
still stand. The Palace is a veritable museum 
of the history of art, particularly of the art 
of Dresden, famous as the i centre of the poiv- 
celaiil industry, and the Green Vaidt, on ' the 
ground floor, cotitains 'one> of the 'richest col- 
' lecdons of the goldsmith's and other handi'- 
craft of Ae Renaissance and later periods^ 

In Berlin, the Sdilora, or residence of the 
Ksdser, is representative of the medieval castle 
dianged into a palace. The original Schloss 
was ijuilt by the Great Elector Frederick II 
(1443-Sl), was altered (1698-1716) and en- 
larged u^ to-day it is 650 feet in length by 
380 in width.. In the reign of Wilhelm II it 
became the> rew^nce of the reignisg sovereign. 
Its deooratioas and ippointmentB are in keep- 
ing with the purpose for wltich it is used. It 

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neprcsents , thei work of two of. G«niiaiiv's 
greatest architects, Schluter . and von Goethe. 
The western part is an imitation o£ the trium- 
phal archof Septimius Severus at Rome. Other 
royal residences at Berlin are the Palace of 
the Crown Prince, the Palace of Elm^eror Wil- 
hebn I, the Palace of Prince Frederick Henry 
of Prussia, that of Prince Frederick Leopold, 
erected 1737, and the Palace of the Princesses, 
connected with that of the Crown Prince by 
an arch over OberwaU-Strasse. 

At Potsdam, "the Versailles of Prussia,* 
is die Palace of "Sans-Soud,* erected by 
Knobelsdocfl in 174M7 for Frederick the 
Great It is copied after the Palace of Vert 
saiites. It was here that Frederick the Great 
spent the greater part of his life, the rooms 
and objects connected with his history remain- 
inflf as he left them. In addition, Frederick 
binlt a New Palace (1763^-69), a magnificent 
building with 200 rooms, now the summer resi- 
dence of the Kaiser. 

' .Wherever one goes in Germany, he finds 
evidences of mediaeval life in the castles that 
served their day, are now ruins or intact as 
fortificatioas or adapted to residential or mu- 
seum and civic purposes. With few excepr 
dons, the public is admitted at stated times to 
these relics oi the past, sometimes free, but 
gencralK for a sotail fee used for their upkeep. 

.In Fiance, feudalism took deep root, and 
evciywhece is evidoice of its existence in the 
castles or their ruins to be found in every 
city and hamlet Even later, when kingcraft 
had subdued the barons, these castles became 
fortresses in the civil and religious wars that 
disturbed the county for three centuries, and 
later yet when the Crown of Elngland was at- 
tempting to keep its hold on Normandy and 
France, and (quarter was a thing unasked for. 

As to their form, the castles of France 
were very similar to those of Germany, .with 
the exception thai;, save in exceptional instances* 
the territory to be protected by them was 
without the natural fastnesses .and barriers 
of. the territory adjacent to the German castles. 
Architecturally they show more of the Roman 
and Byxantine influence. What is reputed to 
have been the greatest example of the medise- 
val castle was the Castle of Coucy (1230-42) 
built b^ the Seigneurs of Coucy, near Soissons. 
Guarding the castle and covermg an area of 
more than 10,000 s<iuare yards, the donjon 
towered 210 feet above its walls, at the base 
beiiuz 34 feet thick. ^ This castle was destroyed 
in 1916 by Germany in the European War. Seo- 
ond to it in France is the Castle of Vincennes, 
in the park of the same name, just outside the 
fortifications of Paris. Built originally in 1137 
^ _ Louis le Jeune, it was demolished by 
Philippe de Valois in 1333,. and _ the present 
foundations were laid. It was built in a rect- 
angle, 1,200 by 672 feet, and flanked by nine 
square towers. It contained a donjon, a cita- 
del and a prison, notable for the prisoners that 
it has held — Mazarin, Diderot Mirabeau, 
Henri IV, the Princes of Conde, Cardinal de 
Retz and others equally famous. In 1784, 
after the publicatioa of Mirabeau's *Essai sur 
les lettres de cachet" it ceased to be a state 
pnson. and fellinto decay after the Revolution. 
In 1818, most of its old towers were torn down 
and the castle was turned into an arsenal. At 
present it is. a fortification. The buttressed 

entrance tQwer and the- donjon, repaired ia 

part still stand intact, the latter 115 leet high. 
The donjon is isolated from the rest of the 
castle wall, with which it is connected by 
drawbridges over a deep moat It is in the 
middle of the court has four towers, and 
stands four stories above ground, access from 
floor to floor being by spiral stairw^s in each 
of the towers. Its architecture is Gothic, the 
large central room (30 feet square) on each' 
floor being vaulted, with a suroortintj column 
in the centre. Its walls are 1/ feet in thick- 

Northwest of Paris, near Les Aadelys, are 
the ruins of the (Chateau Gaillard, built by 
Richard Coeur-de-Lion, and finished in one 
year. On a high cliff overlooking the Seine, 
It was erected to control the navigation of this 
river and to protect Normandy against the 
French monarois. It was considered impreg- 
nable' to military attacl^ but after a siege of 
six months by Philip Augustus starvation 
forced its defenders to capitulate. Lest it fall 
into the hands oi a too powerful enemy. Henri 
IV in 1603 destroyed it with several other 
castles belor^ing to Norman barons. For its 
total demoUtioQ, however, 16 years were tt- 
quired, and even to-day its rums appear ' for- 
midable front the Seine, It is famous in art 
from a painting made by Turner. At Dieppe 
stands the Tour de Jeanne d'Arc; the remain- 
ing relic of the citadel in which the Maid of 
Orleans was _ tried and condemned. It was 
erected by Philip Augustus in 1204. The tower 
in which Jeanne d'Arc was imprisoned was 
demolishea in 1809. At Dieppe also are ruins 
of two other castles, one the *Castle,* occupy- 
ing a commanding position on a precipitous 
din overlooking the sea. erected in 1433 as a 
defense against the English, Sixty-four years 
later it, with the entire town, was destroyed 
by the bombardment of the English fleet The 
other is the Castle of Arques, famous as the 
scene of victory of Henri IV over the League 
in 1589. The Castle of (Dillon, erected in 
1500 apd destroyed during the Revolutiotv 
stands in the town of the same name, its partly 
destroyed ruins now used as a prison. In its 
day it was considered as one of the finest 
in Normandy, its architecture being of such 
excellence that the jofty facade has been re- 
moved and is now in the court of the Ecole 
des Beaux-Arts at Paris. This castle was 
erected by Pierre Fain, one of the greatest 
architects of the ISth century, for the Cardinal 
d'Amboise, Minister of Louis XII, and a patron 
of the Renaissance in France, and. is of mixed 
Gothic and Renaissance style. 

At Provins stands the ruin of an ancient 
castle whose erection dates back to the con- 
uest of Gaul. It is known as the Grosse Tour 
e C^sar. While reputed to be of Roman 
origin, it has many evidences of origin in the 
Middle Ages. Its massive tower is square at 
the base, but as it rises it separates into four 
turrets, and the base at the height where they 
begin becomes octagonal. The turrets are con- 
nected by _ flying buttresses. This donjon, as 
such it originally was, has two curious rooms 
or dungeons evidently used for the confinement 
of military and state prisoners. The structure 
now serves as the belj tower of the neighboring 
church of Saint Quiriace, likewise a relic of 
the Middle Ages, Off the coast of Normandy 


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the Castle of Mont Saint Michel (q.v.) is a 
picturesque example of the mediaeval strong- 
hold. Situated on a lofty rock and surrounded 
entirely by water at high tide, it was almost 
impregnable, except for the fact that it had 
no fresh water, which itself was responsible 
for its surrender by its defender, Henry, to his 
brothers, WiUiam the Conqueror and Robert, 
in the year 1091. 

Around the city of Paris are many famous 
castles, some in ruins, but the greater number 
restored or altered, as residences, museums, 
or municipal and state buildings. To the east 
on the Mame is the Chateau Thierry; to the 
northeast the Chateau de Villers Cotterets, with 
gabled roof and towers, situated in the beauti- 
ful forest of the satne name ; the Chateau de 
Pierrefonds, a perfect example of the feudal 
stronghold, at one extreme of the Forest of 
Compiegne, while another is the Chateau de 
Compiigne, modem, now a museumj the Vieux 
Chateau de la Ferte, in ruins, with its five 
towers and gate still standinj^. Near Nanteuil- 
le-Haudouin is the old rum Nantouillet sur 
jes Fosses, and in the Forest of Ermenonville 
is the Chateau of the same name, Ermenon- 
ville, a square and a round tower with part 
of the wall yet remaining. To the north is the 
Chateau de Chantilly, a palace, and the Chateau 
de Mouchy. To the northwest is the ruin of 
the Chateau de Gisors, a famous castle during 
the wars between France and Normandy, and 
near the city of Paris ' the Chateau or Palace 
of Saint Germain, residence of the kings of 
France. To the west, the Chateau d'Anet, the 
portal of which, due to its chaste design, is 
preserved in the court of the Ecole des Beaux- 
Arts at Paris ; and the 'Donjon,* the massive 
remains of a mediaeval castle at Houdan, near 
which, .at Boutigny, is La VieilU Porte fiodale, 
the gateway to another castle of the same age. 
At Montfort is the Porte Bardou, a fragment 
of mediaeval fortification, and in the Forest of 
Rambouilletj southwest of Paris, is the donjon 
of the original Chateau de Rambouillet, with 
later additions, south of which is the Chateau 
de Maintenon, a palace, and further to the 
south, near Auneau, a single corner of an old 
castle known as "fipaule de Gallardon." Like- 
wise, to the southwest of Paris is the Chateau 
de Versailles, now a state museum, the magnifi- 
cent palace of French royalty, and the scene 
of many of the most notable events in French 
history, particularly the Revolution. (See article 
on Parks). To the south of Versailles is the 
mediaeval Chateau de la Madeleine, with donjon 
and a few other parts intact. South of Paris 
is _ the Chateau and Tour de Montlhiry, in 
ruins, and to the southeast, the famous chateau 
and Forests of Fontainebleau, noted as the 
country residence of French royalty, and one 
of the showplaces of France to-aay. 

In Italy, with the exception of the northern 
part, the feudal system did not have the hold 
that it had in western Europe, and such 
castles as it possessed were rather of the 

?atcmal or family type, and the castles to be 
ound differ likewise from those here de- 
scribed. Such seats as were depended on for 
protection were usually the palaces of former 
Roman governors, built with a view to guard 
against' the depredations of the Goths, Huns 
and Vandals from the north. 

Spain in many ways is looked upon, particu- 

larly for romantic reasons, as the country of 
castles. *Castles in Spain* bring to the imag- 
ination feudalism and chivalry. Castile, one 
of the most important provinces, means 
'castle,* and throughout its whole extent are 
numberless ruins of Moorish and Gothic feudal 
fortifications. The Spanish castle differs ap> 
preciably from those of the northern countries, 
m that it was an appendage of the religious 
wars that were waged for centuries between 
Moor and Christian, and wherever a castk is 
found, there also' is a cathedral or chapel or 
mosque. The Arab word for castle — Alcazar 
or Alcazaba — is found throughout the Iberian 
Peninsula, often as the denomination of the 
most important of the Moorish remains. The 
Alhambra, in part, was a castle, and here the 
Chalifs of Granada fortified themselves and 
founded a civilization of which the remains, 
yet visible, are a credit to Oriental culture. 
At Cordoba is the Alcazar, a famous sight 
to-day, and at Gibraltar, in the year 725 a.d., 
the Moors had a castle, the remains of which 
are still to be seen. The Alcazar of Alfonso 
the Learned, at Segovia, is a striking example 
of the combination of Moorish and Giotfaic 
architecture, a structure buttressed and turret- 
ted, with a square donjon in the centre, which 
was also buttressed and turretted, like a citadel. 
The city of Burgos, Spain, takes its name from 
the word 'Burg,* it being erected by the 
"German son-in-law* of Diego Porcilos, m the 
9th century. 

In the British Isles there are evidences of 
castles or rude fortifications dating from the 
days of the Roman conquest. It is, however, 
from the days of William die Conqueror that 
the castle as we know it took its nse, as tMs 
monarch, familiar with feudal and state forti- 
fications on the Continent, found such of the 
greatest utility in maintaining Norman suprem- 
acy over the English barons. As to the archi- 
tecture of British castles, they combined all 
styles used on the Continent with a purely 
English form that differentiates them from 
others. But the principles of fortification were 
the same. 

On the eastern limits of the town of Dover 
there stands to-day the Castle, the modem 
fortification standing on the site of the original 
Dover Castle, the «Key to England.* The 
remains of the original, altered by the vicissi- 
tudes of time and civil and foreign wars, have 
been incorporated in the present fortress. 
Within sight of Calais, the nearest and most 
formidable foreign enemy, it was' constructed 
on a hill 320 feet high, and was fitted to with- 
stand long sieges, the necessity for which was 
frequently proved. At York, one of the most 
ancient cities in the kingdom, and the reputed 
birthplace of the Emperor Constantine, there 
are many relics of the Roman occupation of 
England, the most interesting being the Mult- 
angular Tower. This tower is 30 feet in diam- 
eter in the interior, and was originally of a 
13-sided form, 10 of the 13 walls still remain- 
ing. Of the remains of the Middle Ages, the 
castle still stands, and within its walls are at 
present the law courts and jail. The donjon, 
known as Clifford's Tower, is intact. Of other 
remains of the feudal days are portions of the 
ancient walls, beyond which the city has . ex- 
tended. The gates, known as "bars,* arc an 
interesting feature found in many English 

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cities. T&ey are' usually towered and em- 
battled, 'With portholes, and locations on the 
-streets that they cross are usually spoken of 
as below or above the bar. Other castles are 
found in the neighborhood of York, among 
them being Pontefract Castle, where Richard 
II was murdered, and Conisborough Castle, 
near Doncaster. At Durham is the ancient 
Norman Castle founded by William the Con- 
queror, and now in possession of the university. 

Near Newcastle-on-Tyne is Alnwick Castle 
(Uth century), occupied continuously from the 
14tii century by the Percy family.^ Formerly 
an important border fortress, it is noted in 
England as being one of the finest examples of 
feudal dwelling in the kingdom, and with 
modem restorations it is in a perfect state of 
preservation. It covers five acres of ground. 
Malcolm, King of Scotland, and his son. Prince 
Edward, were killed here in 1094, and in 1174, 
while besieging the castle, William the Lion 
was taken prisoner. Near Alnwick Castle is 
the ruin of Waricworth Castle, and a few 
miles away on the sea shore is the recently 
restored Bamborough Castle, standing on a 
rock 150 feet high. It was a Saxon fortres^ 
built in the 7th century. Near it is the ruined 
Castle of Lindisfame, referred to by Sir 
Walter Scott in *Marmion.> 

At Rochester on the river Medway is the 
ruins of one of the finest castles in England. 
The walls and the donjon are in almost per- 
fect condition. At the town of Newport is 
the ruins of Carisbrook Castle, the donjon of 
which is supposed to have been a Saxon strong- 
hold. The tower, ivy covered, reaches hi^ 
above the rest of the structure. The outer 
walls of the castle enclosed about 20 acres. 
The ancient well, 240 feet deep, is still in use. 
It was here that Charles I was a prisoner in 
1647. At Kenilworth is a noted castle^ made 
famous by Sir Walter Scott. The rwns are 
extensive and picturesque. It was the strong- 
hold of Simon de Mont fort. Earl of Leicester, 
and the insurgent barons during the reign of 
Henry III, and was likewise the abode of 
Robert Dudley,, the favorite of Queen Eliza- 
beth. _ Its donjon is known as Caesar's Tower, 
and is the most ancient portion of the castle. 
Its walls in places are 16 feet thick. The 
remains of the banquet hall, 86 by 45 feet, 
are still to_ be seen. Near the borough of 
Grantham is Bclvoir Castle, the magnificent 
manor house of the Duke of Rutland, with 
one of the best collections of paintings in the 
kingdom, and furnishings of ducal splendor. 
At Rochester is the remains of a castle notable 
in English history, the keep still standing, 104 
feet high. At Norwich is a castle architectur- 
ally known for its ornately designed arches. 
The castle in which Edward II was murdered 
is still seen at Berkeley, occupied by the de- 
scendants of the family that then possessed it. 

Of all the castles in England none is better 
known than that of Windsor, typical in Its 
magnificence of the* feudal stronghold, and to- 
day die residence of the royal family. On a 
height overlooking the Thames, it commands 
a great stretch of territory. It has 13 towers, 
and within its walls are two rectangular wards, 
the lower and upper. The keep is in the centre. 
It has many sumptuously decorated and fur- 
nished halls and rooms, in keeping with its 
rtgai OSes, and one octagon room, 38 feet in 

diameter. It is surrounded by a large park. 
Historical5', however, no Eng^sh castle is 
better known than the Tower of London. 
Erected on the site of a Roman fortress, the 
Tower as it exists to-day was originated by 
William the Conqueror {\ff78). At first a 
stronghold and palace, it is best known as a 
prison. It is at present a fortress, a musernn, 
and depository of the Crown jewels. It over- 
looks the Thames, a moat being between the 
river and the castle. The most conspicuous 
part b the White Tower, or donjon, in the 
centre, having four entrances, the Iron, Water, 
Traitor's andi Lion's Gates, the last the prin- 
cipal one. Other towers are the Bell Tower 
and Bloody Tower. The walls of the towers 
are from 13 to 15 feet in thickness, and are sup- 
mounted by turrets at the angles. The chapel 
is considered one of the finest examples of 
Norman architecture in the kingdom. In the 
inner ward are 12 smaller towers, all of which 
have been used as prisons, mostly for state 
prisoners, among whom were Queen Mary, 
Princess Elizabeth, Sir Walter Raleigh, Lord 
Dudley, Henry VI and the Elarl of Warwick. 
Wales, Ireland and Scotland, likewise, have 
their castles, resembling those of Englano, with 
the exception that they were clan strongholds 
rather than feudal residences. Near Cardiff, 
Wales, are the remains of four famous castles 

— Caerphilly, Neath, Swansea and Oyster- 
mouth. _ Of these, Caerphilly in size and gran- 
deur — judging from its ruins — is the greatest 
of all. In Ireland, the most famous to-day 
is Blarney Castle, near the city of Cork. It 13 
now a picturesque ruin. It was erected in 
1449 by Cormac M'Carthy. Its chief feature 
is its embattled square tower. It is visited 
by thousands of tourists on account of its 
world-renowned "Blarney Stone,* a small stone 
on the hig^hest point of its northern turret, 
which is supposed to give those that Idss it 
the power of fluent and witty speech. In 
Scotland, the best known is Edinbur^ch Cas- 
tle, the immense fortress overlooking the 
city of Edinburgh. The fortress as it stands 
to-day is on the spot of an ancient castle 
erected before the first records of Scottish 
history. It has one entrance, across a draw- 
bridge through a portcullis, above which is 
the old state prison. Within is a Norman 
chapel built by Queen Margaret (11th century), 
and restored in 1853. The castle was formerly 
a palace of tfae_ Scottish kings, but to-day is 
an object of antiquarian interest aside from its 
military -uses. Among the relics in its collec- 
tions is "Mons Meg,* one of the earliest ex- 
amples of cannon, cannon such as were used 
to batter down the castles of the feudal barons. 
It is 13 feet long, 20 inches in diameter, and 
weighs five tons. It is formed of long strips 
of iron, held together by hoops. Of as much 
interest, but less known, is the Castle Dunie, 
the seat of Lord Lovat, perhaps the last 
example of a castle being used for feudal 
purposes. In 1740 medieeval service was still 
required of the retainers of this eccentric Lord, 
who lived in one room, her Ladyship in another 
and the servants — of whom there were many 

— below in a covered court with straw for 
beds. (See also Castle). Consult Piper, Otto, 
<Burgenkunde' (Munich 1895); Eberhardt, 
Bodo, < Deutsche Burgen' (Berlin 1908) ; 
Clarl^ < Medieval MiUtary Ardutecture' (Lon- 

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don 1884) : Lamed, 'Churches and Castles of 
Medieval France> (New York 1895). 

Frank Koester, 
Author of ^Modern City Planning and Main- 

CASTLBTON, En^and, a village in the 
County of Derby, 10 miles northeast of Bux- 
ton, situated at the bottom of a rugged emi- 
nence, on which stands the ancient castle called 
Peak Castle, erected by William Peveril, nat- 
ural son of the Conqueror. The houses are 
chiefljr of stoiie. It contains the parish church 
of Saint Edmund, a fine specimen of the early 
pointed style and the vestry of which con- 
tains a valuable library.^ Tiie inhabitants are 
mostly employed in mining; but many derive 
a subsistence from the manufacture of oma- 
tnental articles from spar. The Castle of the 
Peak is celebrated in Scott's novel, 'Peveril 
of the Peak.> Pop. 581. 

CASTLBTOWN, Great Britam, a seaport 
and former capital of the Isle of Man, on 
Castletown Bay, 10 miles southwest of Douglas. 
Castle Rushen, now a prison, occupies the site 
of a Danish fortress of the 10th century, which 
was almost wholly demolished by Robert Bruce 
in 1313. The grounds of Rushen Abbey (11th 
century), near the station, are now market 
{gardens. Near by is the small building where 
the House of Keys ' assembled for about 170 
years. Castletown was the seat of government 
of the Isle of Man from the 6th to the middle 
of the 19th century. Brewing, tanning and 
lime-burning' are carried on. Near Qistle- 
town is' King William's College, an Elizabethan 
pile, rebuilt after the fire of 1844. Pop. 1,817. 
. CASTOR, or CASTOREUM, an odorous 
substance obtained from two glandular sacs 
connected with the sexual organs in both sexes 
of the beaver. In past years it was utilized 
for medical purposes, especially as a remedy in 
diseases of the uterus, and in the case of cata- 
lepsy, hysteria and other spasmodic diseases. 
What little now reaches market is used an an 
ingredient of perfumes, but most of it is kept 
by northern trappers as a scent for baiting their 
traps, and is known as barkstone. 

CASTOR OIL (Oleum ricini), the fixed 
oil expressed from the seeds of Ricinus com- 
munis, _ot the family Eupkorbiacea. The oil 
is obtained from the seeds by various processes. 
The seeds are sometimes boiled and the oil 
skimmed from the water, or the oil may be 
taken up hy solvents, such as alcohol, ether, etc. 
In the large manufacturing pharmacy houses in 
the United States the seeds are first warmed 
slightly and then passed between rollers, or 
other forms of pressure apparatus. The oil is 
collected and decanted, or mixed with boiling 
water and purified. The average yield of high- 
grade oil is from 40 to SO per cent in weight 
Care must be exercised in the amount of heat- 
ing of the seeds, else a very active and acrid 
tox-albumin, ricin, which is present in the seed 
coat, is added to the oil. This tends to render 
the oil very griping in its action. Unscrupulous 
manufacturers have been known to add small 
quantities of ricin to adulterated oil. Seconds, 
or sorts, are inferior qualities of oil 

When fresh and pure castor oil should be 
a clear, colorless, visdd oil, with a faint, mild 
odor, a bland and unpleasant taste. Its specific 
gravity should be .950-.970 at 60° F. It should 

be soluble in equal parts of alcohol, in all pro- 
portions of absolute alcohol, or in gktdal acetic 
acid, and tested to exclude other mixed oils; is 
soluble at 60° F. in three times its volume of a 
mixture of 19 parts of alcobol and one part of 
water. This test will detect an admixture of 
over S per cent of other oils. Castor oil con- 
geals at 15° F. The chemical structure shows 
castor oil to be composed almost entirely of 
ridnoleic add, CuHmOi. It also contains jud- 
mitin, stearin, myristin and an acid prin- 
ciple. This is broken up in the intestines bj 
saponification, and sets free the active agent 
of the dru^s action. Castor oil is a reli- 
able cathartic. It empties the bowel com- 
pletely, largely by its stimulating intestinal 
peristalsis, and is probably the best cathartic 
for children with overloaded intestines. In 
intestinal fermentation and putrefaction ac- 
companied by diarrhoea, it » excellent. It 
causes a number of loose, not very watery 
movements, attended -with mild griping. There 
is a tendency to constipation following its use; 
hence, it is not of service in habitual consti- 
pation.^ As it is extremely disagreeable for 
many, its taste may be disguised by orange peel, 
or best in some aromatic frothy or carbonated 
mixture, as in coffee, soda water, or in gelatin 
capsule form. From a teaspoonful to a table- 
spoonful is the usual dose. 

BEAN, or PALMA CHRIS-H, a tropical 
herb (Ricinus communis) of_ the family 
Euphorbiacea, a native of Africa and Asia, 
whence it has become distributed in warm 
countries throughout the world. In cool cli- 
mates it is a half-hardy annual, but in frostless 
regions it is a perennial, often becoming a 
small tree. Its large palmate leaves, sometimes 
more than two feet in diameter, and its green 
or red stems, which in the central United 
States may attain a height of 12 feet, and in 
the tropics 30 or 40 feet, are very striking in 
flower borders and clumps of shrubbery. The 
unisexual flowers are borne in terminal racemes, 
and the female ones are succeeded by three- 
celled spiny capsules which explode when the 
seed is ripe, throwing the seed to a considerable 
distance. The seeds have long been employed 
for making castor oil, which is used for lubri- 
cating, for making sticlnr fly-paper and in 
medicine. About half the aemand of the Amer- 
ican market is met by the crops grown in Kan- 
sas, Missouri, Oklahoma and adjacent territory, 
but since the introduction of petroleum products 
the oil has a smaller use as a lubricant than 
formerly, and since the importation of various 
palm oils its use in soap-making has declined. 
It is also less popular as a medicine than it 
used to be. The crop is not considered a psky- 
ing one. Castor-oil pomace (the oil cake after 
the oil has been extracted) is a highly valuable 
nitrogenous fertilizer. 

CASTOR AND POLLUX (the kktter 
called by the Greeks Polydeuces), me sons of 
T)Tidareus, King of Lacedaemon, and Leda, or, 
according to some, of Zeus and Leda. The 
fable runs that Leda to whom the god oame 
in the form of a swan brought forth two 
eggs, one of which contained Pollux and Helen, 
the other Castor and Qytemnestra. Pollux 
and Helen, being the offspring of Zeus, were 
immortal; but Castor and Qytemnestra 'were 

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begotten by Tyndareus, and Btortal. Homer's 
account is that both Castor and Pollux were 
the sons of Tyndareus, and that Helen was 
the dauehter of Zeus. The two brothers were 
insepars3)le companions, equally brave and 
spirited, and attached to each other with the 
fondest affection. Castor was particularW 
skilled in the art of breaking horses, and Pol- 
lux in boxing and wrestling. Thegr were 
among the heroes of the Ar^nautic expedition, 
in which they acquired divine honors; for a 
terrible tempest havinjg arisen on the voyage, 
and all with loud voices calling on the gods 
to save them, there suddenly appeared over the 
heads of Castor and PoUux two star4ike me- 
teors, and the tempest subsided. From this 
time thej^ were the patron deities of mariner^ 
and received the name of Dioscuri (*sons of 
Zeus*) : and from them the name of Castor 
and Pollux was given to the fires that are often 
seen on the masts of vessels in storms, and 
which are electrical phenomena. After their 
return they released their sister Helen from the 
confinement in which Theseus had for some 
time held her. They were also among the he- 
roes of the Calydonian hunt They wooed the 
daughters of Leucippus, Phoebe and Hilseira or 
Elaeira, and carried them off and married them. 
Having become involved in a quarrel with Idas 
and Lynceus, the sons of Aphareus, Castor 
killed Lynceus, and was slain by Idas. Pollux 
revenged his brother's death by killing Idas, 
but full of grief for the loss of Castor, he 
besought Zeus either to take away his life or 
grant that his brother might share his immor- 
tality. Zeus listened to his request, and Pollux 
and his brother alternately resided one day on 
earth and the other in the heavenly at>odes 
of the gods. It is doubtful whether the an- 
cients understood them as being together or 
separate in their alternate passage between the 
upper and lower worlds. The former opinion 
seems to be the older; the latter to have gained 
ground subsequently. Temples and altars were 
consecrated to them. In great perils, especially 
in battles, the ancients believed that they fre- 
quently appeared to mortals as two youths on 
white steeds, in shining garments, widi meteors 
over their heads. They were also represented 
side by side, either riding _ or standing, each 
holding a horse by the rein, with spears in 
their hands and stars on their heads. Rome 
accorded them special homage because of their 
supposed assistance at the battle of Lake Regil- 
lus. In the heavens the Dioscuri appear as 
one of the 12 constellations of the zodiac, 
with the name of Gemini (the Twins). Con- 
sult Albert, <Le culte de Castor et Pollux en 
Italie> (1883) ; Paton, <De Cnltu Dioscurorum 
apud GraEcos> (Bonn 1894). 

CASTORID.S;. See Beaver. 

CASTOROIDES, a ^gantic, extinct, 
beaver-like rodent of the Pleistocene Epoch in 
North America. It was nearly as large as a 
black bear, and inhabited the cold, swampy, 
evergreen forests of the north, its remains be- 
ing found chiefly in peat-bogs along with bones 
of the mastodon. 

CASTRAMBTATION. The art of lay- 
ing out camps and of placing the troops so that 
the different arms shall afford support to each 
Qther in the best manner. No de&ute rules can 
be laid down, but the proper exercise of the 
vot. 6—2 

art of encamping is so to place thet troops that 
they can quickly form line of battle on the 
position they are to occupy. In the presence of 
the enemy the troops Uivouac in line of battle; 
if safety permits, the tents may be pitched im- 
mediately in rear of the line of stacks, the tents 
of the company officers in rear of their com- 
panies, the tents of the Field and Staff in rear of 
the centre of the line of company officers. When 
not in the presence of the enemy, each bat- 
talion tisual^ camps in column of divisions. 
Tile tents of each division are arranged in two 
lines facing each other; those of the rig^t 
company face to the rear; those of the left 
company face to the front The company 
officers' tents are arranged in line paralla to 
the flank of the column, facing the division- 
streets; the tent of the captain of the right 
company of each division is to the right (or 
left) oi the line passing through the centre of 
the street, according as the officers are on the 
right (or left) flank of the column: his lieu- 
tenants are on his right (or left) ; the captain 
of the left company is on the left (or rig;ht) of 
the captain of the right company, the lieuten- 
ants of his company on his left (or right). The 
first sergeant's tent is on ihe flank of the com- 
pany toward the officers' 'tents. The tents of 
the Field and Staff, when practicable, are in line 
parallel to those of the company officers, the 
colonel is opposite the centre of the column, 
lieutenant-colonel and major are on his right, 
the adjutant is on the left of the colonel; the 
other staff officers are on the left of the 
adjutant The tents of the non-commissioned 
staff are in rear of the tents of the staff; they 
may be assigned to tents in the divisions. 

The kitchens of the men are in line on the 
flank opposite the company officers; the sinks 
for the men are outside of the line of kitchens. 
The kitchens of the officers are in rear of their 
tents, the sinks for the officers are in rear of 
the line of tents of the Field and Staff. The 
positions of the color-line, guard-tents, sutlers' 
store, officers' horses and bafiKage wagons are 
prescribed by the colonel. The width of the 
division-streets, and the streets in front of 
the company officers, varies with the nature of 
the ground and the strength of the battalion. 
When the companies are Targe, the cainp may 
be formed according to the above principles, 
in column of companies, the tents of_ each com- 
pany being in one line, or in two lines facing 
each other. 

A battalion of cavalry being in line with the 
usual intervals, to encamp, the men dismount, 
and, without forming rank, unsaddle and place 
their arms and equipments in line 10 yards in 
front of the horses; the blanket is placed on 
the equipment, moist side up. The picket-line 
is stretcned between posts about six feet high, 
or is stretched on the ground, the ends being 
firmly secured; the horses are tied to the picket- 
line by the halter at intervals of a yard; if the 
picket-line be on the ground, they may be 
fastened to it by a strap about two and a half 
feet long, the strap being provided with a 
collar which is buckled around the pastern of 
the left fore-foot The tents of the men are 
pitched in line about 15 yards in front of tibie 
picket-line, the intervals between companies 
being left free; the tent of the first sergeant 
is on the rig^; the arms and equipments are 
kept in the tents of the men. The kitchens et 

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the men are in litie in front of their tents; the 
sinks in front of the line of kitchens. The 
tents of the company. officers are in line aboitt 
30 yards in rear of their tents. 

When artillery camp, the pieces and caissons 
are parked at 14 yards interval. The harness 
of the team of each carriage is on a rack on 
the right, and close to the carriage, so that the 
paulin can cover the harness. Horse equip- 
ments are kept on the racks or in the tents. 
The picket-line is 15 yards in rear of the cais- 
sons; it is stretched between posts about six 
feet high, the ends being firmly secured; the 
horses are tied to thepicket-line by the halter at 
intervals of a yard. The men's tents are pitched 
in line about 30 yards in re?ir of the pidcet- 
line; the first sergeant's tent covers the car- 
riages of the ri^ht section; the left guard-tent 
covers the carnages of the left section; the 
tents of each section are in the order of their 
pieces in park, and are closed on the centre, or 
to the right, so as to have a vacant space be- 
tween the guard-tents and the tents .of the left 
section. The men's kitchens are in line 10 yards 
In rear of the guard-tents, which may be faced 
to the rirfit so that No. 1 can overlook the 
Idtchen. The officers' tents are in line 30 yards 
|n rear of the battery-tents; the captain's tent 
is on the right, covering that of. the first 
sergeant. The officers' kitchens are 10 yards 
in the rear of the officers' tents; the battery 
wagon ■ covers the captain's tent; the forge 
covers the left guard-tent. The sinks are 50 
yards in rear of the wagons; the officers' sink 
on the right, the men's smk on the left. 

The preceding; order may be modified if cir- 
cumstances require it. The battery wagon and 
baggage wagons may be in line with the pieces, 
the interval between the battery wagon ana 
nearest piece being 14 yards, that between the 
battery wagon and left baggage wagon about 
30 yards; the guard-tents half-way between the 
battery wagon and baggage wagons, facing to 
the rear: the forage pine between the guard- 
tents and the baggage wagons, the forge in line 
with the caissons and covering the right bag- 
gage wagon, the men's kitchens in line with the 
caissons, and covering the left bagp;age wagon, 
the officers' tents on a line perpendicular to the 
men's tents, facing them, and on the prolonga- 
tion of one of the bagg^age wagons ; the officers' 
kitchen in rear of the omcers' tents, and on the 
prolong^ation of the forge. In a horse battery. 
if but one picket-line be used, it may be turned 
equally to the front around the flanks of the 
park; the battery wagon, forge and baggage 
wagons may be divided equally^ and placed on 
the flanks of the men's tents, facing inward, and 
so as to be on the prolongation of the bent 
portions of the picket-line. The picket-line may 
also be in one straight line, iii which case the 
baggage wagons should be equally divided upon 
lines to the rear of its extremities. The horses 
are sometimes picketed in two lines, in which 
case the second line is 14 yards in rear of the 
first, and the wagons are placed in line 30 yards 
In rear of the men's tents. See Camp. 

CASTRATION, the removal of the testt- 
tles or ovaries of animals. Castration is 
usually performed to limit reproduction^ to 
chknge the character of the worldng animal, 
making him more docile and easier to trains or 
to improve the quality of meat for eating, as in 

capons. In human beings castratioa is a sur- 
gical procedure and is usually performed for 
the relief of some irremediable or malignant 
disease. Thus in tuberculosis and cancer of the 
testicles, and in malignant or painful disease of 
the ovaries, the operation is justifiable. There 
has been a large amount of needless removal 
of the ovaries in women. The after results are 
often more annoying than the original disease. 
The change produced in men by emascula- 
tion is highly remarkable, giving rise to physi- 
cal andpsycnical alterations nearer the female 
type. The elasticity of the fibres and muscles 
is weakened, and Uie subcutaneous tissues be- 
come filled with a much larger quantity of fat; 
the growth of the beard is prevented; the upper 
part of the windpipe contracts considerably, 
and the castrate acquires the physiognomy and 
voice of a female. The most numerous class 
of castrates are those who are made such by 
the removal of the testicles. Another class are 
not deprived of the parts of generation, but 
have them ingeniously mjured in such a manner 
as to leave them the faculty of copulating, but 
deprive them of the power of begetting. 
J'nvenal mentions these as the particular favor- 
ites of the licentious Roman ladies. To the 
third class belong those who are entirely de- 
prived of their genital members. They are 
used in preference, by the Turks, as keepers 
of their women. The castrates of all three 
classes are called eunuchs. Those of the third 
class, to distinguish them from the two others, 
are frequently termed entire eunuchs. The 
word eunuch is Greek, and signifies 'guard* or 
•keeper of the bed.* The castration of adults 

firoduces some change in die disposition, but 
ittle in the bodily constitution. According to 
the accounts of ancient historians, the Lydians, 
celebrated for effeminacy, castrated women. 
The latter are said to have used these beings as 
guards of their wives and daughters. With 
females the operation produces a completely 
opposite effect to that which it has on men. 
liie character changes, a beard appears on the 
chin and upper lip, the breasts vanish, the 
voice becomes harsh, etc. Boerhaave and Pott 
relate mediasyal instances of this kind. Among 
the evils which religious fanaticism has at afl 
times produced, castration is conspicuous. The 
Emperors Constantine and Justinian were 
obli^d to use their utmost power to oppose this 
religious frenzy, and could put a stop to it 
only by punishing it like murder. The Valer- 
ians, a religious sect whose minds had been 
distracted \w the example of Origen, not only 
considered tnis mutilation of themselves a duty 
which religion imposed on them, but believed 
themselves bound to perform the same, by fair 
means or foul, on all those who came into their 
power. In Italy the castration of boys, in_ order 
to form them for soprano singers, was in use 
for a long time. Dement XIV prohibited this 
abuse, which, notwithstanding, did not cease 
till comparatively recent times, and in some 
Italian towns was not only suffered but exer- 
cised with such shameful openness that the 
?ractitioners gave public notice of their pro- 
ession. In modem times severe laws were 
enacted against castration, and the custom is 
probably now extinct. Beings thus mutilated 
were common on the European stage. It is 
remarkable that so odious and unnatural an 

Digitized by 




operation ^ould produce the fine effect on t&e 
tones of the singei^ winch all had to acknowl- 
edge notwitfastatidmg the' disagreeable «fiect 
of the association. 

GASTRIN, kis-trStt', Matthias Alexan- 
der, Finnish philologist: b. Tefvola, 2 Dec. 
1813; d. Helsingfors. 7 May 1852. While at^- 
tending, as a young man, the University of Hd- 
singfors he conceived the ■project of tracing out 
the various detached branches of the Finnish 
races and languages, and presenting their 
edutological and philological phenomena in one 
general view. Foflowing out this idea he under- 
took in 1838 a pedestrian excursion through 
Finnish Lapland, and anotbtfr in 1840 through 
die district of Karefia, with the view of study- 
ing the primitive language of that country, and 
enabling himself to translate therefrom into 
Swedish the great Finnish epic of the <Kale- 
vala.' This last work was acdomplisbed by 
him after his return. He soon, however, re- 
sumed his travels, and for several years coti- 
tinued to prosecute his researches among the 
nations of the Arctic regions, both in Europe 
and Asia, including the Norwegian and Russian 
Lapps^ and the Samoyeds of Siberia' and the 
coasts Of the White Sea. Naturally ' of a 
weakly constitfition, and in a failing state of 
health, he was frequently obliged in addition to 
submit in the' course of his journeys to the most 
extreme privations. Having returned home 
from his last joamey to the Samoyeds, he was 
appointed in 1851 professor of the Fifanish and 
old Scandinavian languages in the Univeisiiy 
of Helsingfors, but died before be had been 
able to add much more to his work— a martyr 
to the cause of science. Among his writings 
are his trattslatian of the <Kalevala> ; 'Elementa 
Grammatioes SytfKoae^; ^Elementa Gram- 
matices Tscheremiasje' ; and 'De Aiixis Per- 
soaaUbus Littguaram AJtaicariMn^ ; besides 
travels and other works published : alter his 
death. His works wcire edited in Swedish (in 
5 vols., 1852-58) and were suppleaoented in 1870 
by another -vokune containing a biography by 
I. V. SneUman. A German tratisBMion was 
pablifihed between 1853 and 1862, under the 
auspices of the Academy of Saint Petersburg, 
by Anton Schiefner. They include, besides the 
works enumerated, grammars of the Samoyed, 
Buryat, Tungns, Koibatic languages. 

CASTRBS, kastr, a town of southwest 
France (ancient Castrum Ajlbiensum) in the 
department of Tarn, 46 miles east of Toulouse, 
on the Agout, which di-vides it into two parts — 
Castres^ Proper, north side, and Villegoudon, 
south side of iht river. Tne public buildings 
include the hotel de ville, formerly the epis- 
copal palace, which contams a public library, 
and has a garden laid out on. the plan of the 
Tuileries ; ^cavalry barracks, etc The manufac- 
tures consist of fine cloths, coarse cloth for the 
troops, flannels, blankets and other woolen 
goods, linen, glue and black soap. There are 
also bleaching-grounds, dj'eworks, tanneries, 
paper-mills, forees, brass-foundries and earthen- 
ware worlK. Trade is also carried on in silk, 
cotton, liqueurs and confectionery. Castres has 
a communal college and two seminaries. The 
town arose round an abbey of the Benedictines 
(whkji is said to have been founded in the 7di 
century), and was already in the 12th century 
a place of importance. Duriag the reli^us 

wars of the I6th century, in which its inhabit- 
ants espoused the Protestant cause, C«stres was 
the scene of many conflicts. Louis XIII, to 
whom the town surrendered in 1629, ordered its 
fortifications to be razed to the ground. Pop. 

CASTRIBS, kis'tre', Charlew Bngtoe 
Gabriel de ta Croix, Marquis of, Frendi 
soldier: b. 27 Feb. 1727; d. Wolfenbiittel, 11 
Tan. 1801. He entered the army, fought at 
Dettingen and in lower Alsace, became lieu- 
tenant of Languedoc and governor of Mont- 
pellier and Cette, and under Marshal Saxe con>- 
manded the army in Flanders, where he covered 
the sieges of Menin, Ypres and Courtray, atid 
ended the campaigti with the battle of Courtray. 
He afterward fought at Fontenoy, Raocoux and 
Laufeld. During the Seven Years' _ War he 
added greatly to his fame, was made lieutenant- 
general and was dangerous^ -wounded in. the 
battle of Rossbach. In 1783 he was marshal 
of France^ and emigrating in 1791 found an 
asylum with the Duke of Brunswick. He snb- 
se^omtly commanded the army of the French 
pnnces m Champagne, and countersigned the 
manifesto issued by Monsieur in 1793. In 1797 
he formed, in conjunction with Saint Priest, 
the so^alled cabinet of Louis XVIII, at Biank- 

CASTRO, kSs'trS^ Agnstin, Mexican 
poet: b. Cordova, Vera Crux, 24 Jan. 1728; d. 
Bologna, Italy, 1790. He became a Jesuit piiest 
and a teacher of philosophy, and was a ^Iful 
translator of classical authors! Among his 
original works in poetry are 'Hem&n Cortex' 
and'Oiarts,' a guide for youngr poetic genius. 
His versions of Sappho, Eunpides, Horace, 
Seneca, Milton and Finelon have received 
hig^ praise from scholars. See Mexico, 

CASTRO, Cipriano, Venezuelan military 
leader: b. Capaclio, Venezuela, near the frontier 
of Colombia,, about 1855. His parents were 
Spanish mestizos of the peasant, class. He at- 
tended school in Capacho. While still a vety 
young man he took an acti've part in politics in 
Capacho, as a Liberal. His first military ex- 
ploit consisted in scoring a moderate success in 
the so-called *BattIe of Capacho' (1886) against 
Morales, the local representative of the Lopez 
government. He remained a leader of the Lib- 
eral party in his state until 1892. In that year 
began Crespo's rebellion against Andueza. Cas- 
tro, supporting Andueza's ca.use, was victorious 
iji the battle of 15 May 1892, in Tariba, defeat- 
ing Morales who now was under Crespo's com- 
mand. In Caracas, however, the insurgents tri- 
umphed. Crespo entered the capital 6 Oct. 
1892. Castro remained in control of Tdchira 
and Merida, but before the end of the year 
withdrew across the Colombian frontier and 
bousrht a farm near Cdcuta in the department 
of Santander. For the next six or seven years 
he was a farmer and cattle-raiser. Invited by 
Crespo to take office as head of the custom- 
house at Puerto Cabello, he declined this offer, 
but promised Crespo not to join his enemies or 
attack his government Andrade was Crespo's 
successor. Castro went to Caracas and called 
on the new President. Accounts of this 'visit 
differ. Castro's partisans assert that he again 
refused the tender of an office under the gov- 
ernment; according to another version he was 

Digitized by 




insulted, and left the Yellow Hotise vowing 
vengeance. When he returned to his home some 
political friends and relations of Andrade's 
who lived in CAcuta procured from the 
Colombian government an order for his arrest. 
For about two months he was in hiding; then 
he invaded Venezuela with only 60 men (23 
May 1899). His old followers in Tachira join- 
ing him, m three days he collected a force of 
1,500. The first sldrmish was in the country 
between San Cristobal and Rubio. In Las 
Pilas the commander of the government's fron- 
tier troops fell. At Zumbador about 2,000 men 
led by Morales were defeated. Castro laid siege 
to San Crist6bal, where Pefialosa was strongly 
entrenched. About 6|000 men under Hernandez 
were sent against him from Caracas. An inde- 
cisive engagement occurred. Then Castro left 
Hernandez in the rear, and marched toward the 
capital, defeating, several government forces on 
the way. Andrade having fled the country, 
Castro entered the capital, opened the prison m 
which Hernandez had been confined for many 
months, and declared himself *jefe supremo" 
— neither President nor dictator but 'supreme 
miitaty leader.* The Constituent Assembly 
made him provisional President of Venezuela, 
30 March 1901, and on 20 Feb. 1902 he was 
elected President for the term of six years. 
Hernandez promptly revolted, and was put 
back into prison. Celestino Feraza was the 
next rebel ; and after Peraza came Mates, who 
intrigued to gain the support of foreign govern- 
ments. He resigned the presidency temporarily 
on 9 April 1906, but scran resumed it. Castro 
involved Venezuela in dangerous quarrels 
abroad; the most important being those with 
the European creditor nations in 1902-03, with 
the United States 1904-08, with Colombia and 
France in 1905. In all these difficulties Castro 
acted in a high-handed, unprincipled manner. 
He was re-elected unanimously for a full term 
in 1905, and proclaimed a general amnesty for 
all political prisoners. His difficulties with the 
United States arose over the confiscation of 
the properties of the New York and Bermfidez 
Asphalt Companv. _ In 1907 Venezuela satisfied 
her obligations with Great Britain, Germany 
and Italy in accordance with the awards of The 
Hague Tribunal. In the same year Castro sup- 
pressed two rebellions with great cruelty, exe- 
cuting many of the leaders and those connected 
with their plots. Further trouble ensued with 
the United States over the claims of the New 
York and Bermudez Asphalt Company. Castro 
held out but in December 1908 went to Europe to 
undergo surgical operation. A revolution 
broke out soon after which placed Vice-Presi- 
dent Juan Vicente Gomez m the presidency. 
Castro's policy was reversed, and all claims 
amicably adjusted. Castro made several at- 
tempts to return to Venezuela, but was unsuc- 
cessful. He resided in Spain and France for 
several years and in 1916 came to the United 
States. See Venezuela. 

CASTRO, Inez de, Spanish hidy: d. 1355. 
She was descended from the royal line of 
Castile. After the death of Constantia, wife 
of Pedro, son of Alfonso IV, King of Por- 
tugal, in 1345, Inez was secretly married by 
Pedro, whose mistress she had already been. 
As he steadily rejected all propositions for a 
new marriage, his secret was suspected, and 

the envious rivals of Inez were fearful that 
her brothers and family would gain a complete 
ascendency over the future King, At length 
Alfonso resolved to put Inez to death, llie 
first time that Pedro left Inez, the King 
hastened to Coimbra, where she was living in 
the convent of Santa Clara with her chilaren. 
The arrival of Alfonso filled the unhappy lady 
with terror. She .threw herself with her 
children at the King's feet, and begged for 
mercy. ^ Alfonso was softened, but afterward 
gave his counsellors perini£sion to commit the 
murder, and it was executed that very hour. 
Inez expired under the daggers of her enemies. 
She was buried in the convent where she was 
murdered. Pedro took arms against his father, 
but soon became reconciled to him. Two years 
later Alfonso died; the assassins had already 
left the kingdom and taken refuge with Pedro 
the Cruel of Castile. An exchange of fugitives 
was carried out Of the three murderers of 
Inez, one_ escaped, but the other two were 
tortured in the presence of the young King 
Pedro at Santarem in 1360. Their hearts were 
torn out, their bodies burned and their ashes 
scattered to the winds. Two years later, it is 
said, King Pedro at Cataneda declared on oath 
that after the death of Constantia he had ob- 
tained the consent of the Pope to his union 
with Inez, and had married her. The arch- 
bishop and Lobato confirmed the assertions of 
the King ; and the Papal document to which the 
King referred was publicly exhibited. The 
King caused the body of Inez to be disinterred, 
and placed on a throne, adorned with the 
diadem and royal robes, and required all the 
nobility of the kingdom to approach and kiss 
the hem of her garment, rendering her when 
dead that homage which she had not received 
in her life. The body was interred at Alcobaca, 
where a splendid monument of white marble 
was erected, on which was placed her statue, 
with a royal crown on her head. The history 
of the unhappy Inez has furnished many poets 
of different nations with materials for trag- 
edies, and the Portuguese muse has immortal- 
ized her through the pen of Camoens, in whose 
celebrated <Lusiad' the history of her love is 
one of the finest episodes. 

CASTRO, JoSo de, Portuguese navigator: 
b. Lisbon, 7 Feb. 1500; d. 6 June 1548. In 1538 
he accompanied the viceroy Garcia de Neronha, 
his uncle, to India, as commander of a vessel, 
and in 1540 was in the expedition that explored 
the Red Sea, of which he made charts and 
scientific descriptions. His profound knowl- 
edge of mathematics and languages made these 
works of great value. They were published 
imder the title of 'Roteiro' (latest ed. by 
Corvo, Lisbon 1882). After his return he was 
made commander of a fleet to rid the European 
seas of pirates; was appointed governor of 
India in 1545, in which office he defeated the 
great army of the Moors, under Adhel Khan, 
and completejy subjugated Malacca. In 1547 
he was commissioned viceroy of India, but died 
shortly afterward. A statue was erected in his 
honor at Goa. 

CASTRO, Jo8< Maria, Costa Rican states- 
man: b. San Tos6, 1 Sept. 1818; d. 1907. He was 
educated at the University of Leon, Nicaragua, 
and held positions under the government of 

Digitized by 




C>sta Rica. As minister under Jose Maria 
Alfojiso, he was instrumental in establishing 
die University at Santo Tom&s. In 1846 he 
was Vice-President and in 1847 was elected 
President Among his reforms were the 
fomiding of a normal school, girls' school, the 
creation of the office of *City Physician,® local 
public charities bureaus; abolishment of the 
death penalty for political adversaries; and the 
establishment of Costa Rica as an independent 
state. After Costa Rica withdrew from the 
Central American states, he resided the 
presidency, but held diplomatic positions. He 
received the official designation of *Founder 
of the Republic of Costa Rica.» From 1866 to 
the rise of the Jimenez government (1868) he 
was again President. 

" CASTRO Y BBLLViS, bel'ves, GuiU&i, 
Spanish poet and dramatist: b. Valencia 1569; 
d. Madrid, 28 July 1631. Next to Lope de Ve^ 
he is the greatest Spanish dramatic poet of his 
day. He lived at an age when Spanish drama 
was almost at its_ best ; for the dramatic writers 
who followed him and Lope de Vega added 
practically nothing to the essentials of the 
drama. Their efforts were spent in adding 
literary adornments to it. Castro's work had 
a strong influence on bis own and succeeding 
generations of dramatists and, in a secondary 
sense, on all Spanish literature. He was born 
of an old and noble family; and such com- 
paratively slight information as survives rela- 
tive to his life shows that he had always 
friends in high positions who were constandy 
interesting themselves in his welfare. He was 
successiveljr captain of the mounted coast guard 
of Valencia, governor of Seyano and oc- 
cupant of Other high positions under the 
government. From the Duke of Osuna he 
received a pension of 1,000 crowns; and the 
Count of Oiivares secured for him a pension 
of like amount from the King. Through this 
same strong court influence he was created a 
knight of the Order of Saint James in 1623. 
All his friends, admirers and followers ranked 
him as at least the equal in dramatic talent to 
Lope de Vega. 

The age in which Castro lived was one -of 
encouragement of literature; and Valencia, the 
•romantic home of the Cid* was_ one of the 
two great literary centres of Spain. Literary 
societies and guilds formed a prominent part 
of the life of the city; and literary contests, 
lyrical, epic, dramatic and pastoral, formed a 
part of the order of the day. Castro took a 
prominent part in these literary contests and 
won many prizes and honors in competitions 
held by the Church, the State and the literary 
guilds. A very active theatre completed the 
incentive to fiteraty and, more especially, 
dramatic life, to which Castro was irresistibly 
drawn. At the age of _ 20 he was already 
counted among the promising' young poets of 
his day and he apparently counted among his 
friends the powerful and brilliant literary set 
of Valencia. He appears to have been much 
of a spendthrift and to have been cursed witfi 
an imperious and haughty temper which con- 
tinually estranged from him friends of high 
estate; and as his reputation as a poet and 
dramatist grew, his innrmities of temper seem 
to have increased and to have been the direct 
cause of the loss of many of the social and 

material advantages which he bad enjoyed 
in his earlier life. It was maintained by his 
earlier biographers that he finally became re- 
duced to such poverty that he was buried at 
the public expense. But his will, which ' was 
signed a few days before his death, and which 
is still in existence, would seem to disprove 
diis, as it disposed of considerable property. 
He undoubtedly Imd, to the end of his days, a 
certain income from his literary work which 
was in constant demand by the regular 
theatres and the Church, and must, therefore, 
have been well paid for. Moreover it is known 
that the habit of the_ Order of Santiago was 
conferred upon him in Madrid in 1623, only 
eight years before his death. 

To Castro the historical drama in Spain 
owes much; and his influence in this literaiy 
field was strongly felt in France and England. 
Castro's 'Don Quixote* was imitated by 
Gu^rin de Bouscal and presented in Paris in 
1635; Moreto found his model for *E1 Ligno 
don Diego' in <£1 Narciso en su opinion' ; 
Fletcher's 'Love's Care* is derived from 
'Fuerza de la costumbre*; and Calderon's 
<Magico prodigioso> from 'El prodigio de los 
monies.' Even to-day the best known of his 
dramas, <Las mocedades del Cid,> slightly 
modified, is ever welcome on the Spanish stage ; 
and it is looked^ upon in Spain as one of the 
great literary inheritances of the Spanish 
people. 'This play is avowedhr the inspiration 
of Comeille's 'Le_ Cid.* From the purely 
dramatic point of view the 'Cid* of Castro is 
superior to_ that of Corneille, though tlie latter 
gains in simplicity what it loses in the pic- 
turesque effects of the Spanish original. 
Castro set a taste in Spanish drama which long 
prevailed, and which, to a certain extent, per- 
sists to-day. His characters reflect, especially 
in the 'Cid,* the chivalrous or romantic times 
in which they lived. His plot and characters 
are very animated and are dressed out in 
beauty of imagery and thought Castro is, 
therefore, in a sense, the father of the drama 
of chivalry. His inventiveness and his manage- 
ment of plot are sti^erior to that of any 
Spanish dramatist previous to his time. In alt 
of these respects Castro's 'Mocedades del Cid* 
is superior to Corneille's 'Cid.* The former 
and 'Las Haxafias del Cid* together, in a sense, 
form one dramatic work which has made the 
name of Castro known among all the literary 
nations of Europe. In France Castro was held 
in even higher esteem than in Spain ; and to the 
popularity of his numerous dramas, some 40 in 
all, is due his literary influence on succeeding 
generations for both good and for bad. While 
he bequeathed to the drama a vividness, reality, 
force and action previously lacking in Spain, 
be also left it a tendency to licentiousness and 
disrespect for the laws and customs of con- 
ventionality; and he glorified the romantic age 
with its intrigues, its rule of force, its duels 
and other conflicts. Bom in Valencia, the 
home of the Cid, he was deeply inspired by the 
legends and glorious traditions of his native 
city; and his patriotism frequently bursts out 
into ardent flame. With wonderful facility and 
an appearance _ of reality and truth, he re- 
creates chivalric conditions and feudal man- 
ners; and the old sentiments of honor and 
patriotism are ever at his beck and call. But 
be is lavish in more titanic effects. The meet- 

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ing of infidel and Christian, the life of the 
Crusades and the shock of battle he handles 
with equal facility and familiarity. _ 

When he turns to comedy, which he fre> 
quently does, Castro lays bare the follies, vices 
and custoins of his age. Life as he knows it 
he put on the stage. For the most part, the 
life of his day was not a good hfe; and 
Castro makes it no better than it actually was. 
Hence his plays have been condemned for their 
immorality and his detractors have lost sight 
of his vast and many-sided contributions to 
the stage, in their efforts to discredit him, 
which unfortunately were, for a time, only too 
successful. His dramatic work covers the 
whole wide dramatic field. His most noted 
historical dramas are: <Las mocedades del 
Cid' ; 'La justicia en la piedad'; *Pagar en 
propia moneda' ; 'Alia van leyes do quieten 
reyes* ; 'La humanidad soberbia y el amor 
con^tante*. To his rcnnantic dramas belong 
'El Conde de Alarcos' ; 'El nacimiento de 
Montednos' ; and 'El desengano dichoso' ; 
while to the capa y espada class belong 'El 
narciso en su opinion' ; 'La fuerza de la cos- 
tumbre' ; and 'Los mal casados de Valencia.* 
His dramas of costumbres y caracteres in 
which he displays criminal loves, intrigues and, 
in general, the follies of his day, and holds 
the mirror up to life in a masterly manner, 
include 'El curioso im^rtinente' ; 'Don 
Quixote' ; 'La verdad averiguada y engafioso 
casamiento* ; 'El pretender con pobreza' ; 'En- 
ganarse engafiado' ; and 'El perfecto cabailero*. 
His freedom in depicting society as he found 
it has placed his dramas on the taboo list in 
most Protestant countries. Mythology, too, met 
with skilful and sympathetic treatment at the 
hands of Castro in the drama 'Progae y 
Filomena.' The semi«mystical, semi-reugious 
drama he also handled better than his prede- 
cessor^ in 'El mejor esposo San Jose' ; 'Las 
maravillas de Babilonia' ; 'El prodigio de los 
montes y mario del cielo Santa Birbara' and 
'La degollaci6n de San Juan Bautista'. He 
has attempted heroic tragedy with considerable 
success in 'Dido y Eneas.' Among his other 
dramas are 'El Conde de Irlos' ; 'Los enemi- 
gos hermanos' ; 'Cuando se estima el honor'; 
'£J vicio de los extremos' ; 'La fuerza de la 
sangre.' The foHowing works have also, with 
apparently good reason, been attributed to 
Castro : *E1 caballero bobo> ; 'El dudoso en la 
veng^anza' ; 'Ingratitud por amor' ; 'El nieto 
de su padre' ; 'Donde no esta su due&o esta su 
duelo' ; 'El enamorado mudo' ; 'Quien malas 
manas ha' ; 'Quien no se aventura' ; and 'La 
tragedia por los celos.' He also wrote dramas 
in collaboration with other dramatists. In two 
of these, 'La manzana de la discordia,' and 
'EU robo de Elena,' he worked with Mira de 
Mescua. In 1621 'La primera parte de las 
comedias de don Guillen de Castro' was pub- 
lished at Valencia; and the second part four 
years later at the same place. See Poem or tKB 
Cm Consult 'Biblioteca de autores espafioles 
Vol. XLIIP (which contains seven of lus 
plays) ; Foerster, W., 'Las mocedades del Cid' 
(Bonn 1878) ; Merimt EL, 'Premiere partie des 
mocedades del Cid' (Toulouse 1890) j Rennert, 
H. A., 'Ingratitud por amor' (Philadelphia 

John Hubert Cornyn, 
Editorial Staff of the Americana. 

CASTRO-DSL-RIO. Spain, a town in the 
province of Cordoba, 16 miles southea^ of 
Cdrdoba, on a slojpe above the Guadajoz. The 
more ancient portion is' surrounded by a dilapt-< 
dated wall, flanked with towers, and entered by 
one gate, which was defended by an Arab 
castle, now also ruinous. The modem portion 
is outside the walls, and extends along the foot 
of the hill on its north side. The most of the 
streets are wide and regular, Uned with well- 
built houses and handsome public edifices. The 
church is large and handsome, and there are 
also several convents, two colleges, primary 
schools, hospitals and manufactures of linen, 
woolen and earthenware. There is a con- 
siderable trade in agricultural produce. Pop. 
about 12,(XX). 

CASTRO-UBDIALES. oor-de-a'14s, Spain, 
seaport town, Santander province, on the 
Bay of Biscay, connecting by a branch line 
with the Bilbao-Santandcr Railway. An an- 
cient town with a mediseval castle and parish 
diurch, it has grown rapidly since 1870, through 
die development of nei^boring iron mines and 
increased railway facilities. In a recent year, 
exports of iron rose to 277,200 tons. Fishing 
and the canning of fish, especially sardines in 
oil, is also a thriving industry. Pop. 14,200. 

CASTROGIOVANNI, Idi-stro jo-van'ne, 
or CASTRO GIOVANNI (anc. Enna), a 
dty of Sicily, in the district of Caltanissetta, 
on a plateau tn the centre of the island, 4,000 
feet above the sea. The climate is healthful,, 
the soil fertile and water abundant The old 
feudal fortress of Enna is the chief edifice. 
It contains also a cathedral,, founded in 1307, a 
public library, a museum, a technical institute 
and a castle built by Frederick II of Aragon. 
It was the fabled birthplace of Ceres, and the 
site of her most famous temple. About five 
miles distant is the lake of Pergusa, where 
Proserpine, according to the poets, was car- 
ried off by Pluto. During the first servile war 
the insurgent slaves made Enna tfieir head- 
quarters. It was captured by the Saracens in 
the 9th and by the Normans in the 11th cen- 
tury. It has trade in sulphur and rock salt. 
Pop. 28,932. 

CASTRUM DOLORIS, a Latin term 
signifjring castle of grief, has a different mean- 
ing from catafalcme (q.v.). The latter is used 
to denote an elevated tomb, containing the 
coffin of a distinguished person, together with 
the tapers around, ornaments, armorial bear- 
ings, inscriptions, etc., placed in the midst of a 
church or haU. The castrum doloris is the 
whole room in which the catafalque is elevated, 
with all the decorations. The sarcophagus, 
usually empty, is exposed for show upon an 
elevation covered with black cloth, under a 
canopy surrounded with candelabra. Upon the 
coflin is laid some mark of the rank of the 
deceased, as his epaulette or sword, and, when 
the deceased is a sovereign or a member of 
a ruling family, princely insignia are placed on 
surrounding seats. The French call _ the 
castrum doloris, chapelle ardente, sometimes 
also chambre ardente; but the latter has also a 
separate meaning. 

CASTUBRA, kas-too-ii'ra, Spain, town in 
the province of Badajoz, near the right bank 
of the Guadaleja. Most of its streets are 
straight, clean and well paved. It has two 

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squares, lined with substantial houses ;_ the prin- 
cipal one contains the town-hall, prisons and 
spacious modern -parish church. The inhab- 
itants are engaged in weaving, making earthen- 
ware, tiles, bricks, shoes. Trade is carried on 
in cattle, wool,, wine, grain and oil. Pop. 6422. 

CASUARINA. kas-a-9-rrna, or BEEF- 
WOOD, the single genus of the family 
Caswtrinaceix, or cassowary-trees. There are 
about 30 species, natives diiefly of Australia. 
They are jointed leafless trees or shrubs, hav- 
ing their male one-stamened flowers in whoried 
catkins, and their fruits in indurated cones. 
Some of them produce timber called beefwood, 
from its color. C. fuadrivalvis is called the 
she-oak. C. equisetifolia is the best-known 
species, and is much cultivated in Florida and 
California, and in tropical regions generally. 

CASUISTRY, the science or art of deter- 
mining cases of conscience and the moral 
character of human acts; so called from canu 
conscientia, a case of conscience. Wherever 
the question arises, Is such an act allowable by 
moral law? there is a case of conscience and 
matter of casuistry, and in deciding the ques- 
tion for himself, as everyone habitually does, 
everyone is a casuist But in current usa^ a 
casuist is one who^ skilled in the prescriptions 
of the divine moral law and its interpretation 
whether by lawgivers, moralists or theologians, 
studies eimer suppositions or actual cases ot 
conscience and judges whether a given act, or 
even a given thought is consistent with or in 
violation of moral Jaw — for,_ unlike the civil 
lawgiver or the ministers of civil law, the cas- 
uist must determine the moral character of 
thoughts no jess, or rather more, than of acts. 
The professional casuist is inevitable in the 
system of the Catholic Church, where the min- 
ister of religion, in his capacity of confessarius 
or confessor must be the counsellor and direc- 
tor of penitents and resolve for them questions 
of guilt or inno<%nce, questions touching the 
obligation to restitution, for example of goods, 
or reparation of damage to a nei^bor's reputa- 
tion by slander; granting or withholding abso- 
lution according to the merits. For the minis- 
ter of the sacrament of penance acts under 
Jesus Christ's commission, whose sins ye shall 
forgive, whose sins ye shall retain, shall be 
forgiven or retained; and to execute that com- 
mission the minister of the sacrament must de- 
cide for himself and the penitent the moral 
character of the acts. The science or art of 
casuistry has doubtless been carried to extraor- 
dinary lengths; but though the questions which 
it treats are such as touch individually and 
most btimately daily and hourly the manv 
millions of souls who resort to the confessional, 
the works of writers on casuistry, though vo- 
luminous, would count as a scant armful com- 
pared with only one part of the works con- 
tained in a law library — those which record 
the decisions of the civil courts. It is true also 
and inevitable that casuistry like law lore is 
often employed as a means of escaping from 
legal penalty or of quieting the sense of guilt. 
As there are lawyers who for a fee will defend 
any cause however defenseless morally, even to 
the extent of working injustice — loss of prop- 
erty, loss of reputation to the party opposite 
— ;S0 there are casuists who by their overin- 
dining to an indulgent interpretation of the 

divine moral law, release or cut the nerve of 
moral responsibility, administer an opiate to 

_ Probabiiism is the name given to ' the doc- 
trine which declares to be lawful in foro cou^ 
scientia an act the moral correctness of which 
' is affirmed by any moral theologian of weight 
(doctor gravis) ; or, as defined by Liguori, a 

?irobaDle opinion is one which rests on a solid 
oundation (fundamento qravi) both of reason 
and of authority, so that it is able to move the 
assent (fiectere assensuw) of a prudent man. 
though with fear regarding the opposite. But 
a writer in a great encyclopaedia, who regards 
probabiiism as "the most remarkable doctrine 
they (the_ casuists) promulgated — a doctrine 
which it is hard to heEeve that any one ever 
ventured to assert* teaches that ■'according to 
probabiiism' "any opinion which has been ex- 
pressed by a 'grave doctor' may be looked 
upon as possessing a fair amount of probability, 
and may, therefore, be safely followed, even 
though one's conscience may insist upon the 
opposite course'*: the last clause is gratuitous 
and has no warrant in the teachings of Catholic 
moralists, who unanimously hold that an. act 
done in defiance of consaence, even be it a 
plainly erroneous conscience, is a sin. 

Viewed in the abstract, the rule of the prob- 
abilists is not an unreasonable one; it is acted 
upon daily by whoever, doubting his own judg-g 
ment, asks counsel of others whom he regards 
as trustworthy advisers, even though th^ ' be 
not grave doctors (graves doctores). It is 
admitted that some of the probabilists, even the 
greatest of them, as Escobar, Suarez, Bosem^ 
baum, did not always g^ard the doctrine against 
misconstruction, and gave occasion for views 
of moral obligation which were too lax: bat 
the ecclesiastical censure has fallen upon such 
erroneous teachings, without discrediting foe 
Catholic moralists the principle of probabiiism. 
Let any other school of moral teaching set to 
itself the same task which confronts the mond 
theologian of the Catholic Church, that is, to 
define with precision the moral diara<:ter of 
every act, every thought, every imagination 
that has relation to the moral law, and it will 
be seen whether probabiiism must tiot have a 
place in its system. 

CASUS BELLI, the material grounds 
which justify (or are alleged by one of the 
parties concerned to justify^ a declaration of 
war (q.v.). The casus belli is not seldom a 
very trifling one, and does not necessarily indi- 
cate the real causa belli or cause of the war. 

CASWELL, Richard, American lawyer: b. 
Manrland, 3 Aug. 1729 ; d. Fayetteville, N. C, 
20 Nov. 1789. He removed to North Carolina 
in 1746; practised law and was a member of 
the colonial assembly (1756-70). He was a 
delegate to the Continental Congress 1774-75; 
was president of the Provincial Congress which 
framed the State constitution (1776), and 1st 

fovernor of the State 1775-79; re-elected 1784- 
7; oomptrollep-general of the State 1782-84; 
was alto a delegate to the convention whidi 
framed the Federal constitution in 1787. He 
was major-general of the Newbem district ia 
the Revolution. 

CAT, a predators; animal of the family 
Felida (q.v., for physical characterjs^cs). All 

Digitized by 




feline animals are *cats* in the broader sense; 
but in the more restricted and common usa^ 
the name refers to the smaller, long-tailed, typi- 
cal members of the genus Felis. The type is 
the wildcat (F. calus) of Europe and western 
Asia, but now extinct in Great Britain, and very 
rare except in the wilder forests of Germany, • 
Austria and eastward. It is somewhat larger 
and of stouter build than the domestic cat; its 
body is yellowish gray, with a dark line along 
the back^ and many darkish stripes on the sides 
and across the le^ ; its tail, of moderate length, 
is ringed and tipped with blackish; and the 
soles of the feet are black. It is a fierce animal, 
preying upon anything it is able to overcome, 
goes abroad chiefly at night, and makes its 
uir in hollow trees and crannies among rocks, 
and is almost untamable. This brief descrip- 
tion of habits will answer for most of the other 
cats to be mentioned, vaning with their diverse 
habitats; but some of the others have shown 
themselves far more amenable to domestication. 
It should be noted that the American "wildcat* 
is not this species, but a very different one — 
the short-tailed lynx (q.v.). 

Mivart enumerates in lus monograph 36 
species of these smaller cats, but some of them 
are probably mere varieties of others; and we 
can here mention only » few of the better 
known ones, larger descriptions of which may 
be found under their names. The most im- 
tMortant one is the Egyptian or Caff re cat (/■. 
libyca), the main source of our household pets, 
described in the article Cats, Domestic. An- 
other important African species is the widely 
distributed serval (q.v.]l wnose fur is valuable. 
A reddish-brown species, called the golden- 
haired (F. rutila), and two or three others, 
little known, inhabited the West African forests. 
Asia has many varieties of cats, some of which 
are pf large size. Thus the spotted cat (F. 
tristis) of the interior of China has a body 
nearly three feet long ; and nearly as big is the 
handsome, spotted and striped fishing cat (q.v.) 
of eastern India and the Malayan Peninsula. 
Others of note are the leopard cat (q.v.) of 
Bengal and eastward; the common Indian 
jungle cat or chaus (q.v.) ; the little rusty-gray 
jungle cat (F. rubiginosus), which is the small- 
est of its tribe; the Manul of northeastern 
Asia; the flat-headed Malayan cat {F. plani- 
ceps), which is uniformly brown in hue; 
the marbled cat {F. marmorata), richly orna- 
mented with wavy, irregular lines and blotches 
of color, and the bay or golden cat iF. attratd) 
of northern India, Malaya and the East Indies. 
This last animal is of special interest as it is 
believed to be the parent stock of the Siamese 
domestic cat, which was formerly reserved for 
royalty alone. Its fur is pale golden-chestnut 
in color, becoming bay along the back; the 
throat and. under parts are white, while the 
face is strikingly ornamented with stripes of 
black, white and orange. 

America has several species of wildcats 
besides the large jaguar (q.v.) and the puma or 
cougar (q.v.) ; those of North America are ' 
more properly defined as lynxes (see Lynx), 
but_ Central and South America have several 
typical felines. Of these the ocelot, the mar- 
gay, the eyra and the jaguarondi, are described 
elsewhere under their names. A very dbtinc- 
tive and well-known species of the pbdns' 
region south of Brazil is known as grass cat. 

Mjero and pampas or gprass cat <q.v.). See 
CHEETA, Feudjb; Lynx. 

Bibliography.— Eliot, 'Monograph of the 
Felidse' Tfoho, colored plates, London 1878); 
Terdon, 'Mammals of British India' (London 
1865) ; Anderson, 'Zoology of Egypt' (London 
1902); Mivart, 'The Cat' (New York 1892); 
Hamilton. E., 'The Wildcat of Europe' |[Lon- 
don 1896) ; Hamilton, J. S., 'Animal Life in 
Africa' (New York 1912) and C:asseirs, the 
Royal and the Standard Natural Histories. 
EjtNEST Ingessolu 

CAT, Domeatlc, The. The influence of 
the domestic cat upon American civilization has 
received less consideration than it deserve^, for 
a great deal of the advance of agriculture as 
well as of the spreading out over the vast wood- 
land and prairies has been made possible by this 
much abused and misunderstood animal. How 
much food cats have saved, how much property 
they have guarded from destruction, what 
plagues of vermin they have kept in check, from 
the time this country was first settled, it is im- 
possible to compute. But for their sleepless 
vigilance the large cities would quiddy be over- 
run with rats and mice. 

The government appropriates money every 
year for the maintenance of cats in the post- 
oflices and other public buildings of the larger 
cities, in order to keep down the vermin that 
woujd gnaw holes in mail-sacks and destroy 
public records and other property. It is recog- 
nized in the national printing omce of France: 
where vast quantities of paper are stored, and 
where an army of cats is retained to keep the 
mice in check. In Vienna it is regarded as a 
part of good municipal government to take 
care of the cats. The United States government 
has systematized its cat service in public insti- 
tutions, and in Pittsbnrrfi a certain strain has 
been bred to live in cola storage houses, and is 
developing characteristics peculiar to this kind 
of life. In warehouses, corn-cribs, barns, mills 
and wherever grain or food is stored, cats must 
be kept. But to be effective, they must be taken 
care of, for well-fed cats are the best mousers. 

Origin and Hiatory of the House Cat- 
Formerly it was carelessly thought that our 
house cats were simply the progeny of tamed 
pairs of the European wildcat; but anatomy 
denied the probability of this, and historical in- 
vestigation showed that they came from another 
source. This source is the North-African 
•gloved* or "Caff re" cat {Felis lihyca), which, 
as historical evidence, including innumerable 
mummies, shows, was domesticated by the 
Egyptians before the time of the oldest monu- 
ments of their civilization. Moreover, the 
characteristic specific markings of the caffre 
cat (still wild as well as tame in the Nile Val- 
ley) reappear unmistakably in our common 
house cats, in spite of the fact Aat interbreed- 
ing with other species, and various local races, 
has intervened. A well-marked variety of this 
cat was to be found anciently, and now, in 
Syria and eastward, known as the Mediter- 
ranean cat. It is established that many cen- 
turies before the Christian era the Egyptians, 
Cretans, Phoenicians and other men of the 
Levant were constantly voyaging all over the 
Mediterranean Sea, and founding trading-p«sts 
on both its shores, where finally arose and 
spread the extensive civilizations of Greece and 

Digitized by 



1 Huz 

2 Brown Tablqr 

3 Smoke PeriUii 

4 Silver Tablqr 

5 Wbite PersUn 

6 Shaded Silver 

Digitized by 



1 White Perntn 

2 Light Silver 

> Cream Persian 

4 Siameae 

5 Silver Peraian 

( Short Hair Tortiae SheD 

Digitized by 




of Rome on the north, and of Carthage on the 
south. With these colonists undoubtedly went 
their friendly and useful mousers. That they 
then were crossed somewhat with the native 
wildcat seems to be shown by the appearance 
of the peculiar form we call *tabl^ cats. 
This, in brief, is the history of the common 
European house cat, whence nave come, by emi> 
gration, those of America and most of the 
civilized world. 

In the remote and isolated East, however, 
exist races of domesticated cats of more local 
origin. Prof. G. Martorelli, of Milan, Italy, 
has made a special study of this whole sub- 
ject; and he has concluded that the ordinary 
domestic cat of India has descended from the 
Indian desert cat (Felts omato). From it, he 
says, are derived tneir common spotted breed, 
while the fulvous breed seen in India has been 
produced by a cross with the native jungle 'cat 
(Felis chaus). Both these have interbrMwith 
the imported western cats in recent years. The 
Persian or "Angora" long-hatred breeds may 
probably have come from Pallas' cat of cen- 
tral Asia; and the curious Siamese cat is re- 
garded as derived from the golden cat. The 
mterming^iu; accidentally, or by the design of 
breeders, of these various species and races 
has produced the bewildering variety of forms 
now seen. Consult on this subject IngersoU, 
<Life of Mammals' (New York 1909, with 

American Interest in Cats^— American 
interest in the cat is often said to have origi- 
nated within the last 20 years, that is, since tne 
advent of exhibitions and the taking up of the 
cat-cult by the public. This impression is not 
borne put by facts, for we have exhibitors who 
have intimately studied cats, have bred and 
raised them, and have cared for them for over 
60 years, and cat-shows were held in Maine be- 
tween 1860 and 1870, even before the great ex- 
hibition instituted in London by the well-known 
animal painter, Harrison Weir, in the year 
1871. But cat-shows in America -were not 
known outside of Maine until one was held in 
the Madison Square Garden, New York, in 
1895. The exhibitions in England have gone 
on from Mr. Weir's first show up to the pres- 
ent time^ so that the marking epochs in modem 
cat history may be dated from the Crystal 
Palace show in 1871, and the New York show 
in April 1895. From these shows has arisen 
what may be described as a cult, or in some 
ways an industry. Numbers of individuals, 
principally women, have taken up the cat as a 
partial means of livelihood, selhng those they 
rear by exhibiting them to the public, the out- 
come of which has been the production of dif- 
ferent colors, strains and families. Qubs have 
arisen for the care and maintenance of exhibi- 
tions; registers and stud-books have Seen 
started; and the importance of cats of known 
pedigree is duly recognized by our government 
as one of the many things to be considered and 
provided for in a tariff schedule. 

The varieties or breeds recognized in shows 
are the Persian, Siamese, Abyssinian and or- 
dinary domestic short-haired cats. The Per- 
sian and Angora may be said to be the same 
cat, though distinctions were drawn in old days ; 
but these were very indefinite, and at the pres- 
ent time we draw up rules and regulations for 
two large groups, the long-haired cats and tfaa 

short-haired cats, and these are judged by 
points and classified by color distinctions. An- 
gora is a small place, and comparatively few 
cats could have come from there, but many 
have come from other parts of Asia. Taking 
the long-haired division first, because commer- 
cially it is the most prominent, the judge re- 
quires that the cat shall be short in body with 
a short tail and short legs, the latter shorter in 
front than behind. The chest should be wide, 
the loin square and firm, the bones of the legs 
well delevoped and the frame sturdy. The 
head that corresponds with this formation and 
is requind is a broad, round head with short, 
wide nose, eyes large and round and set welt 
apart. The ears, a most important feature^ 
should be as small as possible and placed on 
the side of the bead, the base of the ear being 
narrow, not gaping wide open, with a tuft of 
hair at the apex. This standard is more or 
less based upon original imported specimens 
from Asia.' The colors most valuable and most 
approved are the light stivers, smokes, blues (or 
slate color) white, black, orange, cream and 
tortoise-shells; and the tabbies of different 
colors are also favorites. 'The tabby cat is a 
cat that has a light ground-color and is spotted, 
barred or striped with darker color, and the 
word 'tabby* nas no reference to tne sex of 
the animal. The name "tabby* is derived from 
Atab, a street in Bagdad celebrated for its 
manufacture of watered or moir6 silks, which 
in England were called aiabi or «tafFety.» "The 
most usual colors in tabby cats are yellow, 
marked with orange or red, making what are 
called orange tabbies: yellow brown, marked 
with Mack, making the brown tabbies; gray, 
marked with darker stripes, giving us the gray 
tabbies; and pale silver, marked with black or 
a sort of dark blue verging on black, from 
which we have the silver tabbies. The great 
feature required in tabby cats is that the 
ground-color should afford as distinct a con- 
trast to the stripes, bars or spots as possible; 
the colors should be vivid and the marks very 
plain. There are spotted tabbies, and in these 
the spots must be round, clear and distinct ; but 
we seldom see a |rood one of this variety imless 
it come from India, the home of the best spoted 
tabbies. The solid-colored cats are the whites, 
blues, blacks and smokes ; although recently the 
silvers, creams and oranges have in a few- 
instances almost attained perfection in being 
without marks or foreign color. The tortoise- 
shell cats are black, red and yellow ; when ac- 
companied by white, the patches are clearer and 
distincter, and this feature is what is aimed 
at Tortoise-shell males are almost unknown, 
and orange females are very scarce. 

Points of Show Cats. — The eyes of a cat 
are an important feature, and should be large, 
round and pleasant in expression. Although 
color of eye is a great feature, many judges 
prefer large, well-placed, pleasant eyes to those 
that are more correct in color but badly placed, 
or are small and mean in expression, or give the 
cat a sour look. The color of eyes required 
maybe briefly summed up as blue (as deep as 
possible) for a white cat; enrerald-green for 
light silver or chinchillas, as they have been 
called; and yellow to orange, as deep as pos- 
sible, for all other varieties. The color and 
beauty of the cat's eyes vary according to the 
state of health, the bglit and the time of day, 

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and judges have to be careful in this matter. 
The body-colors can be defined as whiter as 
pure as possible; black, deep and glossy; blue 
or slate, sound and 'pure from root to tip of 
hair, showing no light shadings or light under- 
color; smoke, a deep plum-color, silver under- 
coat, ru£F and stomach; cream, light fawn or 
cream color; orange, whether marked or un- 
marked, should be as rich and strong as pos- 
sible. The tortoise-shells marked with clear 
distinct patches, clean-cut atvd free from each 
other. The fur of the long-haired cats should 
be fine, long, silky and glossy: wooliness is 
deprecated, but is more inclined to appear in 
certain colors, such as orange and cream; and 
blacks may have a rather coarser texture of 
coat if they make it up in color. But in whites, 
silvers, blues, smokes and in brown tabbies 
there can be no excuse found for anything but 
exmiisite quality. 

In the short-haired division we must con- 
sider our old fireside friend first, and colora- 
tion in this variety is much the same as in the 
long-hairs, though we do not often find smokes 
or so many silvers, and the blue-eyed whites 
have probably been bred from the long-haired 
cats. But as to color, color of eyes and clas- 
sification, the rules specified for long-hairs fit 
the short-hairs except that the tabby^ cats are 
' more distinctly marked and more brilliant, as 
the colors are not clouded or mixed by the 
length of the hair. White cats with blue eyes 
are generally deaf, but not always. The short- 
haired cat is rather different in formation to the 
long-haired cat, the face is more angular, or 
rather the nose may come to a finer point, 
though its cheeks should be well developed. 
The eyes are differently placed yet should be 
full and large, the ears larger, closer together, 
more toward the top of the. head, wider at the 
base and more pointed at the apex. The body 
should be moderately long, slender and ele- 
gant The great thing to avoid in all cats is 
coarseness, and size alone is not a recommenda- 

Foreign Cats Exhibited. — The Siamese is 
a distinct variety which comes from the palace 
of the King of Siam or from a few famiUes of 
nobles. These cats are conceded to be the most 
intelligent and companionable of all cats, but 
having been much inbred are not easily reared 
and do not increase very fast. The climate of 
California suits the Siamese cat, and the variety 
is found there in fair numbers and doing well.' 
The points valued in this cat are a rather small 
and flat head, a small and elegant body of a 
Ught fawn or biscuit color, with chocolate- 
colored legs, mask ana tail. The more decided 
the contrast — that is, the lighter the body- 
color and the darker the points — the better. 
The Siamese are much appreciated as show- 
cats. Chocolate-colored cats of this variety are 
found and are valuable. The fur most ap- 
proved is very fine and glossy, resembling 
beaver. The eyes are blue, uie color as rich as 

The Manx cat makes a distinct species in 
our exhibitions, and is classed by itself. _ Be- 
sides the absence of tail, which is the distin- 
guishing feature of this cat, a different forma- 
tion of body is required; namely, that the fore 
legs should be short and the rump rise as 
abruptly as possible, making the hind legs 
longer than the fore legs, so that the cat seems 

to jump forward like a rabbit, and is sometimes 
called a rabbit cat. The head should be neat, 
round and rather small, and the cat itself small, 
short and compact. The Maax cat may be of 
any of the recognized colors. There is a dis- 
tinction between this variety and our other 
domestic cats. Gambier Bolton who studied the 

Suestion and traveled to collect specimens for 
le British Zoological Society coincides with 
the naturalist Kempfer, and recognizes a strong 
likeness in these cats to those of the islands 
in the East, the Malay Peninsula, Japan, China- 
and lands contiguous. All the cats in those 
parts, even the Siamese, seem to have peculiar 
formations of the tail, whether cut short, forked, 
kinked or otherwise. These cats are smaller;- 
there are differences in the call or language, 
ways and character, that have been observed by 
these students. The origin of the Manx cat 
is now attributed to the arrival of these cats on 
the Isle of Man from ships belonging to the 
Spanish Armada that were wrecked there: 
Tliese cats were most probably previously 
brought from Japan or other parts of eastern- 
Asia, for cats now brought irom Japan are 
exactly like our Manx. A cat with his tail cut 
off, showing a stump, does not constitute a 
Manx cat for the student 

Other cats found in show-rooms are the 
Abyssinians, but they do not make much head- 
way and have not yet arrived in America. The 
males are generally darker than the females, 
and the color of these cats should be a deep 
brown ticked with black, somewhat resem- 
bling the back of a wild rabbit, with a distinct 
black band running down the back to the tip of 
the tail. The inner sides of the legs and belly 
are more of an orange tint than the body, and 
are marked in some cases with a few dark 
patches. The eyes are deep yellow, tinged with 
green; nose dark-red, edged with black; ears 
rather small, dark-brown, with black edges and 
tips; and the pads of the feet are black. At- 
tempts have been made to copy this cat, and it 
has been attempted to exhibit, as such, slightly 
marked, ordinary short-haired cats, but they 
are not the genuine breed. The absence of 
tabby-markings is the point most sought and 
prized, and if kept pure the characteristics of 
these cats are peculiar. The Abyssinian cat 
has never been very numerous at exhibitions, 
perhaps because it is a short-haired cat, though 
short-haired cats, when good exhibition speci- 
mens, bring large prices. Cats marked with 
white have not found much favor in British 
exhibitions, but have always been popular at 
American shows, and Madame Ronner, the 

great French pamter of cats, usually depicts 
er cats — that is, the dark ones — with some 
white patches. If cats are marled with white, 
they are preferred with four white i»ws and 
a white face; that is, the white starting in a 
sharp point between the eyes, spreading out 
onto the lips, making a triangle with the apex 
on the forehead, and continuing thence down 
the chest, but not spreading to the shoulders oc 
going round the neck or over the back. Any 
marking, in an "any other class,* that is regu- 
lar and even, and forms anything like a regu- 
lar pattern, should be recognized and encour- 
aged by a judge; besides which, any effort made 
to bring out a new variety or color must be 
taken note of and encouraged. There is now 
a tendency to encourage Dutch marked oats, 

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which means hlack patches on the cheeks, a' 
white blaze up the face^ joining a broaa, white 
belt which goes completelv round the cat half- 
way b^ween the ears and tail. 

PoMibilities in Native American Species. 
— Of the cats indigenous to the American con-, 
tinent, which mig^t be suitable for 'domestica- 
tion, few have been tried in a domestic way, 
and the species that inhabit this country are not 
many. I have seen the wildcat or gray lynx, at 
shows, behaving in the most exemplary manner! 
Having been Drought up from infancy by 
children, and perfectly tame, it was store at 
ease in a large show-room, and not nearly as 
nervous as the ordinary feline. So that if it 
were not for the size of the creature, its pos- 
sibilities as a domestic animal would be 
good ; but unfortunately ouf time does ' not 
seem to be destined to take in hand or give us 
any fresh species of dooKsticated animals; 
what we have are handed down through tbe 
ages. In this particular we are not origitul, 
for we destroy more often than we create, ana 
we seem to have no time for tr>dnfr to subdue 
or lead into bondage any new variettcs ol mam- 
mals. The puma, cougar or moiintain lion 
ranges over the whole of North and South 
America, but is too large for domestic I>ur- 
poses; yet it has never been aggressive against 
roan, and, if history is to be . thoroughly 
credited, was quite the reverse with early set- 
tlers till driven to exile and filled with fear 
by man himself. The ocelot is one of our most 
beautiful varieties, and varies somewhat ia 
color, with sometimes a gray body-color, but 
more often yellow.. It is clearly marked with 
dark color in spots, bars and splotches, and is 
very handsome, but larger and more powerful 
than the doikiestic cat. These cats have been 
taken when young and reared; and although 
comparatively tame and sociable till about a 
year old, they then become savage and impos- 
sible and have to be caged or killed. 

A very pretty cat that has been exhibited in 
America ^ the margay from Central and South 
America, where it inhabits the woods. This cat 
has been handled at an exhibition and found 
tame and with a passion for being caressed. 
The margay is light red or orange, beautifully 
and reguutrly spotted with small black spots, 
the ears small, round and pointing forward, 
whitish-gray at the badcs, edged with black. 
It is a small cat, verv handsome and refinec^ 
and if the effort could be made to obtain some 
more of the species these cats would be a very 
valuable addition to our varieties and to our 
home circles. Geoifroy's cat is another small 
spotted cat, of which a few have been intro- 
ouced into England, but it is too early to state 
what the future increase may be. The pampas 
cat is another feline not amenable to domestic 

Asiatic Races.— As a rule our best white 
cats with blue eyes come from India and some 
of the best are brought from Tibet. In cross- 
ing the Himala)^ Mountains with these cats 
carriers slit their noses to enable them to 
breathe with greater ease the rariiied atmos- 
phere of the high altitudes. Cats with slit noses 
are much valued. As to cats coming from 
this place or that, such as Persia, Angora, etc., 
a good deal of proof is required before any 
particidar claim can be accepted. The writer 
has failed to find any long-haired cats at 

Teheran, and AiUBora, as has been said, is but- 
a small place. We probably obtained many 
of our long-haired cats from around tbe 
Persian Gulf, and more from India, many of 
which come down from the interior of Asia 
with the Arab horse-traders. Cats vary in their 
adaptabilitv to dtanges of climate, and no 
doubt to this factor we owe what we have and' 
what breeds we can retain and perpetuate. 
The Siamese soon succumbs to dampness, but 
the long-haired cats, in some cases, took to the 
climate of Maine early in the century, when' 
brou^t from the East. They bred extensively, 
and mcreased and became an article of com-' 
merce to the large cities, long before dbese 
cities held shows. These cats went by the 
name of Angoras, and in fact the ordinary 
nomenclature of the country defines all loiig>- 
haired cats as Angoras. Tae Maine cats were. 
often cardessly bred, and when shows com- 
ntenced and coo^etition came they had to give 
way to the more finely bred English cats,, but in< 
other cases they held their own and the blood, 
has been perpetuated, llie Maine cats are 
found in all colors, and some are very big and 
strong, but these have been probably crossed 
with short-haired cats, and a great deal of 
hybridizing has been done even in En^^land. 
There is a Russian long-haired cat| but it has 
not gained much favor, being solitary in its ' 
habits, unsociable in character, coarse in body 
and fur and dingy in color; A few have been 
brouc^t from Persia, but they had the faculty 
of attadang themselves more to other cats than. 
to their owners. They are ortgjnaUy the same 
cat as the Asiatic, — that is, the Persian or 
Angora; and tbe .first k>ng-haired cats must 
have been brought over by sailors and traveler* 
from the East All long-haired cats aeem to- 
have a common origin in Pallas' vcat (FeUs 

Another cat that has created a great deal of 
interest is tbe Maltese. This cat is hard to 
account for,. but should be blue or slate in color 
and greatly resembles what in Great Britain ia 
called the Russian or Archangel cat; specimens 
of which have often been brought from Russia ; 
but lately quite an influx of blue cats has come 
from Iceland. Whether cold winters are cal- 
culated to develop blue cats I do not know, but 
it is sufficiently evident that northern climates 
have produced most cats of that color. Blue 
cats are not numerous in Great Britain, although 
they are becoming more so by introduction. 
Here in America we have plenty scattered all 
over the United States, but how they gained; 
their name of Maltese the writer has been unable 
to discover, for there is no blue cat indigenous 
to tbe island of Malta. Probably the cats were 
brou^t there in early times from the same 
source whence the Elnglish now obtain theirs, 
and, tbe color bein^ peculiar, these cats were 
selected or by superior hardiness they may have 
selected themselves. _ However many people 
who are not cat exhibitors or who do not know 
much about cats scientifically keep their short- 
haired blue "Maltese* and are proud of them. 
The Chartreuse monks had blue long-haired 
cats many years ago. 

Temperament and Intelligence. — Some 
writers nave told us that long-haired cats are 
less affectionate than short-haired cats. This 
is a mistake, although long-haired cats, on 
the average, are more intense, more nervous, 

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more highly strura, more pugilistic and have 
more pjuck and coring _than_ the short-haired 
cats. The cat has g^eat intelligence; in fact, is 
one of the most intelligent if not the most in- 
telligent, of the domestic animals, and it is this 
fact that precludes the possibility of teaching 
the average cat tridcs. For the cat sees through 
the manoeuvre, and refuses to be made a fool 
of. In respect to memory they are phenomenal 
and far exceed the average dog in this quality. 
Their powers of conversation are well devel- 
oped, accompanied by delicate inflections of the 
voice that need to be known to be understood. 
Dupont de Nemours says : *'The cat has also the 
advantage of a language in which the same 
vowels as tLose pronounced by the dog exist, 
with six consonants in addition, m, n, g, h, v, 
and f.* It requires study to get to know cats, 
and Rouviere, the actor, said that no one could 
really understand a cat unless he himself be- 
came one. A cat, of all the domestic animals, 
has retained the greatest part of its wild nature 
and traits, and the easiest way to get at a cat 
is by kindness and by trying to learn cat ways. 
A cat never pves in to coercion. Liberty is 
the last thing it will resign; and often it will 
not resign that except in exchange for death. 
The cat should be used as the emblem of liberty. 

It is a mistake to suppose that a cat cares 
only for places, for it is only the innate con- 
servation of the animal that gives this impres- 
sion. Regularity is the kesmote of its existence 
and what it does one day it likes to do the 
next; and certainly to places where it has been 
reared and has lived it shows great attachment. 
But on the contrary there are cats that would 
settle down anywhere, that have crossed and re- 
crossed the Atlantic Ocean, and have lived 
quietly in any locality their owners chose. A 
cat is one of the finest mothers on earth. 

Cat-fanciers' Associations. — The fortunes 
of the cat are now more or less regulated by 
clubs and associations, _ and there are homes, 
hospitals and refuges in many places and in 
many lands. The principal clubs are the Na- 
tional Cat Qub founded in 1887, with head- 
quarters in London; the Scottish Cat Club, 
founded in 1894 ; the Cat Club, London, founded 
in 1898; the Northern Counties Cat Club, the 
Silver and Smoke Persian Cat Society, the 
Siamese Club and the Orange, Cream, Fawn and 
Tortoise-shell, founded in 1900; the Black and 
White Club, the Blue Persian Society, the Chin- 
chilla Cat Club, the Short-haired Cat Club, the 
Midland Counties Cat Club, the British Cat 
Club and the Manx Cat Club, founded in 1901. 
All the above are in Great Britain, but many 
have members in America. In the United States 
there are the Beresford Cat Qub, founded 
in 1899, with headquarters in Chicago; the At- 
lantic Cat Club, with headquarters in New 
York; the Chicago Cat Club, the Louisville Cat 
Club, the Pacific Cat Club, the Orange and 
Cream Society, with headquarters in Chicago, 
the Washington, D. C, Cat Gub, the Detroit 
Club, etc. All these have been founded since 
1899; so we can see that the advances made of 
late years have been sudden and rapid ; and they 
will continue to grow; for shows are held in 
many of the principal .cities and are yearly 
fixtures. Prices for cats increase ; and whereas 
$25 was considered a good price a few years 
ago, some of the best have been recently sold 
for $250 each, and many at $75 and $100. The 

largest price of whidi we have record as having 
actually been paid in cash for a cat is $300^ 
which was the price Lady Decies paid Mrs. 
Greenwood for Lord Southampton; although I 
expect to see this exceeded in time to come, for 
competition enhances values, and the best speci- 
mens and most perfect will bring high prices 
from those who want them. All this will tend 
to draw attention to the cat and better the race 
and its general conditions. 

Cats have had their artists: the E^ptians, 
the Japanese, the Chinese, Salvator Rosa, Gott- 
fried Mind («The RajAael of Cats»), Burbank 
(a master little known), Cornelius Wisscher, 
the Dutch artist, whose "Tom* cat has become 
typical, J. T. Grandville, Harrison Weir, Louis 
Wain, Madame Ronner and Adam. 

Members of the English royal family breed 
and exhibit cats at the regular exhibits of 
the present day. The Duchess of Connaught, 
the sister-in-law of the late King, was the 
organizer of the National Cat Club, one of the 
associations which maintains a thoroughly re- 
liable studbook for cats; the Queen mother 
Alexandra herself is one of the active members 
of the Ladies' Kennel Club, and both Princess 
Christian and her daughter. Princess Victoria 
of Schleswig-Holstein, have taken many first 
prizes with their valuable feline pets. 

A Few Hints to Breeders. — Do not try to 
keep too many; a good cat well reared will 
bring more money than 8 or 10 badly nurtured, 
undersized kittens. Cats are not gregarious, 
and when crowded together become cuseased 
and mangy, and prematurely die. One litter of 
really good cats will give more pleasure and 
profit to the owner than five or six litters of 
poor ones. 

Liberty is necessary to the health alike of 
the present and of the coming generations, and 
these latter should never be out of our minds 
wheii mating. 

Meat is the main diet of all the carvivora 
to which order domestic cats belong. The best 
diet for cats is composed largely of meat, for 
which their teeth are adapted. Without meat 
they will not long remain healthy. They vary 
in their tastes, and what is fancied by one is 
not always preferred by another. Fish they are 
fond of, but as a rule house cats should not be 
given much raw fish. Cats kept in confinement 
should have gjass, vegetables and changes of 
diet provided for them. Grass is a necessity. 

Epidemics that sweep through different coun- 
tries and continents at stated periods decimate 
the cat family, and it is well to be prepared for 
such occasions by having none but the health- 
iest and best of animals. Distemper, the great- 
est of cat scourges, is best treated by nursing;, 
care and cleanliness. Fleas convey embryonic 
worms which infest cats, and should be rigor- 
ously kept down. They breed in cracks in the 
floor, in beddinp; and in the ground, and war 
waged upon their haunts will be work well laid 

Do not use nauseating drugs for idling cats, 
but choose the mildest remedies that will effect 
a cure. Do not be prejudiced against a course 
of treatment till you have tried it well ; and re- 
member that supposed cures suddenly made are 
not always effectual. Cats, when ill, require 
sympathy as much as human beings, and more 
so than an>; other animal, in order to battle suc- 
cessfully with disease, for they have a tendency 

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to be very pessimistic and sorry for themselvest 
and to recover or fail quickly. They suffer 
mostly from distemper, worms, ecsema, bron- 
chitis, pneumonia and liver diseases, and occa- 
sionally from catarrhal fever. If vou are 
acquainted with a good homceopathic physician, 
and have any idea of what ails your cat, consult 
him and abide by his advice. 

Do not breed from j^our queens too yoimgL 
although many good kittens have been raised 
from queens not a year old, if strong and 
healthy. Male cats will not mate as early in 
life as the queens, and are seldom of much use 
till a vear old. Do not cross lon^-hair^d cats 
with »iort-haired cats, for you spoil the type of 
both. Siamese cats wilt breed with other cats, 
but the progeny are never good for the show- 
room; and the Siamese being a distinct breed, 
does not amsdgamate with any of the other 
varieties. The Manx cat is better kept jHire, or 
the type degenerates and the result is not satis- 

Remember, when trving to rear good cats, 
that what goes in at the mouth and the care 
bestowed upon the young and growing animals 
cover SO or even /S per cent of essential re- 
quirements. The best blood in the world will 
not bring prize-winners or nice pets if they are 
badly reared. The crucial period takes in the 
first six months; when the young cat is well 
grown, and at seven months of age is through 
teething, you will have an animal that may live 
20 years or more. Healthy cats are more long- 
lived than dog^s, and authentic records tell of 
not a few over 20 years of age, and of some 
even 30. 

Kittens should not be taken awayfrom their 
mothers before they are at least ei^t weeks 
old; and if three mcmths old, it will be still 
better. Care should be exercised in the diet of 
kittens at an early a^. Sadden changes, or 
sudden chills will bring on gastritis. Milk, 
unless pure, is more dangerous tnan meat, which 
in a raw state may be ^ven scraped or minced 
at a very early age. Milk is better when mixed 
with Robinson's prepared barley according to 
the directions on the box, unless you can obtain 
warm milk from a cow that has not been too 
long in milk The most dangerous diet for 
highly bred kittens is cold skimmed milk of an 
uncertain age. 

To destroy a cat, or put it out of its misery 
when too sick to recover, administer a few 
drops of chloral, place the cat, if possible, in a 
tight box, and when the cat is fast asleep drop 
into the box a sponge saturated with two or 
three ounces of chloroform. 

Bibliography^- Barton, <The Cat: Its 
Points and Management) (New York 1910); 
Charapfleury, <Les Chats> (Paris 1870) ; Cham- 
IHon. 'Everybody's Cat Book* (New York 
1909) ; Dawson, 'Mammalian Anatomy, with 
Special Reference to the Cat' (Philadelphia 
1910) ; Hehn, 'Kulturpilanzen und Hausthiere' 
(Berlin 1894) ; Hill, W., 'Diseases of the Cat' : 
Hoey (Mrs.), Cashel, <The Cat, Past and 
Present' ; Huidekoper, 'The Cat' (New York 
1903; standards of form, treatment, etc) ; Hunt, 
'The Life Story of a Cat' (London 1910); 
Jennings, 'Domestic and Fancy Cats' (London 
1893) ; Marks, 'The Cat in History, Legend 
and Art' fib. 1909); Repplier, Agnes, <The 
Plreside Spainx' (New York 1901 ; historical 
and literary) ; Rolleston, 'On Domestic Cats' in 

Journal of Anatomy and Physiology (Vol. II, 
London 1868); Ross, C. H., 'Book of CaU'; 
Simpson, Frances, 'The Book of the Cat' ; 
Stables, Q., 'Cats: Handbook to their Gassifi- 
cation. Diseases and Training' (London 1897) ; 
Warwick, 'Cats Eyes' (ib. 1911) ; Weir, Harri- 
son, 'Our Cats: Varieties, Habits and Manage- 
ment' (New York 1889) ; Williams, 'The CaX: 
its Care and Management' (Philadelphia 1908) ; 
Winslow, H. M., 'Concerning Cats' (Boston 

Revised by Ernest Ingebsoix 
CAT-BIKD, one of two kinds of birds. 

(1) In North America a familiar songster 
(Gafeoscoptes caroUneiuis) , so-called because 
of its mewing call-note, which is strikingly 
similar to the plaint of a kitten in distress. 
This, however, is not its only note, its wild and 
melodious warbling in the morning and the 
evening being also typical of the musical thrush 
family to which it belongs. It is about nine 
inches long, and of a danc slate color, with a 
black cap, and a reddish patch under the tail. 
It is migratory only in the Northern States, 
spends its winters in the South, and frequents 
bushy pastures and gardens, being one of the 
few species which follow the course of agri- 
culture^ and being rarely found far from the 
habitations of the farmer. It is of great service 
to the agriculturist in devouring wasps, grubs, 
worms and insects, which, with fruits ana 
berries of all kinds, especially of sumach, sweet 
grum and poke, constitute its food. It has a 
brilliant and varied song, in which it seems to 
mimic die notes of other birds; when in a 
domestic state it will imitate strains of instru- 
mental music The nest, generally built in 
bramble thickets, is large, and constructed of 
twigs and briers mixed with leaves, weeds. and 
grass, lined with dark fibrous roots arranged in 
a circular manner. Its eggs, from four to six 
in number, are of a greenish-blue color, without 
spots. Its attachment to its young is remark- 
able, and it will often feed and raise the young 
of other birds. It migrates during the night. 
It frequently attacks the common blacksnaiw, 
which, in the absence of the bird, rifles its nest. 

(2) In Australia, one of the bower-birds 
(^luradus viridis), so named because of its 
cat-like call. 

CAT-BOAT, a boat having one mast 
stepped just abaft the bow and carrying a sail 
laced to a boom and gaff, resembling a 
schooner's mainsail. In general catboats are 
very broad in beam, averaging 1 :3. They are 
usually equipped with a center-board, which, 
with the extreme forward position of the mast, 
enables them to point high into the wind, and 
makes them remarkably quick in stays. They 
are principally employed as pleasure craft on 
the coasts and inland navigable waters of the 
United States, and are consequently of shallow 

CAT ISLAND, one of the Bahama Islands, 
about 36 miles in len^ ^.<''"? north to south, 
and three to seven miles in its mean breadth. 
Pop. 3,000. This island was long identified 
with the Guanahani or San Salvador of Colum- 
bus, the first portion of land belonging to the 
New World on which he landed, 12 Oct. 1492, 
an honor now. conceded to Watling Island. 

_ CAT-OWL, any of several widely dis- 
tributed large owls, so called because of their 

Digitized by 




feline habits and cat-like face; also, locally, 
the common little screech owl. The best known 
American cat-owl is the barred owl (Strix 
varia), one of the largest birds of ^ its kind, 
large specimens reaching 24 inches in length. 
It has no ear-tufts, and the general color_ is 
whitish, everywhere transversely barred with 
deep umber brown, except on the abdomen, 
where the stripes run lengthwise. It is a lover 
of the woods, where its coughing cty resounds 
afar in the darkness, and where it breeds in 
hollows or among Uie branches of trees. It is 
not migp-atory, and often nests very early in 
the spring. This owl has the reputation of 
being especially destructive of poultry, but in 
truth it lives mainly on mice, of which it 
devours vast numbers each season, and hence 
is the benefactor rather than the marauder of 
the farm. Consult Fisher, 'Hawks and Owls 
of the United States.> 

CAT-SHARK, any of various members of 
the Scylliorhinidce, a g^roup of true sharks 
which are characterized by having two dorsal 
finSj the anterior of which is jilaced over or 
behmd the ventral, and by having the tail not 
bent upward. Some of these are called also 

. CATABANGENES. See Catubanganes. 

CATACLYSM, in geology^ a physical 
catastrophe of great extent, supposed to have 
occurred at different periods, and to have been 
the efficient cause of various j>henomena ob- 
served in the surface configuration of localities. 
The beUef in cataclysmic movements as ge- 
olc^cal agents has lai^ely given place to that 
in the working of ordinary agencies over long 
periods of time. 

CATACOMBS, subterranean caves or 
vaults used as burial-places. All nations have 
been accustomed to some outward manifesta- 
tion of regard for the dead, such as funeral 
solemnities, the consecration of gronnds for 
sepulture, the erection of monuments, etc. 
Some nations, as the Egyptians, constructed 
pyramids and labyrinths to contain the remains 
of the departed. Others, as the Phoenicians 
and after them the Greeks, hollowed out the 
rocks for tombs, surrounding their towns with 
vast magazines, containing the bones of their 
fathers. Asia Minor, the coast of Africa and 
C^renais, afford instances of these singular and 
gigantic works. The discovery of these_ mon- 
uments has always excited the curiosity of 
travelers and the attention of artists. The 
latter have applied themselves to learn from 
them the character of architecture and paint- 
ing at different epochs; and though they have 
often found only coarse representations, the 
productions of art in its infancy or decline, 
they_ have occasionally met with types of per- 
fection. Many monuments of this description 
have been preserved to our days, and still con- 
tain traces of the painting and architecture 
with which they were decorated. There are 
catacombs existing in Syria, Persia and among 
the most ancient Oriental nations. But the 
revolutions in these countries, and the changes 
which they have occasioned, have deprived us 
of the_ documents which would have given us 
exact information regarding them. 

The description of the catacombs in Upper 
Egypt gives us an idea of those whose loca- 
tion is still unknown to us. They contain the 

history of the country, and the customs and 
manners of the people, painted or sculptured in 
many monuments of the most admirable 
preservation. The subterranean caves of these 
countries, like almost all of the kind, have their 
origin in quarries. From the deptbs of the 
mountains which contain them, stone was taken, 
which served for the building of the neighbor- 
ing towns, and also of the great edifices and 
pyramids which ornament the land. They are 
dug in a mountain situated in the nei^borhood 
of the Nile, and furnished the Romans with 
materials for the construction of buildings in 
their colonial establishments. The excavations 
in these mountains are found throughout a 
space of 15 to 20 leagues, and form subter- 
raneous caverns which appear to be the work 
of art; but there is neither order nor sym- 
metry in them. They contain vast and obscure 
apartments, low and irreg^ular vaults, supported 
in different parts with piles left purposely by 
the workmen. Some holes, of about six feet in 
length and two feet wide, give' rise to the 
conjecture that they were destined for scfHil- 
dires. Cells of very small dimensions, formed 
in the hollows of these obscure caverns, prove 
them to have been the abode of recluses. 

In Sicily and Asia Minor a prodigious num- 
ber of grottoes and excavations have been dis- 
covered containing sepulchres. Some appear 
to have served as retreats to the victims of 
despotism. The greater part are the work of 
the waters which traverse the mountains of 
these regions, as for instance the great cave 
of Noto, which passes for one of the wonders 
of Sicily. This cave, the height, length and 
breadth of which are equal, has been formed 
by the Cassibili River, whidh runs at the bot- 
tom, and traverses it for the length of 100 
fathoms. In the interior of this cave are a 
number of houses and tombs. 'At Gela, on 
the south coast, there are abodes for the hving 
and sepulchres for the dead, cot in the rocks; 
at Agrigentum subterraneous caves, labyrinths 
and tombs, arranged with great order and sym- 
metry. There are also caverns in the environs 
of Syracuse which may be ranked with the 
principal monuments of this description, from 
their extent and depth, their architectural orna- 
ments, and from some historical recollections 
attached to them. The catacombs in the tufa 
mountains of Capo di Monte, near Naples, -con- 
sists of subterraneous galleries, halls, rooms, 
basilicas and rotundas, which extend to the 
distance of two Italian miles. Throughout 
there are seen niches for coffins (hculi) and 
bones. A description of them was given by 
Celano in 1643. They probably owe their 
origin to the quarries which afforded tufa for 
the walls of the cities Palseopolis and Neapolis, 
and afterward served as sepulchres for the 
Christian congregations. 

The most numerous and extensive cat- 
acombs are those in the immediate neighbor- 
hood of Rome, at San Sebastiano, San Lorenzo, 
etc., the earliest of which of certain date be- 
long;s to the year 111 a.d. They are composed 
of interminable subterraneous galleries, extend- 
ing underneath the town itself as well as the 
neighboring country, and are said to contain 
not less than 6,000,000 tombs. The name of 
catacombs, according to Saint Gregory, was at 
first applied to designate exclusively the cave 
in which the bodies of Saint Peter and Saint 

Digitized by 




Paul were buried, and it was only at a later 
period that it came to be given to all the sub* 
terraneous passages which were used as public 
burying-places. It is now regarded as certain 
that in times of persecution the eariy Christians 
frequently tobk refuge in the catacombs, in 
order to celebralte there • in secret the cere- 
monies of their religion; but it is not less 
certain that the catacombs served also as places 
of burial to the early Christians, and that in 
spite of the contrary opinion which prevailed 
for two centuries, and even down to our day, 
the catacombs were not for the most part 
abandoned quarries, but were excavated by the 
Christians themselves. It is found that orig- 
inally the cemeteries of Rome were made up 
of separate tombs, which rich Christians con- 
structed for themselves and their brediren, and 
which they held as private property under the 
protection of the law. But in course of time 
this was dianged. At die end of the 2d cen- 
tury there existed certain cemeteries not the 
property of individuals but of the Churdi. 
Such was that which Pope Zepbjrrinus (202- 
19) entrusted to the superintendence of Calix- 
tns, and which took its name from that bidiop. 
Some years later, under Pope Fabian (236-51), 
there were already several such common buiy^ 
ing-places belon^ng to the Christian congre- 
gations, and their number went on increasing 
till the time of Constantine, when the cat- 
acombs ceased to be used as burying-plaoes. 
Prom the time of Constantine down to the 8th 
century they contimi«!d to be used as_ places 
of worship by the Christians, but during the 
siege of Rome by the Lombards they were in 
part destroyed, and soon became entirely in- 
accessible, so that they were forgotten. The 
first excavations in them were made by Antonio 
Bosio between 1S60 and MOO. The results of 
these excavations were published in his 
<Roma Sotterranea' (Rome 1632), whidh was 
translated into Latin by P. Aringhi (Rome 
1657). Among the more modem works on the 
subject may be mentioned Rochette's * Tableau 
des Oitacombes de Rome' (Paris 1837) ; 
Perret's <Les Catacombes de Rome* (Pari* 
1851-56) ; and <La Roma Sotterranea Cri»- 
tiana> by De Rossi (Rome 1864-77), contain- 
ing the results of verv careful investigations 
made by the author, who is justly regarded as 
the foremost student, in fact, father of tUs 
branch of archaeology. 

The catacombs of Paris, situated on the left 
bank of the Seine, are almost equally cele- 
brated. The name itself, which has been g;iven 
to this labyrinth of caverns and galleries from 
its resemblance to the asylums and places of 
refuse of the persecuted Christians under 
Naples and Rome, informs us of thcpurpose to 
which it has been applied since 17%. These 
galleries were originally the quarries from 
which materials were excavated for construct- 
ing the edifices of the capital. The weight of 
the super-incumbent houses rendered it neces^ 
sary to prop them ; and when the cemeteries of 
the demolished churches and die burying- 
grounds were cleared in 1786, the government 
resolved to deposit the bones in these quarries, 
which were consecrated for that purpose. The 
first cemetery that was suppresseo was the 
Cimetiire des Innocents, and the bones from it 
were deported beneath what is now Petit- 
Montrougc. The ossuary now extends mucii 

farther. The relics 'of 10 or more generatianf 
were here united in the repose of the grave* 
Kany times as great as the living tide that 
rolls over this spot is its subterraneous pop- 
ulation. By the li^t of wax tapers, a person 
may descend abotit 70 feet to a world of silence, 
over which the Parisian police keep watch as 
strictly as over the world of noise and con-* 
fusion above. He will then enter a' gallery 
where only two can go abreast A black streak 
on the stones of the walls points out the way, 
wUch, from the great number of by-passages, 
it would be difficult for the visitor to retrace 
without this aid or without guides. 

Among the curiosities here is a plan of the 
harbor of MaboiL which an ingenious soldier 
faithfully copied from memory, m the material 
of the quarries. Entering tlie hall, one _ is 
ushered into the realms of death by the in- 
scription which once stood over the entrance 
to the churchyard of Saint Suh>ice: *i/«t 
ultras metas requiescuMt beotam spem exsteC' 
tantes* ("Beyond these bounds rest those 
awaiting the hope of bliss fulfilled'*). Narrow 
passages between walls of skeletons; chambers 
in which monuments, altars, candelabra, con- 
structed of human bones, with festoons of 
dculls and thigh-bones, interspersed occasionally 
with inscriptions, not always the most happily 
selected, from ancient and modem authors, ex^ 
dte the gioomy impression which is always pro- 
duced, even in the most light-minded, by the 
sight of the dissolution of the human frame. 
Wearied of these horrible embellishments, the 
visitor enters a simple chapel, without bones, 
and containing an altar of granite. The inscrip- 
tion «D. M. II et III Septembr. MDCCXCIP 
recalls to memory the victims of the September 
massacres, whose remains are here united. On 
leaving oiese rooms, consecrated to death, 
where, however, the air is always preserved 
pore by means of air-holes, the visitor mav pass 
to a geological cabinet, formed by Hericart 
de ThutT, the director of the Carrieres sous 
Paris. I^dmens of the minerals furnished 
hf the regions traversed, and a collection of 
diseased bones, in a contiguous hall, sden* 
tifically arranged, are the last curiosities which 
these excavations offer. More than 600 yards 
to the east of the road to Orleans the visitos 
finally returns to the light of day. Strangers 
may visit the catacombs in company with the 
government officials at the periodical visits. 
An account of these subterranean passages is 
that which was published by M. Dunlcel in 1885. 

The Etruscan tombs were not, strictly speak- 
ing, catacombs, yet as subterranean places of 
sepulture they may appropriately be referred 
to. ■ They were_ usually hewn out .of cliffs on 
the sides of a hill and were variously arranged, 
sometimes tier above tier and sometimes on a 
level. There was a central chamber with 
smaller ones opening from it. In the latter 
there were stone benches to receive the bodies 
of the dead. See C)atacombs, Roman. 

CATACOMBS, Roman. The "Catacombs 
of Rome* is the name given to the underground 
cemeteries in which were laid to rest the Chris- 
tians of the Eternal City during the first four 
centuries. The word itself seems to be a 
hybrid from the Greek mtra and the Latin 
cnmber*, and signifies "'next the sepulchres.* 
It first came into use at the end of the 3d cen- 
tury ;is a topognraphical tenn for a point of the 

Digitized by 




Appian Way. In the course of time it was 
applied to the adjoining cemeteiy of Saint 
Sebastiiui, and in die Middle Ages, when the 
other cemeteries were forgotten, it became a 

general designation for all the early Christian 
arial-places at Rome. It was a word un- 
known, however, to the first followers of 
Christ; who called the sepulchres of the saints 
cemeteries, *places of sleep,* owing to their 
faith in the Resurrection. There are some 32 
of these larger early Christian cemeteries be- 
yoad the Aurelian wall, bordering the ancient 
Roman, roads and encircling the city of 
the living with a silent city of the dead. The 
most important are the Catacombs of Prisdlla 
on the Via Salaria, of Calixtus on the Via 
Appia, of Domitilla on the Ardeatina and the 
Ostrianum on the Via Nomentana. In this 
Roma Sotteranea there are some 550 miles of 
underground corridors, honeycombing the soil 
of the deserted Campa^a and running like 
streets in all directions and at every angle, now 
near the surface and again descending to the 
depth of 75 feet, expanding here into a room 
and there into a crypt or chapel, along whose 
sides the faithful were buried in rows one above 
the other like the shelves of a shop or the 
bunks of a vessel. The corridors average 
about three feet in width and six feet in hei)!$t 
and were dug generally in three or four levds, 
ranging from 30 to 50 feet below the surface 
of the soil. _ The niches, called loci, or loculi, 
which contained the bodies, were closed by a 
marble slab or a series of tiles, on which was 
frequently carved some inscription. To under- 
stand the origin of the Catacombs it is necessary 
to k;ep before our minds (1) the faner» 
customs and laws of Imperial Rome; (2) the 
early Christian mode of burial; and (3) the 
nature of the soil out of which sprung the 
famous seven hills. (1) The ancient Romans 
had a great reverence for their dead. Religi" 
osum locum umu quisque sua voluntate facit, 
dum mortuum infirt in loco suo. Wherever a 
body rested became terra sancta, sacred soil, 
subject to the authority of the paean pontiffs. 
Hence burials were forbidden inside the walls, 
and the ways leading out of the city were linea 
from the first to the third milestone with the 
mausolea, whose richness was one of the glories 
of the Imperial City, as their ruins are one of 
the beauties of modem Rome. The pagan 
mausoleum consisted of three parts, the monu- 
ment proper, the area or lot of ground and Ae 
underground vault _ in which the . ashes were 
placed in dovecot niches, known as columbaria. 
These burial plots with their magnificent monu- 
ments were owned by burial societies as well 
as by families and were fully protected by 
the law. The Christians likewise, either singly 
or collectively, erected their ■ mausolea along 
the highways beyond the walls, and this prop- 
erty, even in times of persecution, was. safe- 
pvarded by the majesty of Roman law. Hence 
It often happened that while the law spilled 
the blood it spared the body of the Christian. 
The opinion sometime current that the bodies 
of the martyrs were buried by stealth, and 
that the pagan authorities were ignorant of 
the existence and extent of the Catacombs, is 
altogether unfounded. The Catacombs were 
registered under and recognized by the law. 
They enjoyed the privilege of sacrosanpt soil 
Indeed many of the bodies were interred in 

surface cemeteries as t»-day. (2) The first 
faithful originated no special mode of burial. 
They generally followed the customs of , the 
people among whom they lived. They adopted 
the Jewish practice of interring, instead of the 
Roman mediod of crematin|[, on account of 
their belief in the resurrection of the flesh. 
The sepulchre hewn in the rock, where the body 
of Christ was laid, was the resting place too 
of the Christian body. This was first wrapped 
in a tunic or winding sheet previously coated 
with a preparation of plaster, was covered with 
perfumes and flowers and placed in one of 
the niches cut out of the subterranean crypt 
or along the corridor. In the case of the 
martyrs or wealthier converts the bodies were 
laid sometimes in a marble sarcophagus or in 
an arched grave hewn out of the rock, termed 
arcosolium, and called bisomus or trisomut, 
according to number of bodies it contained. 
(3) The soil of the Roman Campagna is of 
volcanic origin and consists of three distinct 
sorts of tufa: (1) the lithoid tufa or peperino, 
a hard building stone; (2) the fine pozzalana 
sand used in making the Romd.n cement; (3) 
a granular tufa, of no commercial value. How- 
ever this granular tufa was readily worked, 
and it is precisely in this stratum that we find 
the Catacombs. The workmen followed these 
veins in excavating; whence the apparent con- 
fusion of the courses and distance of the 
d^ths. . It was thought at one time that the 
Catacombs, like the arenaria, were excavated 
for building purposes, but modem research has 
shown that they are of distinctively Christian 
origin and have nothing in common with the 
arenaria either in mode or material of con- 

Origin. — The genesb of the ^ave among 
the faithful at Rome was something like this. 
The wealthier Christians owned their burial 
lots along the public roads leading out of the 
city. They had their monument fronting the 
way, marked with the name of the family. 
This, for instance, was the case with "Sotju- 
chrum Flavionim* on the Ardeatine Way. The 
crypt beneath, instead of being fashioned into 
a columbarium, had the graves cut out of the 
soil. At first this crypt was placed at the dis- 
posal of the brethren of the Ecclesia Fratrum, 
and, as the number of burials increased, the 
crypt was gradually extended under the entire 
surface of the lot. Thus the Catacombs in the 
1st and 2d centuries were litde more than 
the private burial vaults of the wealthier Chris- 
tian converts. These original centres of exca- 
vation have been recognized in many cases, 
as, for instance, the crypt of Lucina in Calix- 
tus, the Greek Chapel in Priscilla and the 
Spelunca magna in Prsetextatus. At the begin- 
ning of the' 3d century the cemeteries passed 
from private to Pontifical control. About the 
jrear 197 Zephyrinus appointed the deacon Ca- 
lixtus to take them in charge, and the latter 
has bequeathed his name to the best known of 
them, which became the ofHcial burying place 
of the bishops of Rome in the 3d century and 
contains the famous papal crypt. Henceforth 
the Catacombs were owned and administered 
by the Church. E^ch one of the Z5_ parishes 
in which ecclesiastical Rome was divided in 
the 3d and 4th centuries had, roughly speaking, 
its corresponding cemetery. The identification 
of the tituli and the cemeteries has b«en estabt- 

Digitized by 




Hihed in ft uuiaber of instsakces. With Hit 
. increasing^ number of the faithful were formed 
burial societies among the brethren, which, like 
the pagan societies, provided by the payment of 
dnes for the benefits of burial to deceased 
members. The>r owned their own lots, had their 
own houses built above the ground, in which 
they met to celebrate their aeape and funeral 
feasts. Hence there was nothine incongruous 
in the Christians assembling at Uie Catacombs 
on stated occasions to keep the anniversary 
feasts of their martyrs. SiHrilar celebrations 
were held by the pagans themselves, and there 
is a striking resemblance between the liturgy 
of these pagan funeral feasts and the language 
of the Roman martyrolo^. The inviolability 
of the cemeteries was undisturbed even in times 
of persecution, save by Valerian, in 258, and 
I>i<MJetian,_ in 303. Thepart played by these 
burial societies in the Church is still in dis- 
pute. De Rossi has advanced the theory that 
the Church in the 3d century owned its prop- 
erty as a burial society, as EccleHa Fratrum 
or EccUsia Cultorum Verhi. Duchesne, how- 
ever, contends that even in period of persecu- 
tion, the Church was recognized as a religious 
society, capable of holding property.' The ' 
work of excavating was under the care of ft 
distinct class, called fossores or diggers. They 
•were regarded as an inferior sort of clergy, 
ftwl many of the rude inscriptions were made 
by them. 

The Constaatine Period— It has often 
been said that the victory of Constantine 
brought the Church from the Catacombs to the 
cathedral. The reverse is literally true. It 
was precisely in the era of peace that the 
Church betook itself to the Catacombs and that 
they attained their largest growth and grandeur. 
Everyone wished to be buried close to the 
martyrs of Christ. Quod tnulH cufiunt et rari 
acdfiunt, we read in an inscription of the year 
381, of one who had obtained burial near the 
sepulchre of the saints. The crypts of the 
martyrs were changed into triumphal halls of 
fame. They were decorated with the choicest 
of marbles from the wealth of the Imperial 
City. -New. corridors and entrances were cut 
the old ones were joined together. Metrical 
hymns of praise were placed above the graves 
of the chief martyrs, especially by Pope Da- 
masus. Lights were kept bnrnmg before their 
shrines, and thither the devout of the city were 
continually flocking to implore the intercession 
of the samts or to honor their memory. Even 
the great Constantine basilicas of Saint Peter 
on me Vatican, Saint Lawrence on the Labi- 
cana. Saint Panl on the Ostian, Saint Agnes 
on the Nomentana, were but triumphal canopies 
erected over the tombs of these Christian 
heroes. Toward the end of the 4th century 
the custom of bnrjring in the surface cemeteries 
began to prevail, and after the sack of Rome 
by Alaric, In 410, interment in the Catacombs 
ceased altogether. 

Period o£ Declfaie.— In the succeeding cen- 
turies they were chiefly centres of devotion and 
terms of pious pilgrimages from the North. 
The itineraries of these pilgrimages from Eng- 
land and Germany, some of which have been 
preserved, were veritable Ariadne-clues in the 
rediscovery of these buried labyrinths. For 
some time the Popes of Rome, notably Vigilius 
<'S37-SS), John 111 (561-74) and Honorius t 

VOL. 6 — 3 

(JSZS-^) kept the shrines in a Sti^e of repair; 
but after the ravages wrougfht in the' Cata- 
combs by the invading Lombards, Paul I in 
757 and Paschal J in 817 translated the relics 
of the martyrs to churches within the walls. 
Despoiled of the treasures which had attracted 
visitors, they rapidly fell into decay. With 
the exception of the Catacomb of Saint 'Valen- 
tinian on the Plaminian, and Saint Sebastian on 
the Appian Way, their very existence passed 
ont of the minds of men in the Middle Ages. 

Rediscovery and Research. — In 1587 some 
workmen, excavating on the Via Salaria, 
chanced upon a Catacomb corridor, rich in 
paintings and inscriptions. The interest aroused 
by this discovery has never since «fied ont 
Antonio Bosio 0S76~I614), the Columbus of 
the Catacombs, devoted his life' to their explora- 
tion. His <Roma Softeranea* is the firftt classic 
on the Catacombs. The researches made Inr 
Boldetti and Battari and Others in the 18th 
century were mainly in the interest of contro- 
versy. To the Jesuit, Fartier Mardii, belongs 
the glory of having inangurated, hi 1841, a 
stricUy scientific study of these early monu- 
ments and memorials, and the still greater glory 
of being tlie master of Giovanni Battista de 
Rossi (q-v), ttte fatlier and founder of the 
science of Christian archteology. By Ins genius 
and labors lie explored and excavated the 
buried crypts and corridors of tlie Catacombs, 
established their identity and called them tqr 
name. From brolcen stone and damaged fresco 
and forgotten tomb, he gathered together the 
materials of a monumental Encyclopaedia Ro- 
mana, a storehouse of the treasures ol early 
Christian belief and behavior. 

PaintincSi. — In regard to the many paint- 
ing's found in the Catacombs, it may be said in 
general that the history of the decline of 
Classic is that of the tieginning of Christian 
art. la fact nearly all the examples extant 
of Roman paintings in the 2d, 3d and 4th cen- 
turies are in tlie Catacombs. They show us 
t&at the Cbnreb baptised the art as well as 
the laaauage of oie Graeco-Ronum world. 
While the (hemes treated for the most part 
have a direct reference to die grave and be- 
yond, they still illustrate a large part of the 
creed of the early Church. The Catacomb 
frescoes belong to diree distinct periods. In 
the 1st and beginning of 2d century, there 
was properly speaking no Christian art. The 
methods ana motifs of the pagan painter, such 
as abound at Pompeii, vines, garlands, flowers, 
flshes, fruits, birds, cupids, etc., appear likewise 
in the Catacombs. However even among these 
designs, diose that were capable of symboliring 
some Christian truth, as the vine, peacock, dove 
and fish, predominate. In the 2d and 3d cen- 
turies, as the cemeteries pass from private to 
public control, a series of paintings distinctly 
Christian begin to amear. They are symbolical 
in meaning and similar in execution. 

In the third epoch which corresponds to file 
time of peace, the pictures tend to become more 
and more realistic, until they are petrified in the 
Sth and following centuries in the rigid forms 
of Byzantine art. 

The Biblical Cycle. — A remarkable parallel 
between the prayers of the Roman Breviary 
for the commendation of the soul in the hour 
of death and the Biblical Cycle of cemeterial 
paintings was first pointed out by Le Blant. 

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This correspondence U so exact as to leave 
little doubt that these paintings derive their 
inspiration from the funeral liturgies of the 
Qiurcb. The deliverance of Noah in the flood, 
of Isaac from the sacrificing band of his father, 
of E>aniel from the lions den, of the three 
children from the fiery furnace, of Susannah 
from her false accusers, of Jonah from the 
whale, are the ever-repeated themes, and they 
all correspond to the. liturgical prayers, for the 
d^^inp;. The raising of Lazarus completes the 
Biblical Cycle, and this scene is the gospel for 
the Requiem Mass. Of this series Jonah and 
Lazarus are most frequently depicted. The 
desiips are evidently symbolic. A man stand- 
ing m a chest serves to recall Noah and the 
tLtk; the story of Jonah is often told in three 
scenes; the casting from the ship, the vomit- 
ing forth from the dragon fish and the resting 
under the gourd. But not infreauently the last 
scene alone is portrayed. In the* same spirit 
the raising of Lazarus is depicted by a man 
standing upright at the entrance of a tomb. 

Pictures of the Saviour. — There is no like- 
ness of Christ attempted in the Catacombs. 
He is represented by the symbol of the fish 
and the hidden cross. The fish, in Greek, 'ix^^ 
formed the famous acrostic'^nooviXptoroc; 
QeouTiof'ZoTiip (Jesus Christ Son of God, Saviour) 
and whether written or pictured was a mystic 
symbol of the Saviour. The transpierced dol- 
imin in Calixtus is_ the earliest copy of the 
Crucifixion. The disguised cross was also of 
frequent use, and never has this sign been ii) 
higher esteem than in the first ages of the 
Church. It was- sometimes rq»resented thus 
X; again as an anchor Xi »ow as the gamma 
cross rt, at other times as a trident M*. The 
Constantine monogram JK , so called from its 
use on the Labarum, was the common symbol 
of the 4th century. It was used even in in- 
scriptions, as «i nomint X' or inpace %. This 
X was the early monog^ram. of Christ, as IHS 
became the later one, -of Jesus. There was no 
real representation of the Crucifixion till the 
Middle Ages. The Crucifix is the creation of 
the ages of faith, and not of the formative 
period of Christianity. The first pictures in 
the Catacombs represent Christ as young and 
beardless, but in me 5th century the Byzantine 
bearded face with severe features came into 
vogue. The picture of the Good Shepherd is 
the Catacomb Christ par excellence. It is found 
everywhere in the frescoes of the 2d, 3d and 
earlv 4th centuries. The Saviour is represented 
in the garb of a young Roman shepherd, weat^ 
ing the short sleeveless tunic, his right shoul- 
der bare, his feet and legs sometimes bare, 
again covered with shoes and leggings. In 
some scenes he carries one of the flock upon 
Iris shoulders^ in others he plays the pipe while 
they Hsten, m others still he leads them to 
pleasant pastures, but always and everywhere 
It is the Good Shepherd who seeks and saves. 
This picture of love was the reply of the Ro- 
man Church to the harsh doctrine of the Nova- 
tians in the 3d century. 

The SaintB. — Most of the pictures of the 
martyrs belong to the 4th, 5th, 6th and even 
7th centuries when their craves became shrines, 
and were richly decorated! They are_ Byzantine 
in execution and resemble the mosaics of that 
period. They are valuable as witnessing the 
style of vestments worn by ecclesiastics of the 

fby. The Virgin Mary appears most frequently 
in the Catacombs as the central figure in the 

Adoration of the. Magi. These vary in number 
from two to six, but uniformly wear the 
Phrygian cap. The two most interesting lec- 
tures qI the Madonna are in PrisciUa and 
Ostriano. The former is a 2d century repre* 
sentation of the Virgin with child in her arms, 
with a prophet in front of them, pointing to a 
star. It is a picture of much grace and excel- 
lent execution. Its classic lines do not appear 
again in Christian art for more than a thousand 
years. The latter is a 4th centuiy Madonna 
and child, where the X is placed on either side^ 
as though it were a painted echo of the Council 
of Ephesus. The divine maternity of Mary 
was certainly in the mind of the artist, and 
the features of this painting are still preserved 
in Greek and Russian images. The saints are 
sometimes portrayed as "advocates* introducing 
into heaven the souls of those whostf bodies 
were buried near their shrines, This ministerial 
mediatorship of the saints, exhibited in the 
Catacomb frescoes of the 3d and 4th cen- 
turies, became a common theme of the apsidal 
mosaics of the basilicas. 

The Soul.— The soul is frequently repre- 
sented by a young woman standing with arms 
outstretched in an attitude of prayer, called 
the orans. In paradise the soul is depicted 
as a bird flying among the flowers or feastiag 
on the fruits or drintang from the chalice of 
heavenly delights. The celestial banquet is 
represented some six or seven times in Saints 
Pietro and Marcellino by the blessed seated at 
a semi-circular table, feasting upon the mystic 
fish under the guidance of Peace and Charity. 
The judgment of the soul standing before 
Christ in the presence of the martyrs seems to 
be the subject of some obscure frescoes. 

The S8craments.-r- In the cemetery of Ca- 
li3(^us are a series of so-called Sacrament 
chapels, where the decorations are arranged to 
set forth a number of Christian truths. First, 
comes the scene of Moses (Peter) striking the 
rock. *And the rock was Christ." (1 Cor. x, 
4); In the mystic water of grace a small fish is 
being caught by the Apostolic fisherman. Ter- 
tuUian has paifited the thought in words. ''We 
as little fish are born in the water after our 
'ix^c, Jesus a»rist.» (Tert. de Bapt.) Then • 
succeeds the Sacrament of Baptism, the source 
of the new life. The catechumen stands in 
the water, and the priest pours the laver of 
regeneration on his brow. Next follows the 
Eucharistic action, portrayed by a priest standr 
ing beside a tripod altar containing a fish and 
some bread, while an orante at the other side 
lifts her h&nds in prayer. The multiplication 
of the loaves and fishes and the banquet of 
(Christ with his disciples by the sea of Tiberias 
next represent the Communion. And finally 
the resurrection as a result of the Communion 
is shown in the raising of Lazarus and the 
deliverance of Jonah. "He that eateth my flesh 
and drinketh my blood hath life everlasting, 
and I will raise him up on the last day? 
(John vi, 55). There are two representations 
of the Eucharist worthy of remark. In the 
crypt of Lucina, the primitive centre of Car 
lixtus, there are two frescoes (about 150 A.D.V, 
in which two large fish carry on their back 
baskets containing bread and wine. Here 
Christ, the fish, the 'iifi(«r, bears the Eu- 

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charisdc bread and wine, which is himself. 
Saint Jerome would seem almost to speak of 
this scene : *No one is so rich as he who carries 
the body of Christ in a wicker basket and his 
blood in a cup of glass' (£p. ch. xxv ad Rus- 
tic). Another paintine of the first half of the 
2d centurjr, discovered by Wilpert (1894), in 
the archaic part of Priscilla, the Capella 
Graeca, seems to be a real representation of the 
Eucharistic action of the "Breaking of the 
Bread.** Seven persons, one of them a woman, 
are seated at a semi-circular table, on which are 
two plates with five loaves and two fishes. 
These; however, are evidently symbolical, for 
the priest at the head of the table is engaged 
in the very act of breaking _ the bread, and 
before him sits the Eucharistic chalice. This 
fresco is in a chapel, and seems to be an early 
representation of the Eucharistic sacrifice. The 
representations of the other Sacraments are 
rare and of doubtful interpretation. A gen- 
eral^ survey of these paintings' Jeads to the con- 
clusion that the early Christians saw nothing 
in religious representations hostile to the law 
of Moses ; that the earlv Church had no repug- 
nance to art, and that the art of the Catacombs 
is Roman and not of Oriental origin. Mgr. 
Joseph Wilpert has just published an accu- 
rate and complete edition of the 'Pictures of 
the Roman Catacombs' with G&rman and 
lulian texts (Rome 1903). 

Sculpture. — Christian sculpture barely ex- 
isted before the 4th century. Catacomb condi- 
tions were act favorable to its growth. A 
fresco could easily be painted in the gloom of 
the p^ve, but curved marbles were both ex- 
pensive and required li^t and space for 
execution. Moreover the sarco^ha^ in the 
pagan shops were often covered with idolatrous 
scenes. Some of these have been found in the 
Catacombs with the pagan images effaced. 
With the era of peace, however, the faithful 
began to use sculptured sarcophagi, and a 
number of them are preserved in the Lateran 
Museum. As far as workmanship is concerned, 
they are of inferior merit, being executed at a 
time when art had greatly degenerated. Some 
of them are little less than carved creeds, con- 
taining on their facade the main mystenes of 
the Qiristian religion. They shed much light 
on the earlier paintings. The clear carving of 
the 4th and Sth centuries illumines the doubt- 
ful fresco of the 2d and 3d. In the sarcophagi, 
it is Peter striking the rock and Peter to whom 
Christ gives the law. Hence in the earlier 
paintings Moses typified Peter. Daniel among 
the lions on the sarcophagi is evidently Qirist 
on the Cross. Hence we^ have a key to the 
early representations of this scene. 

Statuary. — But few pieces of statuary have 
been found in the (Catacombs. While idols 
were on all sides, the faithful seem to have 
held aloof from this branch of art. However 
several statues of the Good Shepherd were 
executed, and one of the 3d century preserved 
in the Lateran is a most beautiful representa- 
tion of the subject. The sitting statue of Hip- 
polytus_ of the first part of the 3d century, 
found in the cemetery of his name, is unique 
amqng early monuments. It cont^ns inscribed 
on the cathedra a list of hisworka and his com- 
putation of the Easter Cycle. 

Gold Glasses.— The gold glasses of which 
many have been found in the Catacombs con- 

sist of a des^fn made of gold leaf, enalo;ed 
between two pieces of glass, ordinarily at the 
bottom of the glass. The subjects treated in 
these glasses of the 3d and 4th centuries are 
of two classes. Some of them are genre pic- 
tures, ornamented with the portraits of a newly- 
married couple of a family group, and inscribed 
with such toasts as ''Drink! Live)* They were 
probably gifts for wedding and family feasts. 
Others used probably in the Utorgical functions 
and perhaps as Eucharistic chalices were orna- 
mented with the ordinary Catacomb cycle of 
painting, but especially with the images of 
the Saints. Peter and Paul, Agnes and the 
Virgin Mary are the subjects most frequently 
represented. Eighty out of the 300 published 
b^ Garuicd portray Saints Peter and Paul. 
The constancy of die types, their correspond- 
ence with tradition, and the medallion of the 
same characteristics found in Domitilta and 
attributed to the early part of the 2d century, 
indicate that these are portraits of the Princes 
of the Apostles. 

Mosaics. — There are but few mosaics ii> 
die Catacombs, and most of these are of the 
a|re of peace. The mosaic is the distinctive 
Christian decoration of the basilica of the Sth 
and 6th centuries, as the fresco was of the 
Catacomb in the 3d and 4th. 

Lamps. — The common clay lamp is the ob- 
ject most freque.ntly found in the Catacombs. 
Most of them are in no respect different from 
those used by the pagans. However in the 3d 
and particularly in the 4th centuries, they were 
marked with the Christian emblems of the fish, 
the Constantine monogram, the Good She;^erd, 
the palm, etc. They illustrate the way the 
Christian faith entered into domestic life after 
the advice of the Aposde: "Whether you eat 
or drink — do all to the glotyof God." (1 Cor. 
X, 31). The wine fiagon and the wine cup. 
as well as the lamp and the loaf, were stamped 
with the sign of the cross in the 4th and Sth 
centuries. The few bronze lamps unearthed are 
of much more elaborate workmanship and 

Other Objects^— Rings, seals and coins 
adorned with the characteristic symbols of early 
Christian art have been found frequently in the 
excavations, as well as a number of miscellane- 
ous objects, such as children's toys, combs» etc. 

Inscriptions. — The numerous Catacomb in- 
scriptions are of the greatest interest to the 
Christian scholar. The -most precious of them 
have been arranged in the Lateran Museum by 
De RossL The bulk remains yet in the Cata- 
combs and in the_ gallery of (christian inscrip- 
tions at the Vadcan. They may be divided 
according to the method of execution into 
carved, painted and ■graffid* inscriptions, the 
latter being writings rudely scratched on the 
plaster or tufa; according to time, into the 
original epitaphs and later laudatorjr inscrip- 
tions ; according to language, into C^reek and 
Latin ; according to content, into dogmatic and 
domestic. Many of the tombs are without any 
inscription whatsoever, and many more are 
distinguished but by a rude mark or some ob- 
ject pressed into the fresh plaster. As a rule 
the early epitaphs are the shorter, although 
brevity is a distinguishing trait of Catacomb- 
epigraphy, in marked contrast to the lengthy 
pagan eulogies of the time. The name of the 

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departed, with a short prayer and some symbol 
as the fish, palm, anchor or Constantine mono- 
gram, to which were sometimes added the date 
of burial and age, forms the ordinary inscrip- 
tion. "Gerontius, may you live in God,* "Lu- 
cilla in peace,* are characteristic epitaphs. The 
word Meposition* is peculiar to Giristian epig- 
raphy, implying that the body is consigned but 
for a time to the soil. The short prayers and 
^mbols on the tombs are in general but a 
reproduction of the "Memento of the Dead in 
the Mass,* Ipsis, Domine, locum refrigerii, 
lucis, et pacts, ut indulgeas, deprecamur, *Re- 
freshment, li^t and peace grant to them, O 
L>ord.* This is the requiem chanted and carved 
in the Catacombs. Despite the fact that the 
inscriptions are sepulchral, they yet contain 
much matter of dogmatic and historic interest 
They express belief in the unity and trinity of 
God, in the divinity of Christ in the Holy 
Spirit, in the resurrection, and almost every 
article of the creed is carved on some monu- 
ment. Especially strong is the testimony of the 
Catacombs to prayers' for and to _ the _ dead. 
Both are sometimes found in one inscription, 
as this from Domitilla: 




•Gentianus, — pray for us b^ause we know 
that thou art with Christ,* we read in another. 
•Holy Martyrs, remember Maty," comes from 
Aquileia. Januaria bene refrigera et Roga pro 
nos. This last inscription from Calixtus is a 
fair sample of Catacomb Latinity. It is orna- 
mented with a small box, containing the rolls 
of the law, the customary representation of the 
Bible in early Christian art. 

Papal Crypt— The inscriptions of the crypt 
\rfiere the Popes of Rome were interred in the 
3d century are of peculiar interest. 


These inscriptions show that Greek was still 
the official language of the Church in the 3d 
century. The monogram Mr, martyr, was the 
official canonization of the Catacombs. 

Damasene Inscriptions. — Pope Damasus 
(304-85), the first Christian archaeologist, em- 
bellished the tombs of the martyrs with a series 
of metrical inscriptions, carved on lar^e slabs 
of marble ^ his secretary, Furius Dionysius 
Filocalus. The texts pf 40 of these are pre- 
served in the ancient itineraries, and many of 
the original slabs have been discovered in the 
excavations of the last 50 years. The inscrip- 
tion of the papal ci^pt was found broken in 
125 small pieces, which, when joined together, 
gave the entire text. Of all these inscriptions, 
but a fragment of the title at the tomb of Pope 
Cornelius remains in its primitive position, so 
thorough was the work of the devastating 
Lombard and destroying time. The tomb of 
Damasus himself, so long sought by the archze- 
ologists, was discovered at the close of 1903 by 
Monsignor Wilpert. The work of excavating is 
still going on, but enough data' have already been 
dug from the depths to make it certain that 
whoever would go back to Christ must pass 
through the corridors of the Catacombs. Here 
he will find the mind of the Master in the might 
of the Martyr, and the love of the Saviour in 

the liberty of the slave. Here he will find 

Church and Sacrament, rite and ritual, creed 
and deed. Here he will come upon a society, 
Catholic in composition and in diarity. Chris- 
tian in faith and in hope, sleeping the sleep of 
Seace and awaiting the resurrection of the 
esh in X. The scientific study of the Cata- 
combs has shown that the Qiristians were 
numbered in Rome by tens of thousands in the 
3d century. *We are of yesterday yet we fill all 
that belongs to you ; we leave to you only your 
temples.* The rhetoric of TertuUian is the 
reality of the Catacombs. The researches of 
De Ros»%ave shown, too, that the acts of the 
martyrs have much more historical value than 
the critical school of history was formeriy 
inclined to_ give them. Further and fuller 
research will act as luminoria to dissipate the 
darkness which controversy has gathered 
round the Catacombs. And when the treasures 
of Roma Sotterranea are all uneardied should 
all other witnesses of the faith once delivered 
to the Saints become silent, the very stones of 
the Catacombs will cry out to the world the wis- 
dom and grace of Christ 

Consult Lowrie, 'Monuments of the Early 
Church* (1901), which gives in an appendix 
the best Catacomb bibliography accessiole to 

the English, reader. 

William Temple, 

Formerly Professor of Philosophy, Saint Jo- 
sephs Seminary, Dunwoodie, N. Y. 

CATACOUSTICS, k&t-a-koos'tflcs or 
-kows'tiks, the science which treats of reflected 
soimds, or that fart of acoustics which con- 
siders the properties of echoes. 

CATAFALQUE, katVf^% an ornamental 
structure, in the form of a scaffolding or stage, 
for temporary use at ceremonious funerals. On 
it is placed the coffin containing a body lying 
in state, as in a church or other public edifice, 
and it is sometimes used as a hearse, or set, as 
the representation of a tomb^ over a g^rave. 

CATALA, Valentin, Cuban poet: b. 
Havana. 3 May 1829; d Havana, 7 Sept 1877. 
He studied medicine in Paris and practised his 
profession there and in Barcelona. Later on he 
returned to Havana where' he graduated in 
pharmacy in 1868. He had alreawr nven con- 
siderable attention to literature while in Europe ; 
and almost immediately, on his arrival in 
Havana, he began to write for the Cuban 
press under the nom-de-plume of "Claudio,* 
and sometimes under his own name. The two 
principal journals to which his contributions 
were made were La Prensa and Cuba Literaria. 
He was a prolific writer and, like most news- 
paper men, careless of his literary offsprings; 
so, much of his best work is still buried in the 
files of the Havana papers. Among his works 
which have been collected and issued in book 
form are 'Higiene de los Literatos* ; 'Noches 
de insomnia' ; and ^La dalia negra del 
cementerio de Giunes.> The <Noches* is a col- 
lection of poems, and 'La dalia* a legend. 
Catal4's work displays considerable originality 
and command of language. 

CATALAN, a native of Catalonia (q.y.) 
and certain other parts of northeastern Spain. 
For the language of Catalonia see Catalan 
Language awd Litekature. 

Digitized by 




CATALAN FURNACE, a blast furnace 
for reducing orei extensively used in the north 
of Spain, particularly in the province of Cata- 
lonia. It consists of a foun-sided cavity or 
hearth, which is always placed within a bnild- 
ing and separated from the main wall thereof 
by a thinner interior wall, which in part con- 
stitutes one side of the furnace. The blast- 
pipe comes through the wall and enters the fire 
through a twyer which slants downward. The 
bottom is formed of a refractory stone, which 
is renewable. The furnace has no bhimneya. 
The blast is produced by means of a fall of 
water, usually from 22 to 27 feet high, through 
a rectangular tube, into a rectangular ctstefn 
below, to whose upper part the blast-pipe is 
connected, the water escaping through a jHpe 
below. This apparatus is exterior to the builds 
ing, and is said to afford a continuous blast of 
great regularity ; the air, when it passes into the 
furnace, is, however, impregnated with mois- 


a name of a troop of adventurers raised by 
Roger de Flor about the bepnnin^ of the 14th 
century. Roger first gave his services to Fred- 
erick, King of Sicily, in his war with Robert, 
Duke of Calabria, but when peace was con- 
cluded between the two princes, being at a loss 
how to maintain his soldiers, he proposed to 
lead them to the East to contend against the 
Turks, who were then desolating the Eastern 
empire. Andronicus, then Eroi>eror of the Eas^ 
gladly accepted the offered assistance of Roger, 
and submitted to all the conditions which he 
imposed. Roger set sail from Messina, Sicily, 
in 1303, with 26 vessels partly equipped at his 
own expense. The number of the troops em- 
barked with him is said to have amounted to 
about 8,000 men of different nations, Sicilians, 
Catalans, Aragonese, etc. The Catalans, either 
because they were the most numerous or for 
some other reason, gave their name to the 
whole company. On his arrival at Constanti- 
nople Roger was received with great rejoicings, 
and was elevated to the dignity of grand duke. 
A bloody affray between uie Genoese and the 
Catalans marked the first period of the stay 
of these adventurers in Constantinople. An- 
dronicus hastened to get them to cross over 
into Asia. This they did in the spring of 1304, 
and in the same year they defeated the Turks 
completely. In 1305 he took Ancyra and 
forced the Turks to raise the siege of Phila- 
delphia, but he was not so successful in his 
attempt to take Magnesia. After a long and 
ineffective siege he recrossed into Europe in 
1306, bringing along with him his Catalans, who 
left behind them everywhere traces of their 
plunder and violence. When they had reached 
Europe they took up their quarters at Gallipoll. 
But Andronicus, who was by this time very 
anxious to be rid of his formidable allies, now 
received Roger with great coldness, and even 
obliged hira to give up his title of grand duke 
in favor of Berenganus. The sudden depar- 
ture of Berengarius, however, and the simul- 
taneous incursions of the Turks into Asia 
Minor, compelled Andronicus again to appeal 
to Roger and his Catalans for assistance. Roger 
■was raised to the dignity of Caesar to appease 
him for the slights that had been put on him. 
But this only caused him to be regarded with 

-more jealousy t^ the Greeks, and especially by 
Michael, the son of Andronicus, who was as- 
sociated with his father in the empire. The re- 
sult was that before he could start once more 
for Asia he was assassinated (1306 or 1307). 
The Catalans now turned their arms against 
the B)rzantines, in order to avenge the death 
of their leader, and defeated them in several 
battles. They then passed into Greece and en- 
tered the service of the Duke of Athens, btit 
no long time afterward they turned against him 
and defeated him in the battle of Cephissus 
(1311). They now became masters of Attica, 
where they maintained themselves for four 
years, when they were finally defeated by Philes 
near Bizyn (1315). Consult Gibbon, < Decline 
and Fall> (Chap. LXII). 

groups of the Romance tongues which has been 
considered politically in Spain as but a dialect 
of Spanish. It is, however, as distinctly dif- 
ferent from Spanish and tne other Romance 
languages as is Portuguese. Catalan was long 
the language of an independent kingdom; and 
the influences under which the Latin language 
passed in (Catalonia and the other districts 
where the ancient Catalan was spoken were 
quite distinct from those of the other countries 
of Roman conquest. And it is these influences 
which have made the Catalan tongue. Modem 
Catalan seems to be a mixture of the ancient 
language spoken on the west coast of Spain 
ana the north of Italy on the coming of the 
Romans for the first time to the Iberian Penin- 
sula, and the Latin of the lower class of Italy 
influenced in a literary way by classical Latin. 
But Catalan has come under other influences. 
The Phoenicians, even before the arrival of the 
Romans in Spam, carried on a trade of some 
considerable extent and importance with the 
west coast of Iberia, the people of which, we 
are tpld,_ had attained to considerable civic 
organization and had important cities in many 
parts of their territory. It has been claimed 
for the people of this region, with some show 
of reason, that they were of the same origin 
as the Romans and that they spoke a Latin 
tongue, which differed, however, very widely 
from that of the Italian Peninsula, which was 
itself divided into widely different dialects^ 
Others claim that the Catalonians were oi 
Phoenician origin,' or that the country had 
been populated from Clarthage, and that there- 
fore Uie_ original language of the east coast oi 
the peninsula was Carthaginian. According 
to various other accounts of their origin, they 
came variously from Palestine. Greece, Britain, 
central Asia or even Mongolia. ^ Still others 
have claimed for them a Celtic origin common 
with that of the other Celtic inhabitants of 
various parts of Europe. 

Thus there is no certainty as to the origin 
of the ancient inhabitants of Catalonia. . But 
that their language persisted throughout the 
Roman occupation of their country seems cer- 
tain, during which period it continued to 
amalgamate^ with that of the Latin soldiers. 
If the ancient Catalan were really a Latin 
tongue _ which had gone the road toward the 
formation of an analytic language, the rise of 
modem Catalan soon after the disappearance 
of the Roman power about the beginning of the 
5th .century would be easily explained. But 

Digitized by 



this ancient tongiie would have to have been 
dialectically decidedly different from that o£ 
the Italian Peninsula. 

Catalan is spoken in a part of France bor- 
dering on Spain, in the greater part of the 
Pyrenees Orientales, Barcelona, L^rida Tar- 
ragona, Gerona, Valencia, Alicante, Castellon 
de la Planta, a part of Sardinia and the Balearic 
Islands. It has also had a strong influence on 
the pronunciation of the Spanish spoken 
throu^out the Latin American countries, 
notably in Cuba and some parts of Central 
America. While Catalan was strongly in- 
fluenced by Provencal in a literary way, the 
language of the people of Catalonia and ad- 
jacent territory resisted this foreign and un- 
natural influence. The result was somewhat 
curious. Catalan poetry, strongly influenced 
by the Provencal troubadour, reflected the 
Provengal mode of thought and form of verse, 
while Catalan prose, which at first was not 
looked upon as worthy the name of litera- 
ture, is instinct with Catalan genius and 
racial feeling, idiom and point of view. _ This 
is one of the best proofs of the artificially of 
the Provengal influence in Catalonia and of the 
unfoundedness of assertion that Catalan was 
nothing more than a variation of Provencal. 
Catalonia, owing to the fact that it ^ came into 
contact, at such an earhr period in its history, 
with the Phoenicians, Carthagenians, Romans, 
British, Celts, Greeks and projoably other races, 
and that it was later conquered or partially 
conquered by Romans, Carthaginians and 
Goths, assumed a mixed character. This was 
accentuated, in the first half of the 8th century, 
by the very considerable foreign population 
which had flowed into the countrjr for com- 
mercial and other purposes. At this time the 
population of Catalonia was made up of the 
ancient native stock, Latins, Greeks, Arabians, 
Chaldeans, Hebrews, Celts, Valencians, Canta- 
brians and people from other parts of Spain. 
Business seems to have been carried on in the 
Catalonian country, or more properly speaking, 
where the Catalonian tongue or some dialect 
thereof was spoken, that is, all along the east 
coast of Spain, from Alicante to Genoa, and 
over most of tne adjacent islands. And it was 
undoubtedly during this protracted trading 
period that the Catalan language assumed more 
or less definite form. Cejtamly by the 9th 
century it had become a strong independent 
language spoken over all the country already 
indicated. It had discarded Latin grammar, if 
it had ever had it as a part ot the tongue of 
the, and had assumed all the earmarks 
of a living, agg^ressive, popular language. There 
can be no doubt that Catalan existed apart 
from Provengal, as the speech of the masses 
of Catalonia and the countries where Catalan 
is still spoken; for we find the writers of the 
later penod of Provengal influence in Catalonia 
conforming to the popular and court usage of 
the age and writing poetry in Provengal and 
prose m Catalan. Moreover, when the Provengal 
influence was suddenly removed, after domina- 
tion of considerable time, the native Catalan 
sprang up fresh and vigorous as the medium 
for both prose and poetic expression. 

The people of Catalonia have ever shown 
strong individuality. When they first came 
into contact with Carthaginians, Greeks, 
Romans and other civilized races they were 

given to agricultnre, commerce, industry and 
the sailing of the sea. So venturesome were 
they that they had coasted out through the 
Strait of Gibraltar and down the west coast of 
Africa before Caesar had visited England. 
This strength of character they showed in their 
stubborn retention of their native tongue long 
after the greater part of the rest of the Iberian 
Peninsula had adopted Latin. Cicero states that 
in his day, which was some considerable time 
after the conquest, the Catalonians possessed 
and used a distinct language of their own. 
This is all the more strange since the other 
parts of Spain came much less into contact with 
the Romans than did all the east coast of the 
peninsula. We are also told that the Cata- 
lonians spoke different dialects in different 
parts of their own country. This is bom out 
by the fact that even to-day there is a con- 
siderable variation in the Catalan speech 
throughout the extensive territory in which it 
is spoken. If we are to judge from the re- 
mains of early Catalan literature of the popu- 
lar kind_ and tne distinct difference between the 
pronunciation of Catalan to-day and that of the 
districts where Provengal had its home, it is 
more than doubtful if Provengal, even in the 
days of its popularity in Catalonia and Valencia, 
was ever understood by the masses of the peo- 
ple- or by anyone except the nobility, and the 
followers of the court, who through intermar- 
riages and other relationships, had made of 
Provengal a common tongue for Valencia, 
Catalonia and the Provengal country. It was, 
therefore, in a sense, artificial. This explains 
why Provengal, after it lost its literary in- 
fluence in Catalonia and Valencia, dropped sud- 
denly out of sight, while the native tongue 
carae out from its literary retreat, vigorous and 
individualistic, capable of expressing all the 
needs and aspirations of a distinctly individual 

f)eople. Even at the date of the earliest Cata- 
an manuscript it has every evidence of being a 
distinct tongue with fixed grammatical and 
other forms; and soon afterward there sprang 
into existence Catalan grammars, dictionaries 
and a large body of distinctive literature; and 
from this and a later period there survive many 
manuscripts and printed books; so that the 
comparison of Catalan with the other Hispanic 
languages is rendered easy. 

One of the distinctive features of Catalan 
which distinguishes it from the other Hispanic 
tongues is its tendency to suppress many of 
the consonant and unaccented vowel endings 
so common in Spanish. Thus the Spanish hom- 
bre, man, becomes horn in Catalan; ciudadano, 
citizen, becomes ciudada ; bueno, good, bo. 
There is also a tendency to other contractions 
not seen in Spanish. Catalan had early be- 
come an analytical language and had thrown 
overboard all Latin declensions and other 
forms peculiar to Latin grammar. Catalan has 
its own distinctive accent and rough throat 
sounds different from the other dialectic forms 
of Spanish. The Catalan speaks very fast, and 
this combined with his cutting of the, Latin 
final vowel forms (except a) makes it dif- 
ficult for even the Spaniard to understand 
him when he speaks Spanish. In Catalan the 
absence of noun declensions is noticeable; and 
there is a tendency to strongly accentuate z be- 
tween vowels ; the Latin u is never modified as 
in French and the Provengal au becomes o. 

Digitized by 




Finally the b and v are kept distinct. Consult 
Baellot y Torres, -''Gramatica de la lengua 
catalana' ; Jubert de Passa, 'Recherches his- 
toriques sur la langue Catalane.' 

John Hubert Cornyn, 
Editorial Staff of the Americana. 

ture of Catalonia and adjacent districts speak- 
ing the same form of the Romance tongues. It 
had its origin in the movement started by the 
troubadours who overran _Catalonia,_ Valencia 
and Provence, and it attained its highest de- 
velopment in the 14th and 15th centuries. The 
literature of Catalonia and Valencia is, there- 
fore, closely related to that of Provence, and 
the two may be said to be practically the same 
development of the Latin tongue subject to dif- 
ferent influences. The former is naturally di- 
vided into three distinct periods, the first of 
which embraces the history of the Catalan lit- 
erary movement from the first appearance of 
Provencal influence to the early part of the 13tb 
century. Catalonia was closely tmited to the 
Latin-speaking people across U»e Pyrenees by 
origin, mtercsts and customs; and the influence 
of Provence, which bad early felt the literary 
movement, became supreme. But under Jaime I 
the_ Barcelona dynasty set itself to develop the 
national spirit of Catalonia with success. This 
first period of Catalan literature, therefore, was 
naturally Provengal in character. Troubadours 
were to be found all over Catalonia as they 
were first in Provence and later all over France 
and most of Spain. Up to the coming of this 
exotic influence there had been no native litera- 
ture in Provence, unless it may have been pop- 
ular songs which, if they ever existed, have d- 
together disappeared _ or become so mingled 
with the Provenjal literature as to be undis- 
tinguishable. But though the Provencal forms 
dominated the Catalan literature during this 
first period there are signs that the Catalan 
spirit was beginning to assert itself. The form 
is Provencal, but much of the spirit of the lit- 
erature is native in forms of expression, modes 
of thought and subject of poetical effort. 
Count Berengfuer, toward the end of this Pro- 
venQal period, thinks like a Catalan ; and through 
his troubadour poetry march Catalan thougnt, 
characters and customs proclaiming the corn- 
ing of a national literature. Yet his work is 
still Provencal. Other Catalan writers, toward 
the close of the 12th century, show the same 
influence. The runted spirit of Catalonia had 
begun to assert itself over the more effeminate 

The Rise of Catalan.— About the begin- 
ning of the 13th century the Provengal influ- 
ence begins to give way before thenew Italian 
literary domination which was ultimately des- 
tined to sweep over all the Latin countries. 
Catalonia and Valencia, lying dose to Italy and 
being in constant touch with it, soon came un- 
der the influence of the new Italian literary re- 
vival; and imitations of the Italian poe'ts be- 
came the order of the day. Renascent Provenqal 
worshipped .at the shrines of Boccaccio, Dante 
and Petrarch, while still casting loving glances 
to the I^ws of Love and the Romance of the 
Rose. In Catalonia and Valencia the floral 
games became an institution patronized alike by 
sovereign, nobles and the many dabblers in lit- 
erature who seem to have literally overrun the 
land. At these games poets contested for 

prizes and kings graciously and proudly award- 
ed them. Among these contestants for poetical 
honors were many men bearing the highest 
titles of nobility; for literature was fashionable 
Jn Catalonia and Valencia, where even the sov- 
ereigns themselves aspired for honors higher 
than their royal distinctions. Under the influ- 
ence of the powerful personality of Jaime I, 
himself ope of the most distinguished of the 
native writers of his age, the exotic Provencal 
gave way rapidly to the customs and beliefs of 
Spanish and Catalan ; and under the king's 
patronage, encouragement and example the Cat- 
alan speech rose into a national language and 
created a national literature. One of the most 
noteworthy^ monuments of the 13th centuiy is 
the 'Chronica o Comentari* of Jaime I, which 
is at once a biography of his life and a history 
of his kingdom for that period. It was the 
first work of true history to appear in Spain. 
About it there Is a freedom, naturalness and 
sincerity, and at times a loftiness of style com- 
bined with simplicity of diction and thought, 
which marie it as a real work of literature, 
throughout which the king's strong^ love of 
everything Catalan is constantly in evidence. 

Under the protection of her sovereigns Cata- 
lonia producea poetry, history, moral philosophy 
and scientific works superior to any other lit- 
erature in Spain at this time; and she may be 
said to have led the way for the brilliant Span- 
ish drama which followed. Among the other 
very notable patrons of literature was Pedro 
ni of Aragon, known as "the great,* himself 
no mean poet and a noted writer on scientific 

Catalan literature attained its highest devel- 
opment in the 14th and ISth centuries. During 
this period two names, Ramon LIuU and Ausias 
March, stand prominently forth. Llull, who was 
bom in 1235, was a voluminous writer of great 
talent who had a powerful influence upon the 
literature of his age. He seems to have cov- 
ered almost every field of literary endeavor 
and to have done wet! nearly everyUiing he at- 
tempted. Ho was a noted orator, naturalist, 
musician, mathematician, scientist, philologist, 
jurist, theologian and poet. His works cover 
almost the whole field of human knowledge. 
His hymns to the Virgin are sincere, terider and 
sweet. Devotion, love of country and the 
triumphs of religion are his chief themes, as 
■they were those of most of the Catalan writers 
of his day. Between Llull and March (who 
died in 1460) there is a long list of Catalan 
writers who have remained unknown to the 
outside world simply because they unfortu- 
nately wrote in a language which was destined 
'through the fortune of conquest to be looked 
'upon as a dialect. These include Ram6n Vidal 
whose *La dreta maniera de trovar' (The Art 
of Poetry) had, a powerful influence upon the 
most notable Catalan poets who followed him; 
Pedro de Arag6n, Ramon de Muntaner, an ex- 
cellent didactic poet, chronicler and historian; 
Bemat des Clos, a learned writer and historian 
of note who took for his special theme the 
counts of Barcelona and Pedro III. Muntaner 
writes as a soldier of what he saw during his 
long life, "so as not to lose the memory of ttiose 
wonderful feats with which the Catalans and 
the Aragonese astonished the world.* His 
work is extensive, varied, regular and me- 
thodical; and he writes with audiority, in his 

Digitized by 




capacity of chancellor to the eastern expedi- 
tion of the army under Roger de Flor. His 
woric bristles with customs, characters, battles, 
sieges, speeches and conversations of leaders 
and warriors ; descriptions of cities, districts and 
people, all presented in an original and sim- 
ple, direct manner that makes camps and camr- 
paigns stand forth in relief. No such history 
had been written before in Spain. Among the 
other writers of this period were Llorens 
Mayol, Luis de Villarrasa, Amaldo March, En 
Dalman Rocaberti, Juan Ruiz de Corelia, An- 
dreu Faber, Jordi de Sent Jordi, Jaume March 
and Mossen Vallmayna, all of whom have left 
important literary remains. Faber translated 
the 'Divina Commedia' in 1428^ Sent Jordi 
wrote excellent sonnets, and- Vallmajma, a poet 
of note, was an authority on troubadour poetry. 

Alfonso V so stirred up the literary en- 
thusiasm of his people that it became the fash- 
ion among his nobles to patronize literature. 
Leonardo des Sors, Jaume de Aulesia and 
Jaume Roig, Lord Francesch Farrer and Lord 
Torrellas were all writers immensely popular 
in their day; and Marco is specially worthy of 
note as a dramatist whose plays appeared to- 
ward the close of the 14th century and prob- 
ably, through their popularity, helped to inspire 
the noted Spanish drama wmch followed short- 
ly afterward. 

The Golden Age. — Between this latter 
peripd and tiiat of the rise of Catalan as a lit- 
erary language is a short and veiy active period 
which began about the middle of the 15th cen- 
tury and ended with its dose. The bright pecu- 
liar light of this, the height of Catalan literary 
activity, was Auseas March, the greatest and 
most original of the Catalan poets. _ He was a 
follower of Petrarch; but no servile imitator. 
Filled with the troubadour spirit, he wrote ten- 
der love songs, moral didatic ;poems and senti^ 
mental sonets full of true feeling and simplicity 
of diction. 'Cants d'amor' and 'Cants de 
Mort' are his .best . and most original poems. 
He was very popular during the 16th century 
when his works passed throug[h several editions 
and were translated into Spanish (1539). With 
him Catalan begins to die as a national litera- 
ture, as Catalan individuality soon merged it- 
self into that of the United Spanish kingdom 
under Ferdinand and Isabel the Catholic. Yet 
Jaume Roig, who survived March 18 years, 
helped to keep alive Catalan traditions m his 
'Libre de Consells' of which many editions 
were published. A caustic satire on women by 
Roig IS a brilliant and trustworthy picture of 
Valencian Ufe and habits in the latter half of 
the 15th century. It is especially valuable from 
a historical point of view. Contrary to the 
popular belief, native poetry was not dead in the 
Catalan country' ; (or as dialect literature it was 
alive at the beginning of. the 18th century. But 
from 1714 it lay practically dormant for over 
a hundred years. 

Catalan Renaisgance may be said to have 
begun with the works of Verdaguer, Soler and 
Rubio between 1840 and 1850, thou^ some little 
interest had been taken in. the language by 
philologists and literary historians previous to 
this time. Carlos Areban, a noted Spanish poet, 
wrote in his native Catalan, a fervid ode to his 
patron, Remisa, in which he painted the past 
glories of Catalan and mourned its neglected 
.estate. This proved a powerful inspiration to 

native Catalans. It was extensiyely printed, re- 
cited and imitated, and brought vivid, patnotic 
imitators in its train who urged the study of 
the ancient Catalan literature ; and, wonderful 
to relate, this artificial movement was immense- 
ly successful and it became the popular thing 
in Spain and elsewhere to praise aifd encour- 
age Catalan. Rubio's poems; Which ^gdn' to 
appear in the public press in 1841, stirred up 
enthusiasm wherever Catalan was read. Look- 
ing to the past and praising the jglories of an- 
cient Catalan, they turned attention to a long- 
neglected and alrnost forgotten literature. Then 
came Sol y Padris, young, energetic and enthu- 
siastic, who, taking men s eyes from the past, 
set them on the future. His became the voice 
of the prophet proclaiming the renaissance of 
Catalan. Boraiull addea to the movement 
aesthetic taste and good literary style ; Vlllar- 
raya, with his <Canco,> and Pascula Pirez, with 
his 'Sent yicente Ferer,' gave a new impetus 
and enthusiasm to the renaissance movement 
After 1850 Bonilla and Baldovi added a new 
patriotic note. In 1861 Mila added still more 
to the Catalan revival by the publication of his 
'Trovadores en £spafia,> which painted, in 

flowing colors, the early literary history of 
pain and especially Catalan. Iliis was fol- 
lowed by Astorch's 'Catalan Grammar.' Bla- 
guer became the bright particular propagandist 
for the return to Catalan; and Boraiull, Mila 
and Rubio succeeded in restoring the ancient 
floral games which had done so much to en- 
courage literature under the native kings. 
Teodoro Llorente and Vincente W. Queral add- 
ed fervor, inspiration and correctness of style 
to the new movement and showed what Catalan 
was capable of producing, in the way of mod- 
em literature. 

Robreno y Renart revived the traditions of 
the ancient Catalan theatre in his very popular 
comic drama; and Federico Sokr produced a 
series of musical parody comedies which were 
immensely popular, the first of these appearing 
in 1864. Vidal y_ Valenciano, in 'Tal faras tal 
trovar&s' revolutionized the Catalan drama, in- 
spired numerous other writers of note, and es- 
tablished the popularity of the rising Catalan 
theatre. Damaso Calvert, Conrado Roure and 
Francisco Pelayo Briz and numerous lyric 
poets helped along the Catalan revival. News- 
papers and journals in Catalan appeared in va- 
rious cities and Catalan theatres and good act- 
ors sprang up all over the land. Among 
the later names of this movement the most 
noted are Ignacio Iglesias, Rusignol and Angel 
Guimera. Of these the latter is by far the 
greatest name in Catalan literature and his is 
the foremost name in modern Spanish drams^ 
even though his plays have had to be translated 
from Catalan into Spanish. Guimera's name is 
synonymous^ with Catalan drama. He begran 
exhibiting his plays when there was no theatre 
which would take them, for they had no com- 
mercial value; and he has lived to see Catalan 
drama in possession of the Teatro_ Principal pf 
Barcelona,^ the largest playhouse in all Spain, 
and to rejoice over its possession" of_ excdlent 
theatres not only in Catalonia, but in all the 
principal cities of the land. Guimera has been 
proclaimed, by the whole Spanish^ people, one 
of the greatest geniuses of the Spanish stage and 
of Spanish literature, of which Catalan is 
nationally looked upon in Spain as a dialect 

Digitized by 




He is vet7 emotional, ina^nativ^ strong, fierce 
at tines;, a master of situations and all the 
tricks of the drama. He always goes straight 
to the heart of the situation and he has as 
strong a dramatic sense as Shakespeare and 
Hugo, his two great masters. His early plays 
were written in blank verse; but later he 
adopted a peculiarly vivid and exact prose in 
which redundances and verbosity, of sul kinds 
were avoided. Rapidity of movement distin- 
guishes all his worlL Among^ his dramas, which 
are numerous, are 'Gala Placida' ; <Mar y Cel' ; 
<L'Anima Morta> ; <Lo Fill del Rw>: <Las 
Monjas de Sant Avman' ; 'En Polvora* ; 
'Terra Baix«> (translated into English tmder 
the title of 'Marta ot the Lowlands' ) : ' Aygta 
que Corre*; 'Las Pecadors'; 'Sol Solet*: 'Lo 
Cami del SoP ; 'Jesus de Nazareth' ; and 'La 
Reyna Jove.' He has also written comedies of 
local customs, farces and distinctly romantic 
dramas, poems and patriotic songs. He was the 
first to carry Catalan drama beyond the bound- 
aries of Spain. His plays have been trans- 
lated into more than a score of languages and 
tlie best of them have been played in nearly 
all the great capitals of Europe and America. 
'Tierra Baja,' in the translation made by 
Wallace Gillpatrick ol New York, was presented 
OB the metropolitan stage in 1903 and smce then 
it has been periodically revived, has traveled 
across the continent several times and has been 
taken to England, 'Maria la Rosa' has also 
been translated into English. 

Bibliography. — Cambouliu, 'Essai sur I'his- 
toire de la litterature catalane' (Paris) ; 
Mila y Fontanals, 'Observaciones sobre la 
literatura catalana popular' (Barcelona) ; Pers 
y Ramona, 'Historja de la lengua y de la litera- 
tura catalana' (Barcelona) ; Rubio y Ors, 
'Renacimiento de la lengua y Utentturas cata- 
lanas' (Barcelona); Tubino, 'El renacimiento 
literario contemporaneo en Cataluiia,' etc. 
(Madrid) ; Wolf, 'Proben Portugiesischer 
und catalanischer Volks-Romanzen' (Vienna). 
John Hubert Cornyn, 
Editoral Staff of The Americafta. 

CATALANOANBS, ki-ta-lan-gans'. a 
Malay people of Mongoloid type, living in the 
flood plain of the Catalangan River (province 
of Isabela, Luzon, Philippines). They are 
dean and industrious, and dress like the Chris- 
tian Malays. They worship two pairs of gods. 
and their ancestors. They are heathen and 
peaceable and speak the same langua^ as the 
Irayas. Consult Sawyer, 'The Inhabitants of 
the Philippines' (1900). 

CATALANI, ka-ta-lS'nC, Alfredo, Italian 
composer: b. Lucca, 19 July 1854: d. Milan, 7 
Aug. 1893. He was graduated at the Paris Con- 
servatory and settled _ in • Milan, where he 
achievea fame with brilliant operas, especially 
'Dejanice,' 'Lorely' and 'La Wally.> 

CATALANI. Angelica, Italian singer : b. 
Sinigaglia. most probably in 1782, although 
several ottier years are given ; d. Paris, 13 June 
1849. As early as her seventh year her mag- 
nificent voice had become the subject of gen- 
eral remark, but it was not till the age of 14 
that she received any instruction in the higher 
departments of the musical art. At 16 she was 
compelled by family misfortunes to turn her 
talents to accoimt, and made her first appear- 
ance on the stage at Venice. She afterward 

filled the grand soprano parts at the operas of 
Milan, Florence, Rome and Naples and in 1799 
accepted an engagement at the opera of Lis- 
bon, where she continued for five years. She 
then visited successively Madrid, Paris, Lon- 
don and the principal towns of Great Britain, 
in all of whicn her success and profits were im- 
mense. In 1814. she returned to Paris to take 
the management of the Italian opera there, but 
sustained thereby severe pecuniary losses from 
the injudicious interference of her husband, 
de Valabregue, formerly a cajitain in the French 
army. On Napoleon's return in 1815 she was 
obliged to resign the direction of the opera, but 
resumed it again on the second restoration. In 
1818 she again resigned the direction of the 
opera, and from that year till 1828 made re- 
peated professional tours through the Continent 
and Great Britain. In 1830 she retired from 
public life to a villa in the neighborhood of 
Florence, and here she resided with her fam- 
ily and gave instruction to g^irls who manifested 
indications of local talent, one condition being 
reiiuired from them that they should adopt the 
name of Catalanl She was a woman of m»i 
jestic appearance and her voice displayed a 
wondernil degree of power, flexibility and 
compass. She rather astonished and over- 
powered an audience than touched or subdued 
their hearts by her marvelous execution. Con- 
sult Edwards, 'The Prima Donna' (Vol. L 
London 1888) ; Ferris, 'Great Singers' (New 
Yoric 1893): Needham, 'Queens of Song' 
(London 18(53); Lahee, H. C, 'Famous Singers 
of To-Day and Yesterday' (Boston 1900). 

name for the wide plain around Chakms-sur- 
Mame, in France, famous as the field where 
Aetius, - the Roman general, and Theodoric, 
King of the West Goths, gained a complete vic- 
tory over Attila and the Huns, 451 A.D. 

CATALDO, ka-tal'd6, SAINT, Italy, town 
in the province of Caltanissetta, five miles 
west-southwest of the town of Caltanissetta. 
The sulphur works in the environs produce 
annually about 1,875 long tons. Pop. 12,800. 

CATALEPSY, a peculiar motor t>henom- 
enon, not a disease, that is found in a number 
of nervous disorders. It consists of a persist- 
ent muscular attitude of some part of the body, 
and may or may not be attended by uncon- 
sciousness. Thus a person may place the right 
arm or leg, or another may so place the limb, 
in a peculiar, or awkward, or m fact any posi- 
tion. This position is maintained b^ the pa- 
tient for a very long time, usually a tune much 
longer than a normal individual could maintain 
it. Almost any muscle group may be involved. 
The patients may squat on the floor, or stand 
on one leg for hours, or hold both arms in the 
air almost all day. There seems to be some 
form of muscle anaesthesia and the position 
of the limb seems to be unknown and unfelt 
by the patient. This symptom is very frequent 
in cases of true hysteria (q-v.), and it is also 
found in a number of other affections that 
cluster about hysteria. T^us it is present in 
somnambulism, in hypnosis, in a peculiar men- 
tal state known as catatonia (4.y.) and in stu- 
porous melancholia, — all of which have much 
in common, being affections superimposed on 
the hysterical nervous organization, a type of 
make-up of a character, whose main features 

Digitized by 




are assuming; a definite recognition by students 
of the functions of the nervous system. The 
normal functions of respiration, digestion and 
circulation continue. Prolonged cases demand 
forced feeding. Between attacks cold baths, 
tonics and various remedies are recommended. 
An emetic or a pinch of snuff may solnetimes 
avert an attack. .The disease still demands in- 
vestigation, as its immediate cause is not 
known. Consult Janet, 'Mental State of Hys- 
tericals' ; Raymond, 'Obsessions et Psychas- 
thenics* ; Starr, 'Text-Book of Nervous Dis- 

'CATALOGUES. See Librasy Adminis- 

CATALONIA (Spanish Cataluna), for- 
merly a semi-independent principality of Spain, 
then a part of the domains of the Crown of 
Aragon arid now a captaincy-general of the 
Spanish kingdom. Catalonia, which is com- 
posed of the four provinces, Gerona, Lerida, 
Barcelona and Tarragona, occupies the north- 
east corner of Spain. It is bounded on the 
east by the Mediterranean Sea, on the north by 
the Pyrenees, on the west by Aragon and on 
the south by Valencia. It comprises about 12,- 
500 square miles of territory and has a popu- 
lation of about 2,000(000. The country, on the 
whole rugged, contains many fertile valleys 
watered by numerous streams and rivers, none 
of which are navigable. Along its coast of 
240 miles are numerous harbors, the best of 
which are Barcelona, Tarragona, Mataro and 
Rosas. Of the rivers of the country, all of 
which .flow into the Mediterranean,, the Ebro 
alone is worthy of note, though most of the 
streams are famed in the traditions of the peo- 
ple and its rulers. In the regions of the inte- 
rior, which are traversed by a spur of the 
Pyrenees running in a southern direction in a 
very broken formation, are many wooded hills 
and peaks from which much commercial wood 
is taken. But the non-wooded lands, wherever 
workable, are nearly all devoted to agriculture. 
The rugged hillsides, however, support many 
goats and sheep; but comparatively few cattle. 
Everywhere the country is visited by mists and 
rains, and these make the low coast lands fer- 
tile. Though hot they are healthful except in 
the low and swampy parts, which are compara- 
tively few. In the higher regions the climate 
passes from cool and temperate to quite cold, 
for the snow lies on the mountain summits 
nearly the whole year. 

The people of Catalonia, owing to the fact 
that for centuries they have had to defend 
their language, customs and individuality, have 
become clannish. They had originally a clan 
system, the country being occupied by numerous 
independent tribes who never united except in 
case of common danger. Among these tribes 
who distinguished themselves during the 
Roman connection with Catalonia or later were 
the Ceretanos, Russinos, Indigentes, Lacetanos, 
Laletanos, Suesetanos, Sedetanos, Cosetanos, 
Acetanos, Ilergentes, Ilercanos and Ausetanos. 
These and the other tribes of . Catalonia, not- 
withstanding their lack of political unity and 
nationality, were great traders and. very active 
in all the occupations and pursuits of life. 
They were venturesome sailors and traded up 
and down the coast, along which they appear to 
have planted colonies before the coming of out- 

siders to their land. The first of these were 
the Phoenicians who for a considerable space 
of time carried on trade relatibns with the east 
coast of Spain. The natives learned much from 
their more cultured neighbors; and, imitating 
them, they became still bolder sailors and are 
said to have sailed out through the Straits of 
Gibraltar and to have coasted down the west 
coast of Africa for a considerable distance. 
The Greeks followed tiie Phoenicians to Cata- 
lonia, and were also received in a most friendly 
manner by the natives, who also increased 
their knowledge of civilization through their 
contact with the Greeks. 

This prosperity and peace was broken up by 
the Carthaginians under Hamilcar, who, hearing 
that Catalonia was rich in gold mines, landed a 
lar^e force of trained soldiers on the coast with 
a view of conquest. A prolonged and desperate 
struggle followed; and several times the 
Carthaginians suffered defeat. Hannibal fol- 
lowed his father to Spain and had the same 
fierce _ struggle. Whenever the invaders were 
victorious they put the natives to the sword. It 
was during this striiggle that Barcelona was 
founded on the coast as a fortress and place of 
refu^ for the invaders driven back from the 
interior. When war broke out between Rome 
and Carthage, C. Scipio seized the coast of 
Catalonia, and P. Cato, after a long and 
desperate strugs^e, finally reduced the country 
to slavery. The devastated land was redi- 
vided, policed by the Roman army and peace 
finally settled down upon it. In the course of 
time many of the natives rose to prominence 
throughout the conquered land and the Romans 
and the Catalans intermarried and formed a 
mestizo race which had already become a strong 
factor in the national life before the over- 
throw of Roman power. Flourishing towns 
and cities sprang up all over Catalonia. Over 
600 of these are mentioned on the Roman 
tribute lists, which were kept at Tarragona, the 
capital of the province. Roman law was ex- 
tended everywhere throughout Catalonia; and 
roads, temples, theatres, circuses, public baths 
and mag;nincent private residences and stately 
temples existed in all the chief cities, until at 
last Catalonia became another Italy and the 
favored province of the Romans. The Em- 
peror Adrian gave a s{>ecial constitution to 
Catalonia; and Rome looked upon the country 
as one of the storehouses of the empire. 

But the invasion of the Goths and other bar- 
barians once more arrested the prosperity of 
Catalonia; which finally, after another period 
of desperate struggle, became the head of a 
kingdom founded by Ataulf o. . In the time of 
Teodorico a popular insurrection against the 
harshness of the government of tne native 
rulers started in Catalonia and spread rapidly 
over all Spain. Civil war lasted for over half 
a century and numerous Spanish generals sent 
to reduce Catalonia were themselves signally 
defeated. Shortly after peace had been re- 
stored the Arabs overran the coast; but they 
found the Catalans as hard to conquer as had 
the other invaders, for they were defeated 
several times, and signally so in 756. . Other 
bands of Saracens were driven out with the 
help of Charles the Great. Catalonia was an- 
nexed to Aragon through the marriage of the 
heads of the two countries, and it was under 
French rule three different times between 1640 

Digitized by 




and 1813. It fought gallantly and savagely in 
the wars against Napoleon and took part in the 
dvil wars m Spain in 1820, 1823, 1827 and in 
the later Carlist troubles. In 1842 Barcelona 
was bombarded by the Spanish army ; and dur- 
ing the struggle that preceded and followed 
this bombardment it several times defeated 
noted Spanish leaders. Barcelona is the great 
revotuticMiary centre of Spain to-day; and this 
is probably why the people cling so tenaciously 
to their customs and language. 

Bibliogrmphy. — Balaguer, 'Historia de Cata- 
ltifia>( Madrid) ; Balari y Jovany, <Origines His- 
toricos de Catalafia> (Barcelona) ; Bof arull y 
Sans, 'Antigua Marina Catalana^ (Barcelona) ; 
Campany, 'Memorias Historicas> (Madrid); 
Gil Maestre, M., 'Anarquismo- en Espaf»a> 
(Madrid) ; Pefferrer and others, <Catalufta, 
sus monumentos, artes, etc.' (Barcelona) ; 
Tomich, *Historias e Conqoetas dels Comtes 
de Barcelona* (Barcelona). 

CATALPA, ka-til'pa, a genus .of trees of 
the family Bignoniacece, consisting of about 
10 species in North America and Asia. They 
have large, entire or lobed leaves, large pani- 
cles ot showy white, yellow or pink flowers, 
and fruit of long, slender, cylindrical pods. C. 
catalpa, the common cataipa or Indian bean, is 
a native of _ the southern United States. C. 
speciosa, a similar species, the western catalpa, 
ranges from Illinois and Indiana to Louisiana 
and Mississippi. The wood of these two spe- 
cies is coarse-grained and soft but very dur- 
able in the ground, consequently it is much val- 
ued for fence-posts and railroad ties. These 
species and some of the Asiatic ones are very 
widely used as ^hade trees. 

(Gk. KaToXbtiv, to dissolve). Ortain chemical 
reactions are very markedly accelerated in the 
presence of substances which emerge from the 
reaction unaltered. For exiunple^ cane sugai- 
is inverted (changed into a mixture of dextrose 
and levulose) in the presence of acids with a 
velocity that increased with the strength of the 
acid. This phenomenon is called catalysis, and 
the acid is said to be a catalyst. Water, which 
delays the reaction, is said to be a negative cata- 
lyst. Again, it is possible by the formation of 
an arc under water to obtain ultramicroscopic 
suspensions of many of the metals, such as 
gold, silver or platinum. These suspensions 
nave the remarkable property of decomposii^ 
hydrogen peroxide very rapialy into water and 
oxygen, while they themselves remain un- 
changed. A similar action is shown by cer- 
tain organic substances, the enzymes. In the 
case both of the enzymes aiid of the ultrami- 
croscopic colloidal metallic suspensions, the 
catalytic action is immensely diminished vy the 
presence of very slight quantities of certain 
poisonous substances such as hydrocyanic acid 
or hydrogen sulphide. Another interesting ex- 
ample of catalysis is the action of platinum^ — 
black or sulphur dioxide and oxygen, which 
unite in its presence to form sulphur trioxide. 
Water vapor is often a catalytic agent ; dry 
anunonia vapor and dry hydrochloric acid will 
not unite. This example illustrates the fact 
that catalytic agents accelerate both halves of 
a reversible reaction, for dry ammonium chlor- 
ide can be vaporised without dissociating into 
ammonia and hydrochloric acid. Catalysis is 

an extremely common phenomenon in chemis- 
try. Its nature is not well understood; it is 
agreed that in certain reactions which appear 
catalytic the "catalyser* enters into the reac- 
tion and is ultimately regenerated, but this ex- 
planation does not cover all the cases found. 
In the case of platinum black, which acts as a 
catalyser in many reactions, Faraday consid- 
ered that the action was due to the approxima- 
tion of the molecules of absorbed ^ses. This 
ease, however, has also been explained as due 
to the foimation of intermediate products into 
which platinum enters. In general, most catal- 
ysis is a surface action, and is accelerated by 
fine subdivision of the catalyst because of the 
immense areas thus brought into play. Cer- 
tain substances are known to catalyse them- 
selves. See also Enzymes. 

BibUography. — Mrs. Fulhame, <An Essay 
on Combustion' (London 1794) ; McUoi, 
•Chemical Dynamics' (London 1909) ; Ost- 
wal4 't)ber die Katalyse' {Zeitschrift fiir 
Elektrofhemie, Vol. VII, 1901) ; Rosanoff, M. 
A., 'Outline of a Theory of Homogeneous 
Catelysis' {Jour. Am. Ckem. Soc, VoL XXXV, 
1913.); Woker, J., <Die Katalyse' (Stuttgart 

CATAMARAN, kat'a-mvrSn, a sort of 
raft used in the East Indies, Brazil and else- 
where. Those of the island of Ceylon, Madras 
and other parts of the Indian coast are , formed 
of three jogs. The timber preferred for their 
construction is the dup-wood or cherne-maram, 
the pine-varnish tree. Their length is from 20 
to 25 feet and breadth 2^ to 3}4 feet. The 
logs of which they are constructeid are secured 
together by means of three spreaders and cross 
lashings through small holes. The centre log 
is much the largest and is pointed at the fore 
end. These floats are navigated with great 
skill by one or two men in a kneeling posture. 
They think nothing of passing through the surf 
which lashes the beach at Madras, and at other 
parts of these coasts, when even £he boats of 
the country could not live upon the waves, and 
they are also propelled out to the shipping at 
anchor when boats of the best construction 
would be swamped. In the monsoons, when a. 
sail can be got on them, a small outrigger is 
placed at the end of two poles as a balance, 
with a bamboo mast and yard, and a mat or 
cotton-doth sail. Tfie name is applied also to 
the double boat in the United States. These 
have almost always proved very slow. How- 
ever, some have been built for racing purposes 
which were satisfactory. In the United States 
navy the term ^catamaran* is sometimes ap- 
plied to the balsa or to a float used for the men 
who clean the ship's side along the water line. 

CATAMARCA, ka-ta-mar'ca, Argentina, 
province, bounded north by Salta, east by Tucu- 
man and Santiago del Estero, south by Cordoba 
and Rioja and west by Rioja and Chile; area, 
about 47,530 square miles. The surface is very 
mountainous in parts, except the southern, 
where it stretches out into a large plain. _ The 
loftiest and best known of the mountains is 
the Sierra de Aconquija, which stretches from 
south to north and attains in its culminating 
point near its southern extremity a height of 
more than 16,000 feet. The Santa Maria, flow- 
ing north to the Hnachipas, is the only river 
of any importance, but as every valley has its 

Digitized by 




mouDfaiti stream, the whole province is well 
watered. Most of the smaller streams are dry 
in the summer, but overfiow in the winter. 
There are also a number of salt lakes. The 
soil is fertile, producing large crops of maize 
and wheat and supporting large numbers of 
live stodc, especially goats. The vine is also 
cultivated and yields wine and spirits which 
bear a high name in the surrounding countries. 
The principal exports are beasts of burden, 
horned cattle and hides and goatskins, raw or 
tanned. The principal mineral is iron, but gold, 
silver and lead are also found. The capital is 
Catamarca. Pop. (1910) 110,317, chiefly of 
Indian extraction, with a considerable mixture 
of Spaniards. 

CATAMARCA, Argentina, the capital of 
the province of Catamarca, situated on the 
Valle River, 82 miles northeast of Rioja and 
about 250 miles northwest of Cordoba. It is 
connected by rail with Rioja and all the chief 
towns of the republic. It is regularly and mod- 
erately well built and contains a fine town-hall, 
a Franciscan monastery, a national college and 
a normal school for women. There are con- 
siderable imports of European goods and the 
place is the centre of distribution for a flourish- 
mg district. Dried figs, wines, brandy and cotton 
are the principal articles of export, together 
with the curious form of embroidery for whic)i 
the women are celebrated. It was founded in 
1683. Pop. (1905) 8,000; (1916) 13,900. 

CATAMOUNT, a short forqi of the 
phrase "cat of the mountain," frequenHy found 
. m the older books about America and still 
occasionally used as a name for the l}aix of 
the eastern United States, and sometimes for 
the pimia, or "panther," once common in New 
England. The term is so indefinite that it is 
well that it has fallen into disuse. 

CATANDUANBS, ka-tan-dwa'nez, Philip- 
pines, an island lying northeast of the prov- 
ince of Albay, Luzon; its length is 44 miles 
north and south ; width, 29 miles at the southern 
end; area, 704 square miles. The mountain 
system consists of three ranges that radiate 
from Mount Catilamong near the centre of the 
island ; the' rest of the surface is irregular, cov- 
ered with low hills. The most important rivers 
are the Oc6 and the Bat6 or Cabugao; there 
are also a number of smaller rivers, and the 
island is well watered. The soil is fertile, and 
rice, cotton, corn arid hemp are raised; indigo 
and cocoanuts are exported. The natives find 
gold, both dust and nuggets, in the gravel beds 
of many of the rivers. The largest town is 
Birac (pop. 5,832). The island does not form 
a province of itself, but is a constituent part of 
the province of Albay, and is included in the 
military department of Luzon. Pop. 33,3(X). 

CATANIA (ancient Catana), Italy, city 
of Sicily, in the province of Catania, on the 
borders of the valley of Noto, the see of a 
bishop, the suffragan of Monreal, 47 miles 
south-southwest of Messina, 85 east-southeast 
of Palermo. It is situated on a gulf of the 
Mediterranean, at the foot of Mount .£tna. 
This city has been reputedly visited by violent 
earthquakes, and partially laid in ruins by 
lava from eruptions of Mount X,tm. Tm 
most disastrous eruption was that of 1669, by 
which many of the antiquities of Catania were 

overwhelmed, and the worst eartliquake was 
that of 1693, when 18,000 people were destroyed. 
Although again greatly injured by the earth- 
quake of 1/83, Catania is now reviving with 
great splendor and has much more the features 
of a metropolis than Palermo. The prtncipai 
streets are wide and well paved with lava. 
Most of the edifices have an air of magnificence 
unknown in other parts of the island, and the 
town has a title to rank among the elegant cities 
of Europe. An obelisk of red granite, placed 
on the back of an antique elephant of touch- 
stone, stands in the centre of the great square^ 
which is formed by the town-^all, seminary 
and cathedral. The cathedral, a fine building 
was founded in 1091 by Count Roger, but 
required to be mostly rebuilt after the earth- 
quake of 1693. It is dedicated to Saint Agatha, 
the patroness of the city. The suppressed Bene- 
dictme monastery of Saint Nicholas, comprising 
a church (with splendid organ), library, mu- 
seum and other extensive buildings, was long 
celebrated for wealth and splendor. The uni- 
versity, founded about 1445, has about 1,200 
students, a school of pharmacy, a library of 
over 130,000 volumes and a fine collection of 
shells. The ruins of the amphitheatre, which 
was more extensive than the Cfoliseura at Rome, 
are still to be seen, as also the remains of the 
theatre, baths, aqueducts, sepulchral chambers, 
hippodrome and several temples. The indus- 
tnes include the manufacture of silk, linen and 
cotton goods, and objects in lava, wood, mar- 
ble and Sicilian amber, and the mining of 
sulphur. The harbor was formerly a good one, 
but by the_ eruption of 1669 its entrance was 
almost entirely choked up, and. it is only in 
recent times that it has been improved, a con- 
siderable amount of money having been spent 
on it. The trade of Catania is of some im- 
portance, the principal export being sulphur, 
next to which come oranges and lemons, 
almonds and other fruits and wine. Cereals, 
textiles and other manufactures are the chief 
imports. The exports have an average annual 
value of about $5,000,000. A circular railway 
runs from Catania round the base of Mount 
.Stna. The classic Catana was founded by 
Greeks from C^alcis about 729 B.C. and soon 
became prosperous. It was the Athenian head- 
quarters in the war between Athens and Syra- 
cuse 432 B.a It flourished under the Romans, 
by whom it was taken in 263 b.c. It wras plun- 
dered by the Saracens and fortified by the 
Normans, and in 1169 a.D. almost destroyed by 
an earthquake. It was restored in 1232 and 
fortified by Frederick II, and again flourished 
for four centuries until the great earthquake 
and eruption of 1669, which nearly filled up 
the harbor. Pop. 211,699. 

CATANZARO, ka-tan-za'ro (ancient Ca- 
tacium), Italy, city and capital of the southern 
province of tne same name, on a height, eight 
miles from the (xulf of Squillace. It suffered 
severely from the g^eat earthquake of 1783, 
but is still a place of some importance, de- 
fended b^ a citadel, and containing a cathedral 
and various other churches, an academy of 
sciences, one of the four great civil courts of 
the kingdom, a lyceum and three hospitals. 
The climate being cool and healthful in sum- 
mer, many wealthy families reside here. The 
manufactures consist chiefly of siUc and velvet. 

Digitized by 



and there is some trade in wheat, wine, oil, etc. 
Pop. 34,103. 

CATAPHORBSIS, kit-a-for-e'sls, a 
method of introducing remedies into the hpdy 
by means of electriaty. While certain sub- 
stances can be made to penetrate the sldn by 
means of electrical currents, the general cata- 
phoretic method has not found favor with 
conservative and careful observers. 

CATAPHRACTI, a group of fishes known 
also as •mailed-cheeked,* characterired by hav- 
ing a bridge-like bone running from below the 
eye to the gill covers. The group includes the 
rock-fishes, scorpion-fishes, sculpins, sea- 
poachers, gurnards, lump-suckers and sea-snails. 
Most of these live in the sea, but there are 
several species of sculpins which dwell in 
fresh-water streams and lakes and are known 
as miller's thumbs. The names Loricati -and 
Pareiopliteee are also applied to this group. 
Consult Jordan and Everroann, 'Fishes of 
North and Middle America.' 

CATAPLASM, poultice or plaster applied 
to sore parts to increase suppuration, relieve 
pain, stimulate the skin or some similar pur- 
pose. It may be composed of any moist and 
pulpy substance that will retain the water with- 
out dripping or soaking through thiri muslin 
covering in which it is usually wrapped. Cata- 
plasms are not official in me United States 
Pharmacopeia. The linseed-meal poultice is 
the most easily made, and most satisfactory of 
all soothing applications. The meal is stirred 
gradually into a sufficient quantity of boiling 
water, placed in the bottom of a small basin or 
teacup, until a perfectly smooth pulp is formed 
of the proper consistency, and in quantity suffi- 
cient to cover completely, to the thickness of 
three-ti^rters of an inch, the whole painful 
part. The pulp is then folded up in muslin or 
thin calico and applied as soon as the heat will 
permit it to be borne. The bread and milk, or 
even bread and water poultice, is also very 
good; as is also the oatmeal-porridge poultice, 
to which a little butter may be added with 
advantage. A spoonful or two of yeast may 
be added, if there are foul discharges, or char- 
coal may be sprinkled on the surface of the poul- 
tice before it is applied. Poultices made of clay 
and glycerin have the great advantage over 
linseed or bread poultices in that Jhey can be 
made aseptic. When considerable irritation of 
the skin in a short time is desirable, a mustard 
plaster or sinapsim \sinapi, mustard] is used. 
The making of an effective poultice, however, 
is rather a delicate operation, since numerous 
little niceties must be consiaered and proper 
conditions observed before a desirable prepara- 
tion is obtained. 

CATAPULT, an engine of war, which 
had considerable vogue among the ancients. It 
somewhat resembled a crossbow, and was 
operated by means of a string or rope, suddenly 
freed from great tension, which gave a power- 
ful impulse to an arrow placed in a groove. 
There were various modifications of catapults, 
but in essential purpose and construction they 
were all alike. Thus, there were catapults fixed 
upon a scaffold with wheels, which were used 
for hurling huge stones in sieges; smallen 
madunes that were readily portable were em- 

ployed in field operations. A toy-catapuh was 
and still is used by boys at play for throwing 
stones or similar projectiles. 

CATARACT. An opacity of the lens of 
th» eye. See Eye. 

CATARACTS (from Latin, cataracta, a 
•water- fall"), one of the names given to sud- 
den descents in streams of water, the more 
general Ejiglish term being fall or falls. A 
considerable declivity in the bed of a river pro- 
duces rapids. When it shoots over a precipice 
it forms .a cataract. If it falls from steep to 
steep, in successive cataracts, it is often called 
a cascade. In rocky countries rivers abound 
in falls and rapids. In alluvial districts, falls, 
of course, are very rare. Rapids and cataracts 
are often a blessing to rugged countries, since 
they furnish the cheapest means of driving 
machines in manufactories, etc. In recent 
times water-falls have been utilized in the fur- 
nishing of electric power in addition to ordi- 
nary water power. Many cataracts are remark- 
able for their sublimity, the grandest known 
being Niagara Falls (^.v.), on the Niagara 
River, between Lakes Erie and Ontaria Some 
others of note are mentioned below. 

The Montmorency River, which joins the 
Saint Lawrence a few miles below Quebec, 
forms a magnificent cataract, 250 feet high. 
The Missouri, in the upper part of its course, 
descends 357 feet in loyi miles. There are 
four cataracts, one of 87, one of 19, one of 47 
and one.of 26 feet high. The Yosemite River 
in California forms a series of magnificent 
falls, with a total descent of Z600 feet. The 
first of them is a plunge of 1,500 feet, and is 
followed, after a scries of beautiful cascades, 
b)[ a final plunge of about 400 feet Fully 200 
miles from the mouth of the Hamilton River 
in Labrador there is a magnificent series of 
cataracts known as die Grand Fall% the largest 
having a hei^t of over 300 feet In Colombia, 
South America, a great cataract, that of Te- 
quendama, is formed by the Bogota River, 
The river precipitates itself through a narrow 
chasm, about 36 feet broad, to the depth' of 
over 600 feet. On the Potaro River in British 
Guiana, the Kaieteur Fall, 740 feet high, and 
about 370 broad, is a splendid spectacle, and 
just below it is a second fall of 88 feet 

The most remarkable waterfall in Africa is 
one with which Dr. Livingstone's missionary 
travels first made us acquainted. This is a 
cataract on the Zambesi, called by the natives 
Mosioatunya ("smoke sounds here*), named by 
him Victoria Falls. The stream, about 1,860 
yards broad, -flowing over a bed of basaltic 
rock, is suddenly precipitated into a tremen- 
dous fissure, extending across the bed of the 
river from the right to the left bank, to the 
depth of about 370 feet. The breadth of this 
fissure or crack is only from 80 to 90 yards, and 
the pent-up waters, from which immense col^ 
umns of vapor are continually ascending, are - 
then hurried through a prolon^tion of the 
chasm to the left with furious violence. The 
so-called Cataracts of the Nile are not, prop- 
erly speaking, cataracts. A more correct desig- 
nation for them would be •rapids." The 
Stanley Falls on the Kongo comprise seven 
cataracts. On the Tugela River in Natal there 
are the Tugela Falls. On the Umgeni River, 

Digitized by 




in the same country, are the falls of the Great 
Umseni (364 feet) and the Kar Kioof Falls 
(350). There seem to be no waterfalls of 
more note in Asia than those of the Cavery 
River of India. 

One of the grandest falls in Europe is diat 
of the Ruikanfoss ("smoking fall"), on the 
Maan River in Norway. The height of the 
cataract is 805 feet. . In Sweden, on the Gotha 
River, a few miles below its outlet from Lake 
Wencr, are the _ celebrated falls of Trollhatta, 
which nave a height of over 100 feet. The cas- 
cade of Gavamie, in the Pyrenees, is reputed 
the loftiest in Europe, being over 1,300 feet high. 
Its volume of water, however, is so small that 
it is converted into spray before reaching the 
bottom of_ the fall. Another waterfall in the 
Pyrenees is that of Secul^jo, in the neighbor- 
hood of Bagneres-de-Luchon. It descends from 
the Lac d'Espingo, into the Lac de Seculijo, 
or d'Oo, a singularly romantic mountain reser- 
voir, from a height of 820 feet, and is the most 
copious of the Pyrenean waterfalls. The Swiss 
Alfjs likewise contain some falls of great sub- 
limity. At Lauterbrunnen, in addition to 
numerous other cascades, is the renowned fall 
of the Staubbach, about 870 feet high, which, 
however, from its_ small volume of water, has 
none of the terrific adjuncts of a cataract, 
and resembles, in front, a beautiful iace veil 
suspended from the summit of the precipice. 
Near Martigny is the picturesque waterfall of 
the Sellesche or Pissevache, the final leap of the 
cascade being 128 feet. The falls of the Rhine 
at SchaflFhausen are renowned over* Europe. 
They are 300 feet broad and nearly 1(X) feet 
high. In Italy the falls of Terni, or the Cascate 
del Mannore on the Velino, have been immor- 
talized by Lord Byron, and, though artificial, 
are justly regarded as among the finest and 
most picturesque in Europe. They consist of 
three falls, the aggregate height of which may 
be estimated at SSO feet. The falls of the Anio 
or Teverone, at Tivoli, are likewise very beauti- 
ful. They, too, are artificial, and have a fall 
of about 80 feet. 

CATARMAN, ka-tHr-man', Philippines, a 
town on the north coast of the island of Samar, 
situated on the Catarman River, 55 miles north- 
east of Catbalogan. It has a good anchorage 
ground. In 1871 the town was destroyed by a 
volcano which burst forth in July from low 
land on the west side of the island, and in two 
months had thrown up a hill two-thirds of a 
mile long, one-third of a mile wide and about 
450 feet high, destroying all vegetation for 
miles around. At the time of the visit of the 
Challenger, January 1875, the vglcano had at- 
tained a height^ of 1,950 feet, and was still 
active, there being visible columns of smoke 
by day and series of small fires at its summit 
by night. Pop. 10,482. 

CATARRH, ka-tar', a flow from a mucous 
membrane. It is a symptom purely, and not a 
• disease, and any mucous membrane of the body 
may^ be affected by an acute or chronic inflam- 
mation, usually entitled an acute or chronic 
catarrh; as, catarrh of the nasal mucous mem- 
brane, of the pharynx, lamyx, stomach, intes- 
tines, rectum, bladder, vagina, etc. The word 
has general significance only, but it is much 
used by vendors of nostrums. See Nose and 

CATASAUQUA, Pa., a borough of Lfr. 
high County, on the Philadelphia and Reading, 
the Central of New Jersey and the Lehi^ 
Valley railroads, and on the Lehigh River, 
three miles north of Allentown; settled in 
1805, chartered as a borough in 18S3. Anthra- 
cite pig iron was made a commercial success 
here as early as 1839, and Catasauqua became 
a busy manufacturing centre, developing blast 
furnaces, foundr>; and machine shops, hard- 
ware factories, silk mills, rubber goods, car 
wheels, etc. Pop. 5,250. 

CATATONIA, a variehr of schizophrenia 
— or dementia pracox, which latter is the 
most frequent of all mental disorders. The 
catatonic variety is the most severe and is 
usually marked by a greatly increased tend- 
ency toward excessive motor reactions, such 
as negativism, catalepsy, mannerisms and 
violent tempestuous outbreaks, often ex- 
tremely furious in their character. It is a 
form of the mental disorder which most fre- 
quently exhausts the patient and leads more 
often to tuberculosis. 

These patients often will stand in one posi- 
tion, often an extremely strained one, for 
hours at a time, sometimes days, often weeks. 
Some cases are known, for instance, to lie rigid 
in bed like a corpse for six months or a year 
at a time, refusing to pay any attention to the 
external world. They urinate and defecate in 
bed and rnay have to be tube fed all this time; 
Others will make incessant stereotyped move- 
ments, walking backward and forward like 
animals in a cage, or go through certain occu- 
pational movements,_ sawing, hammering, etc., 
hour upon _ hour without mterruption. They 
may stand in a rapt attitude all day long with- 
out so much as winking. Sometimes they talk 
incessantly, saying the same thing over and 
over again. Others make wild rushes here and 
there in their rooms, beating their fists against 
the walls or a piece of furniture. 

Careful study of these cases shows that the 
movements always have a certain symbolic 
significance for the individual. They are fre- 
quently made in response to hallucinatory 
voices or images and can usually be resolved 
to certain elementary instinctive desires of the 
individual, usually connected with sexual taboos 
of some kind. 

The causes are not completely revealed. In 
some there are obvious endocrinopathic dis- 
turbances. Certain psychiatrists regard these 
latter as primary; others are disposed to view 
them as secondary to the disturbances in the 
emotional fields of activity. Thus these hold 
the primary defect to lie in patients' incapacity 
to make social adjustments along the line of 
the love-life of mankind. This incapacity is 
revealed in the unconscious strivings which are 
greatly distorted in the behavior of the in(U- 
vidual and hence are uninterpretable, so modi- 
fied are the symbolic expressions of this 
internal conflict. The catatonic cases occasion- 
ally_ get well followinf^ an acute maniacal 
period, but when the disease is prolonged S 
to 10 years they usually make up a great mass 
of the chronic incurable lunatics of our hospi- 
tals for mental diseases. See Dementia Pii«- 
c»x. Consult Jelliffe and White, < Diseases of 
the Nervous System> (2d ed., 1917). 

Smith Ely Jelliwe. 

Digitized by 




Compwiion of Victoria F*11b (Africa), 400 feet hifh, wiOi Niagara Falls, ISS feet liigh. The tower of tlie 
Singer Bnilding (Hew York), *I2 feet lUgfa, tisei above the creit. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 




RIVER. See Wateree River. 

CATAWBA, a light, sparkling wine, of 
rich Muscatine flavor, produced in several 
patrts of the United States. It is made from 
the Catawba grape, first found growing on the 
banks of the Catawba River in the Oirolinas. 
This wine is now in extensive use, and is 
gradually superseding Rhenish and French 
sparkling wines, to \yhich, in general character, 
it bears a resemblance. 

CATAWBAS, derived from the Choctaw, 
signifying "dlivided,* a tribe of Indians for- 
merly inhabiting Nauvasa and five other 
towns on the Catawba River, an attractive 
r«^on in North and South Carolina. The 
tribe is now represented by about 100 half- 
breeds, some of whom speaJE the ancient lan- 
g^uage, on a small State reservation on Ca- 
tawba River, in York Courtty, S. C In early 
colonial times they were a powerful tribe num- 
bering about 6,000, indudtng 1,500 warriors. 
Wars and degeneracy reduced their numbers 
until they dwindled to 450 in 1822. Peter Harris, 
the last pure-blooded Catawba, was a Revolu- 
tionary soldier. Longfellow's verse TOpularized 
Catawba Wine, the g;rapes for which, found 
near the banks of the Catawba River in 1801, 
were named in 1828 by Major Adlum. 

CATBALOGAN, k^t-ba-lo-gan', Philij>- 
pines, capital of the province oi Sanur, sit- 
uated on a small b^ at the mouth of the Anti- 
gas River on the west coast It is protected by 
a number of islands, Daram being the largest 
The anchorage ground is not safe during mon- 
soon weather; Parasan Island Bay, 10 miles 
west, is then the refuge for vessels. The town 
has a large trade in hemp_ and cocoanut-oil 
with Manila, which is 338 miles 'northwest, and 
steamers from Manila call every two weeks. 
Pop. 7,758. . 

CATCH, a short piece of music peculiar 
to England, written generally in three or four 
parts. It is a sort of short canon, the second 
voice taking up the theme when the first has 
completed the first phrase, the third following 
the second in same manner. These composi- 
tions are most frequently of a humorous and 
bacchanalian character and have been from 
Purcell's time very popular in England. There 
is a Catch Club in London which was foimded 
in 1761. 

CATCHFLY, any one of several plants of 
various genera. The name is perhaps most 
commonly applied to species of Silene, of the 
family Sdenacea, since their calyces and stems 
exude a clammy, stidcy substance which at- 
tracts flies and holds and kills those that alight. 
Certain species of Lychnis, a closely related 
genus, especially L. vtscaria, are also popularly 
called by this name. Sometimes, too, the Venus 
flytrap is called Carolina catchfly. See Car- 
MivoROUS Plants; Lychnis; Sil£ne. 

i^TEAU, ka-to, L«, or CATEAU-CAM- 
BRSSIS, kan-bra-ze, France, a town in the 
department of Nord, on the right bank 6f the 
Selle, 15 miles east-southeast of Cambrai. It 
was once fortified, though now open, and is 
famous for the treaty of its name signed here 
m 1SS9,_ by which Henry II of France gave 
up Calais to the English; and agreed to aban- 
don all he had conquered from Spain on con- 
dition that that country would do the like with 

her French conquests. Altogether France lost 
189 fortified towns by the treaty. Le Cateau 
has manufactures of cotton, wool, merinos, 
cambric shawls and a considerable trade in 
them and in wine, iron, coal and agricultural 
products in general. Pop. 10,500. 

CATBCHB8IS, kSt-e-ke'sis, the science 
which te2u:hes the proper method of instructing 
beginners in the principles of the Christian 
religion by question and answer, which is called 
the catechetical method. Hence catechist and 
catechize. The_ art of the catechist consists in 
being able to elicit and develop the ideas of the 
youthful mind. This part of religious science 
was first cultivated in modern times, and Ro- 
senmuller. Daub, Winter, ' Heinrich; Muller, 
Schwarz, Palmer and others have particularly 
distin^shed themselves by their writings 
upon It . . 

CATECHETICAL, kSt-e-ketl-kal, 
SCHOOLS, institutions for the elementary 
education of Christian teachers, of which there 
were many in the Eastern Church from the 2d 
to the Sth century. They were different from 
catechumenical schools, which were attached to 
almost every church and which were intended 
only for the popular instruction of proselytes 
and children; whereas the catechetical schools 
were intended to communicate a scientific 
knowledge of Christianity. The first and most 
renowned was established about the middle of 
the 2d century, for the Egyptian Church at 
Alexandria, on the modeP of the famous 
schools of Grecian learning in that place. (See 
Alexandrian Age). Teachers like Pantaenu^ 
Clement and Origen gave them splendor and 
secured their permanence. They combined in- 
struction in rhetoric, oratory and music, in 
classical Grecian literature and the Eclectic 


.- . . ^'*' 

tinguished the popular religious belief from the 

Gnosis, or the thorough knowledge of religion; 
established Christian theology as a science and 
finally attacked the dreams of the Chiliasts 
(believers in a millennium) ; but by blending 
Greek speculations and Gnostic phantasies with 
the doctrines of the Church, and by an alle- 
gorical interpretation of the Bible, contributed 
tp the introduction of heresies. The distrac- 
tion of the Alexandrian Church by the Arian 
controversies proved the destruction of the 
catechetical schools in that ^ace about the 
middle of the 4th century. The catechetical 
school at Antioch appears not to have been a 
permanent institution like the Alexandrian, but 
only to have been formed around distinguished 
teachers, when there happened to be any in the 
place. There were some distinguished teachers 
in Antioch about the year 220. We have no 
certain information, however, of the theological 
teachers in that place, such as Lucian, Diodorus 
of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia, until 
the latter part of the 4th century. These teach- 
ers were mstinguished from the Alexandrian by 
more sober views of Christianity, by confining 
diemselves to the literal interpretation of the 
Bible, by a cautious use of the types of the Old 
Testament and by a bolder discussion of doc- 
trines. The Nestorian and Etitychian contro- 
versies, in the Sth century, drew after them the 
ruin of the schools at Antioch. Of a similar 
character were the schools instituted at Edessa 

Digitized by 




in the 3d centnfy and destroyed in 489, and the 
school afterward established at Nisibis, by the 
Nestorians, in its stead ; both of which were in 
Mesopotamia. To these schools succeeded, at 
a later date, the cathedral and monastic schools, 
especially among the Western Qiristians, who, 
as late as the 6th century, made use ' of the 
heathen schools, and had never established 
catechetical schools even at Rome. 

CATECHISM, a form of instruction by 
question and answer, especially in Christian 
doctrine by that method j; and not the instruc- 
tion only, but the book in which the questions 
and answers are contained. The catechetical 
school o£ Alexandria was an institution de- 
signed to instruct pagans in the doctrines of 
the Christian Church (2d century). Its 
founder, Pantenos, was a Greek convert deeply 
learned in the Grecian philosophy and in the 
Hebrew Scriptures. Among h>S disciples was 
Titus Flavins Clemens, who became his suc- 
cessor as head of the school; and to Oemens 
(Clement of Alexandria) succeeded the illus- 
trious Origen, who, at the early age of 18, 
was deemed worthy to be named to so respon- 
sible a post. 

The catechetical instruction given by these 
masters of the Alexandrine school was con- 
veyed rather in the form of lectures than in 
that of quQstion and answer. The more 
familiar instruction given to catechumens in 
the early Church was of the same nature, but 
more simple and elementary. In the latter half 
of the 4th century Saint Cyril, bishop of 

Jerusalem, composed 23 lectures, or in Greek 
atacheseis, of which 18 were addressed to 
postulants for baptism (catechtunens) and five 
to the neophytes after their baptism. These 
latter he called mystagogic catacheses, or in- 
struction in the mysteries of Christianity. 
They are of a inore popular character than' the 
catacheses of the Alexandrines and are believed 
to be the first example of a popular compen- 
dium of the Christian, doctrines. 

In the Roman Catholic Church the Cate- 
chism of the Council of Trent, or Roman 
Catechism or Catechismus ad Parochos (Cate- 
chism for Parish Priests) is addressed espe* 
cially to pastors and others having cure of 
souls, suggesting to them the manner of ex- 
pounding Christian doctrine and of enforcing 
the precepts of Christian morality in their 
sermons from the pulpit and in conveying re* 
ligious instruction to the young. It is also 
designed as a basis and model in composing 
short expositions of Christian doctrine for 
popular use among the laity. The Catechism 
of the Council of Trent was first pubUshed in 
1366 in Latin and formed a considerable vol- 
ume, 500 pages 8vo. A decree of the Council 
of Trent ordered all bishops to "take care to 
have the Catechism faithfully translated into 
the vernacular language and expounded to the 
people by all pastors." Translations were ac- 
cordingly made into Italian, French, Spanish 
and German. The first English translation was 
not published till 1829. It is a large octavo, 
closely printed, of over 400 pages. The work 
possesses high authority, but not the highest; 
it does not rank with the creeds of the Church 
or with the canons and decrees of councils or 
the dogmatic definitions of Popes. 

All the principal divisions of Protestantism 

— the Anglican Chuixh' and its <>if6iiooti9, the 
Lutheran and Calvinisdc Churches, the Pres* 
byterians, Methodists and BaptiAs:— rhave cate- 
chisms. Many of these Protestant catechistes, 
as the catechism of Luther, the Calvinist of 
Geneva, the Westminster Larger and Shorter 
catechisms, the Catechism of the Chiu-ch ol 
England, possess in their, several Churches.. an 
authority equal or comparable to that of their 
several creeds or confessions of faith. 

CATECHU, an earthv- or resm-like sub- 
Stance, used ' in dyeing^ and' c3liA>))riQtiDg, and 
in medicine as an astringent. It is obtained by 
boiling the leaves, wood and fruit of certain 
plants growing in India and olber Eastern 
countries (notably the Acacia catechu) and 
concentrating the extract by evaporatioit until 
it will solidify. Catechu (known also in the 
trade as *cutch") consists mainly, of. cafechu- 
tannic acid, which is soluble in cold water, and 
catechin, which is insoluble in cold water, 
but soluble in hot water. In medicine catechu 
is of service because of the tannin that it con- 
tains. It acts as an astringent and is service- 
able in diarrhoea and dysentery. Catechu is 
also used in lozenges for affections of the 
mouth and throat 

CATECHUMBN, a person who is wider 
instruction and probation preparatory to admis- 
sion to membership in the Christran Church 
through baptism. On the day of Pentecost and 
in the early days of the Church's mission the 
converts to the religion df Jesus Christ were 
admitted through baptism to fellowship in 
thousands at a time, without any preliminary 
inquiry into their, dispositions, and without any 
instruction in the articles of Christian belief 
or the new obligations contracted by admission 
ifito the Christian body. But when the first 
enthusiasm of conversion had cooled doubtless 
many were found who "walked no more* in 
the way of the apostles and went back to their 
pagan or their Jewish beliefs and practices, or 
Worse, who alter two changes of , religion 
lapsed into open contempt of all religion and of 
all morality. To guard against the scandal of 
such apostasies the Church provided a system 
of preliminary, graduated instruction^ and pro- 
bation for those >Yho desired admission to the 
Christian communion. The candidates for ad- 
mission to the (Thurch, to the body of the faith- 
ful (believers, fideles, pistoi) were called 
catechumen! (persons under histruction) ^nd 
even in this class there were three or even four 
separate grades. There was the first grade, that 
of those who, having expressed a desire for 
admission, were put under instruction privately 
by some officer of the Church: this class was 
not admitted at all to the assemblies of the 
faithful. Those in the second grade, that of 
the acouomenoi, audientcs, hearers, were ad- 
mitted to the assembly for worship, but were 
required to withdraw after the reading of the 
stated passages from the evangelic and apos- 
tolic books and the sermon or exhortation by 
the bishop. Those of the third grade, tl»e 
gonyclinontes, genufiectentes, those "bending 
the knee,* that is, who join in the prayers of 
the faithful, remamed in the congregation till 
certain prayers in the liturgy were said and the 
bishop had pronounced his benediction. The 
fourth grade included all those who, having 
passed the first three,- were to receive the rite 

Digitized by 



of baptism and thereby were to be admitted ta 
full communion with the faithful on the next 
stated day for administration oi that sacra- 
ment: these are the pkotUomenoi, instructed, 
or competentes, or electi. The first two grades 
are not recognised as two by all Church his- 

Such a tens of preliminary instruction and 
probation was imperatively necessary in the 
ages of persecution, to save- the Giristian body 
from the scandal of apostasy on the part of 
converts who entered me Church either from 
unworthy motives, as, for example, to act as 
informers; or who entered ' without weighing 
the obligation they assumed to lead a holy life 
void of all offense, and who disgraced their 
Christian profession by their disorderly lives. 
The institution of the catechumenate persisted 
after the peace of the Church was proclaimed 
by the first Christian emperor, and indeed the 
need of it was greater now that the profession 
of the Christian religion Seemed the gateway 
to honor and power in the state instead of to 
mar^rdom. The press of candidates, for ad- 
mission to the Church was great; and even the 
children of believers like converts from the 
pagan religion had to pass through the cate- 
chumenal grades. Out of this grew a great 
abuse and a great scandal. Men who sought 
admission to me Church for other reasons than 
a desire to lead a Christian life would enter 
themselves as catecliumens, postulants, and 
would continue in that grade for an indefinite 
period not plednn^ themselves to observance 
of the law of Christ and the Church till the 
end of their life was at hahd. Nor was it the 
converts from paganism alone who thus de- 
ferred baptism, as Constantine did, but the 
children of Christian parents often followed 
their example. Yet the motive for deferring 
baptism was not always a desire to evade the 
obligations of the Christian profession; in very 
many instances the delay was prompted by a 
conscientious scruple lest the baptized person 
falling from grace afterward should commit a 
sin that could never be condoned: among il- 
lustrious men who for a time acted on this 
scruple are numbered even doctors of the 
Church — Saints Ambrose^ Gregory of Nazian- 
zus, Augustine. 

The ancient church edifices provided for the 
separation of the catechumens from the faith- 
ful that were in full communion. In the an- 
cient church of Saint Clement in Rome, the ' 
body of the building is divided off by stone 
constructions into the presbytetittm, chatKel or 
sanctuary for the clergy at the eastern en<L a 
middle compartment for the faithful In full 
communion — the galleries here being reserved 
for the women — and in the western end, or 
front, a much larger compartment of the nave 
for the catechumens. 

CATEGORY (Oc npxiryopia, an accusar 
tion), in logic and philosophy, one of the great 
natural divisions into which all conceivable ob- 
jects fall. The ancients, following Aristotle, 
generally made 10 categories. Under the first 
all substances are comprised, and all accidents 
or attributes under the last nine, namely, quan- 
tity, quality, relation, action, condition, time, 
place, situation and acquired nature. A some- 
what similar arrangement is to be found ia die 
works of the Hindu philosopher Kavada. TUs 

VOt. 6—4 

arrangement, however, is now obsolete. Des- 
cartes thought that all nature ma^' be better 
considered under, the seven divisions: spiriL 
mxtter, atamtity, substance, figure^ motion and 
r^st. Plato admitted only five categories — 
snbstance, identity, diversity, motion and rest' 
The Stoics held four — subjects. Qualities, in- 
d^ndent modes, relative modes. Flotinus ap- 
plied to the intelligible world the categories 
the One, motion, rest, identity and difference; 
to the world of sense the categories being, re- 
lation, quariti^, (]uality and motion. Kant's 
list «i oitiQiones is : 1. Catogoriei of ^tumtky : 
unit^, irfu»lity, universality. 2. Categories of 
quality: realit^, limitation, negation. 3. Cate- 
gpriei of relation: substantiality, causality^ reci- 
procity. 4. CaAtgories of modality: possibility, 
actnalit^, necessi^. Kant considered that these 
qategories corresponded to the different classes 
of judgment,^ but it was soon realized that the 
basis these give to the categories of the list is 
merely specious. In accordance with his cus- 
tom of deducing matter of the most concrete 
nature by a priori methods, Hegel calls a larg[e 
number of notions categories \<%ich other phi- 
losophers would regard as grounded in experi- 
ence. Mill substitutes for Aristotle's set of 
categories the classification of all things into 
feelings, minds, bodies and temporal or quali- 
tative relations between feelings. In the phi- 
losophy at, the present day, though there are 
certain writers and schools who make a con- 
siderable use of the process of classifying 
things in categories — Hussere and Hartmann, 
for example — there is much less discussion of 
categories than there used to be. This is due 
to the fact that wc are coming to see that the 
taking of an inventory of the universe is one 
of the least of the tasks of metaphysics, which 
is rather concerned with the analysis of the re- 
lational structure of things. However, even in 
a view of the world which regards it as a re- 
lational structure, there are bound to be a num- 
ber of summa genera, such as class, relation, 
proposition, etc. For a discussion of the cate- 
gory-system of a view of this type, see Logic, 
Symbolic. Consult the works of the various 
writers mentioned, and especially von Hart- 
mann, E, <Kategorienlehre' (189o). 


Editorial Staff of The Americana. 

CATEL, Franz, German artist: b. Berlin, 
22 Feb. 1778; d. Rome, 19 Dec. 18S6. His 
earliest efforts were wopd cuts for illustration 
of books. He then painted in oil and water 
colors, and took up his abode in Rome in 1812, 
Overbeck, Schadow and Cornelius gave him 
much encouragement, and h* painted historical 
and genre pieces and landscapes, in which last- 
named department of his art he was especially 
successful. He became a member of the Acad- 
emy of Berlin (1806); and professor of the 
Royal Academy (1841). During a retidence in 
Sicily, about the year 1818, he painted a large 
number of views of Mount Miaa, and_ other 
prominent places on the island. He directed 
his fortune to be invested for the benefit of 
poor artists. 

CATENARY, the curve assumed- by a per- 
fectly flexible chain of small links supported at 
both ends and allowed to hang freely under the 
infiueoce of gravitation between supports. This 
is the simple catenary. The {peometrical cate*. 

Digitized by 



nary supposes the carve of a perfectly ilexiUe, 
inextensible and infinitely fine cx>rd of infini- 
tesimal weight hanging at rest between two 
points of suspension. The equation of the 

cstenaiy is expressed thus : y "■ >4 fc ( ^ H — ^ ) . 

The cables of a suspension bridge hang iir cate- 
naries before any of the other parts of the 
bridge are attached. The effect of the weight 
of the roadway, etc., is to draw the cables into 
curves more nearly approaching the parabola. 

CATERPILLAR, the larva of a moth or 
butterfly. The bodv is long and cylindrical, 
consisting, besides the bead, oi three thoracic 
and 10 abdominal segments, the last one form- 
ing the suranal plate. The three pairs of thor- 
acic legs are solid, horny and jointed, while 
the_ supports of the abdominal segments, of 
which there may be five pairs, are soft and 
fleshy. Caterpillars are very voracious, the di- 
^stive canal being very large. The American 
silk-worm (Telea polyphemus),a.t the end of its 
life as a caterpillar, has eaten not less than 120 
oak leaves weighing three- fourths of a pound; 
its food, taken in 56 days, equals in weight 
86,000 times the primitive weight of the worm. 
The jaws of caterpillars are large, black, horny 
appendages, and are toothed on a cutting edge 
so as to pass through a leaf somewhat like a 
circular saw. The eyes are minute, simple eye- 
lets, three or four on each side of the head, 
and only useful^probably, in distinguishing day 
from night The silk is spun through the 
tongue-like projection (spinneret) of the under 
lip. It is secreted in -two long sacs within the 
body. The thread is drawn _ out by the two 
fore feet, which are three-jointed and end in 
a single claw. The legs on the hind body, 
sometmies called prop-legs, are fleshy, not 
jointed, and end in a crown of hooks which 
curve outward, enabling the caterpillar to 
firmly grasp the edge of the_ leaf or a twig of 
its food-plant Most caterpillars are more or 
less hairy or spiny, rendermg them, when es- 
I>ecially so, disagreeable to birds; besides this, 
they are bright colored, so that birds readily 
recognize them and waste no time over them, 
but search for_ the common green smooth- 
bodied ones, which are, however, so difficult of 
detection by the birds that plenfar are left to 
become moths or butterflies. Certain cater- 
pillars, as the currant-worm, though smooth- 
bodied, are brightly spotted; these, however, 
often have a disagreeable taste. The bright 
colors are_ thus danger signals, hung out to 
warn the birds and other enemies. (See Larva) . 
Consult authorities mentioned under Butter- 
FLv, Moth, Insect, especially Holland, < But- 
terfly Book> (New York 1898) and <Moth 
Book> (New York 1903); also Hliott and 
Soule, 'Caterpillars and their Moths' (New 
York 1902; directions for breeding). 

CATESBY, k5ts-bl, Mark, English natural- 
ist: b. probably in London abotit 1679; d. Lon- 
don, 23 Dec. 1749. He traveled in North 
America in 1710-19 and 1722-26, and published 
'Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the 
Bahama Islands' (2 vols:, 1731-43), 'British- 
American' Flowers,' and a work on the fishes, 
reptiles and insects of the isle of Providence; 
and 'Migration of Birds' (1747). Qei«iaD 

translations of the first and last appeared at 

CATFISH, any of the fishes of the family 
Siluridee. This large family is characterized 
by having the body naked or covered with 
bony plates, but without true scales. About 
the mouth there are two or more barbels, the 
longest of which are at the comers of the 
mouth. There is usually a stout, generally ser- 
rated, spme in front of the dorsal fin, and often 
another in front of each pectoral fin. These 
spines are likely to inflict considerable injury 
on the careless nsherman. There is what seems 
to be a_ poison-gland connected with the pec- 
toral spine of some of the smaller species, and 
wounds, are very painful. This is one of the 
most widely distributed families of fishes, and 
is especially abundant in South America and 
Africa. Most of them live in fresh waters. 
There are estimated to be about 1,000 species. 
The catfish are sluggish in their movements, 
securing their prey rather by stratagem than by 
swiftness. They are bottom- feeders and indis- 
criminate, so that although, on account of their 
size and abundance, they constitute an import- 
ant element in the fish food of the countries 
they inhabit, their flesh is not considered of 
high quality in taste. North and middle Amer- 
ica contain 100 or more species, of which a 
third, perhaps, are to be found in the United 
States and Mexico. The majority are not of 
much importance, but some are of great local 
value. At the head of the commercial list 
stands the channel cats of the genus Ictalurus, 
which are found throughout the Mississippi 
Valley and Gulf States, and are caught in vast 
quantities not only for home use, but for ex- 
lort, as much as 2,000,000 pounds annually 
leing dressed, packed in ice and shipped from 
Morgan City, La., the central mart of the Atcha- 
falaya River fisheries, which are in operation 
from September to May. The method of cap- 
ture is by 'trot-lines" from a few vards to a 
mile long. The catfish move with the season's 
temperature of the water, going down stream in 
winter and up in summer. At the season of 
the spring floods thev are carried over the 
swamps and adjacent lands, and thousands are 
caught by the shorter "brush' lines. There is 
a re^lar collecting service of tugs. The 
Louisiana species most taken is the chuckle- 
head (/. furcaius), which loves slu£[gish waters. 
A more northerly species, ordinarily 20 to 25 
pounds in weight, is the *blueP" or •white* 
channel cat (/. pitnctatus), which thrives in 
the colder, swifter waters of the Tennessee, 
Cumberland and neighboring rivers, whose 
flesh is declared equil to that of the black bass. 
Both these have been acclimated in California. 
The largest of the American species is the great 
fork-tailed Mississippi cat (/. lacustris), which 
inhabits all the lakes and big rivers from the 
Saskatchewan and Great Lakes to Flori(ki and 
Texas, and reaches a weight of ISO pounds or 
more. The so-called Potomac River cat (A. 
caius) is the one most familiar in the east, 
since it abounds from the Delaware River to 
Texas, but is most common in the waters of 
Qiesapeake Bay and southward to Florida. It 
is next in commercial value to the Great Lakes 
fish. It has a Tery wide head and large mouth, 
but seldom exceeds two feet in length. The 
smaller jrellow cat (■^' natalit) and other 


Digitized by 




species of this genus are numerous in the in- 
terior, but not of great importance. (See 
Buixhead). The mud cat or goujon (Leptope 
olkmris) is a slender pike-like fish with a very 
lar^e, wide head ana mouth, and thick skin, 
wiudh lives in the sluggish rivers of the South- 
em States. It is sometimes five feet long and 
100 pounds in weight, but is most repulsive in 
appearance; its flesh, however, is excellent, 
and is often sold, dressed, for that of the 
favorite western channel cat. Other genera 
and species go by such names as homed pouts, 
mud-cats, stone-cats, mad toms, etc., and will be 
found elsewhere described, as well as many for- 
eign species of interest and value. 

Consult, besides general works, Jordan and 
Evermann, 'Food and Game Fishes of Amer- 
ica,' and the publications of the United States 
Fish Commission. 

CATGUT is made from the intestines of 
different quadrupeds, particularly those of 
sheep, but never from mose of the cat The 
manufacture is chiefly carried on in Italy and 
France. The texture from which It is made 
is that which anatomists call the muscular coat 
which is carefully separated from the peritoneal 
and mucous membranes. After a tedious ^proc- 
ess of steeping, scouring, fermenting, inflat- 
ing, etc., the material is twisted, rubbed with 
horse-hair cords, fumigated with burning sul- 
phur to improve its color and dried. Cords 
of different size an<I strength and deUcacy 
are obtained from different domestic animals. 
The intestine is sometimes cut into unifonn 
strips with an instrument made for the purpose. 
To prevent offensive effluvia during the process, 
and to get rid of the oily matter, the French 
make use of an alkaline liquid called eau de 
javelle. Catgut for stringed instruments, as 
violins and harps, is made principally in Rome 
and Nai>les. For the smallest violin strings 
three tmcknesses are used; for the largest 
seven ; and for the largest bass-viol strings 120. 
It is well known that the membranes of lean 
animals are tougher than those in a high-fe4 
condition, and there can be no doubt that from 
the lean and small-sized Italian sheep strings 
superior to all others are produced. In Naple^ 
whence the best treble strmgs, commonly called 
•Roman,* are obtained, there are large manu- 
factories of this article. Catgut is also used 
for surgical sutures and for how-strings. 

CATHA, a genus of plants belonging to 
the order Celastraceoe, or staff-tree family. 
The species are mostly natives of Africa, form- 
ing small shrubs, sometimes^ with spiny 
branches. Catha edulis is a native of Arabia, 
and from the leaves the Arabs make a beverage 
possessing properties analogous to those of tea 
or coffee. Under the name oikdt or cafta, the 
leaves form a considerable article of commerce 
among the natives. _ Chewed, _ they produce 
wakefulness and hilarity of spirits. 

CATHARI, the name given to themsehres 
by the adherents of numerous heretical sects, 
undoubtedly of Gnostic and Manichean orig^, 
which swarmed in western Europe, and partic- 
ularly in northern Italy and southern France 
in the 12th centuiy. At that period society had 
much advanced in wealth and power, which 
brought their concomitant vices. There were 
many abuses prevalent in the Church, and some 
of the clergy led scandalous liwtes. The-nmnet- 

ous heretical sects won adherents by violently 
and indiscriminately denouncing the entire hier- 
archy, from the Pope down to the monastic 
orders; but their tirades were not more em- 
phatic than the philippics launched against the 
same scandals by sincere Catholics, their. con- 
temporaries, such as. Saint Bernard, Saint Hil- 
degarde. Saint Malachi, archbishop of Armagh, 
and others. But while these sought to pro- 
cure the eradication of the current abuses by 
a reformation from within the Church, the 
Cathari (Gr. katharos. Lat mundus, purus, and 
puritanus, pure, clean) aimed at nothing short 
of the total destruction of the dominant re- 
ligion, of its whole system of belief and even 
of its moral teaching. For not only were the 
sects styled Cathari (including a host of off- 
shoots of eastern Manicheism), heretics and 
reformers, but in their inner circles, dualists, 
believers in the existence of two supreme prin- 
ciples, the one a ^ood principle, God, and the 
other an evil principle, the creator of the 
material world. But open profession was not 
made of this tenet; it was communicated only 
to the inner <^rcle in the several Manichean 
sects, to the elect ones, the perfecti, but with- 
held from the mass of their followers, the 
credentes, the faithful vulgar. To these latter 
and to outsiders the adepts of the arcoMa of 
catharism made profession of being strictly 
reformers of a corrupt ecclesiastical svstem, 
and of profound regard for the letter and spirit 
of the moral law as taught in the apostolic writ- 
ings. As already said, they enthroned the evil 
principle as creator of the physical universe; 
they believed in the divine mission of Jesus 
Christ, the Son of God, that is, of the good 
principle ; but with the Docetae they denied that 
the Son of (jod had assumed human nature 
really, and held that his humanity was phan- 
tasmal only. In conformity with their tenet of 
a supreme principle of p:ood and a supreme 
prinaple of evil, the initiates condemned as 
works of the flesh the sacraments of the Church 
as a whole, and looked on the contract of 
marriage as sinful. They held absolute pre- 
destination : that all men belong to one or 
other of two classes, those who will infallibly 
be saved, and those who cannot possibly attain 
holiness: hence their doctrine diat an infant 
dying immediately after birth, if it belongfs to 
the class of those predestined to be lost, is 
punished as is Judas in hell. They dared not 
confess that on their principles the elect cannot 
lose the divine favor by sin; but they did 
teach that repentance is of no account, and that 
the sins of the people are forgiven by the rite 
(consolamentum) of laying on hands. This 
honor was only a concession to the prejudices 
of the ignorant vulgar: the perfecti, the initi- 
ates of the arcana of Catharism held themselves 
to be superior to the moral law. 

CATHARINE, the name of several Chris- 
tian saints: 1. Saint Catharine op AuacAW- 
DRIA, a virgin of royal descent in Alexandria, 
who publicly confessed the Gospel at a sacrifi- 
cial feast appointed by the Emperor Maximinus. 
and was therefore put to death, after they had 
vainly attempted to torture her on toothed 
vidieels, 307 a.d. Hence the name of Catharine 
wheel (q.v.). No less than 50 heathen philos- 
ophers sent by the Emperor to convert her in 
prison wepe themselves converted by her wiir> 

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ning eloquence; whence she is the patroness 
of philosophers and learned schools. Hav- 
ing steadily rejected all_ offers of earthly 
marriage, Mie was taken in vision to heaven, 
where Christ plighted his troth to her with a 
ring. This subject has been a favorite one with 
many artists (as signifying the union of the 
redeemed soul with Christ); the Christ being 
usually represented as an infant. It has been 
suggested that the attributes of the unhistorical 
Samt Catharine seem to have been derived 
from those of the actual Hypatia, a heathen 
who suffered death at the hands of Christian 
fanatics. Saint Catharine's festival falls on 25 
November. 2. Saint Catharine of Siena, 
one of the most famous saints of Italy, was the 
daughter of a dver in Siena,^ and was bom 
there in 1347. While yet a child she practised 
extraordinary mortifications and devoted her- 
self to perpetual virginity. She became a 
Dominican, and therefore afterward a patron 
saint of the Dominicans. Her enthusiasm con- 
verted the most hardened sinners, and she was 
able to prevail upon Pope Gregory XI_ for the 
sake of the Church to return from Avignon to 
Rome. She was given, it was said, extraordi- 
nary tokens of favor by Christ, whose stigmata 
were imprinted upon her body. She wrote de- 
votional pieces, letters and poems, an e(Ution 
of which is Tomasseo's (Florence 1860). Her 
festival falls on April 30. 3. Saint Cath- 
arine OF Bologna (1413-63), festival 9 March, 
and Saint Catharine of Sweden (d. 1481 ; 
festival 22 March), are of less note. 

CATHARINE, Saint, Order of, the name 
of two organizations of ve^ different charac- 
ter : ( 1 ) The Knights of Saint Catharine on 
Mount Sinai, an ancient military order, insti- 
tuted for the protection of the pilgrims who 
came to visit the tomb of Saint Catharine on 
this mountain. (2) An organization in Russia, 
constituting a distinction for ladies, and in- 
stituted by Catharine, wife of Peter the Great, 
in memory of his signal escape from the Turks 
in 1711. 

CATHARINE I, Emi>ress of Russia: b. 
Ringen, near Dorpat, Livonia, l5 April 1684; d. 
Saint Petersburg, 17 May 1727. The early his- 
tory of this remarkable woman is uncertain. Ac- 
cording to some accounts she was the daughter 
of a Swedish officer named Rabe, who died 
shortly after she was born ; according to others 
her father was a Roman Catholic peasant. She 
at first bore the name of Martha and entered 
the service of a clergyman named pliick, at 
Marienburg, who caused her to be instructed 
in the Lutheran^ religion. Here she was mar- 
ried to a Swedish dragoon. But a few days 
after he was obliged to repair to the field, and 
the Russians, within a short period, took 
Marienburg in 1702. Martha fell into the 
hands of General Tcheremetieff, who relin- 
quished her to Prinz Mentchikov. While in his 
possession she was seen by Peter the Great, 
who made her his mistress. She became a 
proselyte to the Greek Church and assumed 
the name of Catharine Alexiewna. In 1706 
and 1709 she bore the Emperor the Princesses 
Anna and Elizabeth, the first of whom became 
the Duchess of Holstein by marriage and 
mother of Peter III. The second became 
Empress of Russia. In 1712 the Emperor pub- 
licly acknowledged Catharine as his wife. She 
wa* subsequently proclaimed Empress, and 

crowned in Moscow in 1724. Besides the 
daughters above named she bore the Emperor 
five more children, all of whom died early. 
The Princesses Anna and Elizabeth were de- 
clared legitimate. When Peter, with his army, 
seemed irreparably lost on the Pruth in 1711 
Catharine endeavored to win over the grand 
vizier; and having succeeded, by bribing his 
confidant with her jewels, she disclosed her 
I»lan to the Emperor, who gave it his approba- 
tion, and was soon relieved. She afterward 
received many proofs of the gratitude of her 
husband. Peter even deemed her worthy of 
being his successor. But in the latter part of 
1724 she fell under his displeasure. Her cham- 
berlain, Moens, with whom she was suspected 
of being on too intimate terms, was beheaded 
on pretense that he had been bribed by the 
enemies of Russia. Mentchikov, who had always 
manifested much attachment to her, had now 
been in disgrace for some time and Peter had 
very frequent attacks of bodily pain, witfi inter- 
vals only marked by dreadiul explosions of 
rage. These circumstances made Catharine's 
situation critical and her anticipations of (he 
future must have been the more melancholy, 
as the Emperor had uttered some threats of a 
change in the succession to her disadvantage. 
To prevent such an event she applied to Ment- 
chikov; and by the prudence of Jaguschinski a 
reconciliation was effected with the Emperor. 
The Empress and the favorite were laboring 
to confirm their improving prospects when 
Peter the Great died, 28 Jan. 172S. Catharine, 
Mentchikov and Jaguschinski considered it nec- 
essary to keep the death of the Emperor a secret 
until, bv judicious arrangements, they had se- 
cured the succession of the throne to the Em- 
press. Theophanes, archbishop of Plescow, 
swore before the people and troops that Peter 
on his death-bed had declared Catharine alone 
worthv to succeed him in the government. She 
was then proclaimed Empress and autocrat of 
all the Russias and the oath of allegiance to 
her was taken anew. At first the Cabinet pur- 
sued the plans of Peter, and, under Mentchikov's 
management, the administration was conducted 
with considerable ability. But the pernicious 
influence of favorites was soon felt and great 
errors crept into the administration. Catharine 
died suddenly, her death being probably has- 
tened by excess in the use of ardent spirits. 
Consult Lavisse and Rambaud, 'Histoire g6n- 
<rale> (Vol. VII, Paris 1896), and Schuyler, 
•Peter the Great> (New York 1884). 

CATHARINE II, Empress of Russia: b. 
Stettin, 2 May 1729; d. Saint Petersburg, 17 
Nov. 1796. She was a daughter of the Prince 
of Anhalt Zerbst and her name was originally 
Sophia Augusta. The Ehnpress Elizabeth chose 
her for the wife of Peter, her nephew, whom 
she appointed her successor. The young Prin- 
cess accompanied her mother to Russia, where 
she joined the Greek Church and adopted the 
name of Catharine Ale*iewna, given to her 
by the Empress. The marriage was celebrated 
1 Sept. 174S. It was not a happy one, but Cath- 
arine found relief in the improvement of her 
mind. She was endowed with uncommon 
strength of character ; but the ardor of her tem- 
perament and the ill treatment of her husband 
led her into errors which had the most injuri- 
ous influence on her whole political life. In 
January 1762 the Empress EUzabetfa died and 

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Peter III ascended the throne. He lived in the 
greatest dissipation, and on sudi intimate terms 
with a lady of the court, named Elizabeth Wo- 
ronzoS, that it -was generally thought that he 
would repudiate Catharine and marry his mis- 
tress. The Empress, therefore, was obliged to 
take measures for her personal security. At 
the same time Peter ^ew continually more 
and more unpopular with his subjects, which 
led to a conspiracy, at the head of which were 
the hetman, Count Rasumowski, Count Panin, 
the enterprising Princess Daschkoff and a 
young ofncer of the guards, Gregory Orloff. 
All ttiose who were dissatisfied, or who ex- 
pected to gain by a change, jomed this con- 
spiracy. Panin and the greater part of the 
conspirators were actuatea only by the desire 
to place the youthful Paul on the throne, under 
the guardianship of the Emitress and a council 
of the empire. But this plan was changed 
through the . influence of the OrloflFs. The 
guards were the first to swear allegiance to 
the' Empress on her presenting herself to them 
at Peterhof on the morning of 9 July 1762; 
and Alexei Orloff prevailed on Tepfow, after- 
ward appointed senator, to read at the Kazan 
Church, instead of the proclamation of the 
conspirators in favor of the young Prince, one 
announcing the elevation of Catharine to the 
throne. Peter died a few days after in prison. 
The accusation against Catharine of having 
contributed to hasten this event is without 
foundation. The young, ambitious Princess, 
neglected by her husband, whom she did not 
respect, remained passive _ on the occasion, 
yielded to circumstances which were, it is true, 
propitious to her, and consoled herself for an 
event which she could not remedy. She knew 
how to gain the affections of uie people by 
flattering their vanity; showed great respect 
for their religion ; caused herself to be crowned 
at Moscow with great pomp ; devoted herself to 
the promotion of agricafture and commerce 
and the creation of a naval force; improved 
the laws; and showed the greatest activity in 
the administration of the internal as well as the 
external affairs of Russia. A year after her 
ascension to the throne she forced the Cour- 
landers to displace their new Duke, Charles of 
Saxony, and to recall Biron, who was ex- 
tremely odious to the nobles. After the death 
of Augustus III, King of Poland, she was the 
me^ns of Stanislaus Poniatowski's being 
crowned at Warsaw. But while she was forcing 
this king on the Poles, the number of the mal- 
contents in her own empire increased, and sev- 
eral attempts against her life were made at Saint 
Petersburg and Moscow. The young Ivan was 
the person to whom the hopes of the conspira- 
tors were directed ; but his sudden death at the 
fortress of Schliisselburg overthrew the plans 
of the disaffected. After this the court of the 
Empress was only disturbed from time to time 
by intrigues, in which gallantry and politics 
went hand m hand, and which had no other 
object than to replace one favorite b^ another. 
In the midst of pleasure and dissipation Catha- 
rine did not neglect the improvement of the 
laws. Deputies from all the provinces met at 
Moscow. The Empress had herself prepared 
instructions for their conduct, whidh were read 
at the first session; but it was. imposdble for 
(o many dilTerent nations to understand each 
other, or to be subject to the same laws. Catha- 

rine, who presided at the debates, and received 
from the assembly the title of mother of the 
country, soon dismissed the discordant legis- 
lators. About this time France formed a 
party in Poland against Russia; but these at- 
tempts only served to accelerate Catharine's 
plans. The war to which the Porte was in- 
stigated had the same result. The Turks were 
beaten. The Russian flag was victorious on 
the Gredc seas; and on the banks of the Neva 
the plan was formed of re-establishing the 
republics of Sparta and Athens as a check to 
the Ottoman power. The advancement of 
Austrian troops into Poland inspired Catha- 
rine with the desire to aggrandize herself in 
this quarter. She therefore entered into an 
agreement for the division of the country with 
the courts of Berlin and Vienna in 1772, by 
which the governments of Polotzk and Mohilev 
fell to her share, and she ensured to herself 
exclusive infhience in Poland by undertaking 
to guarantee the Polish constitution. At the 
same time she abandoned all her conquests, 
with the exception of Azoph, Taganrog and 
Kinbum, in the peace with the Porte, con- 
cluded at Kainardschi in 1774, but secured to 
herself the free navigation of the Black Sea, 
and stipulated for ue independence of the 
Crimea. By this apparent independence the 
Crimea became, in fact, dependent on Catha- 
rine. This peace was as opportune as it was 
advantageous to Russia; for in the third year 
of the war Moscow and several other aties 
were desolated by the plague; and about the 
same time an adventurer named Pugatscheif. 
assuming the name of Peter III, had excited 
a revolt in several provinces of eastern Russia, 
which was soon suppressed. At this time 
Potemkin exercised an unlimited influence over 
the Empress. In 1784 he succeeded in con- 
quering the Crimea, to which he gave its an- 
aent name of Tauri& and extended the confines 
of Russia to the Caucasus. Catharine upon 
this traversed the provinces which had revolted 
under Pugatscheif, and navigated the Volga 
and Dnieper, taking greater interest in Ac 
expedition, as it was attended with some 
danger. She was desirous, likewise, of seeing 
Tauris. Potemkin tuped this Journey, which 
took place in 1787, into a triumphal march. 
Throughout a distance of nearly 1,000 leagues 
nothing but feasts and spectacles of various 
kinds were to be seen. Palaces were raised on 
barren heaths, to be inhabited for a day. Vil- 
lages and towns were built in the wilde'messesL 
where a short time before the Tartars had fed 
their herds. An immense population appeared 
at every step — the picture of affluence and 

grospenty. A^ hundred different nations paid 
omage to tlieir soverei^. Catharine^ saw, at 
a distance, towns and villages, of which only 
the outward walls existed. She was sur- 
rounded by a multitude of people, who were 
conveyed on during the night, to afford her 
the same spectacle the following day. Two 
sovereigns visited her on her journey — the 
King of Poland, Stanislaus Augustus, and the 
Emperor Joseph II. The latter renewed his 
promise, given at Saint Petersburg, to assist her 
in her projects against the Turks. The result 
was a new Turkish war, which by the Peace of 

{assy (1792), ended not less favorably for 
Lussia than the first. The power of Russia 
was also increased by the war with Sweden 

Digitized by 




which terminated in 1790, and by the last two 
partitions of Poland and the incoriKiration of 
Q>urland. Catharine took no part in the war 
against France, though she broke off all con- 
nection with me French republic, actively as- 
sisted the emigrants, and entered into an alli- 
ance with Ejigland against France. She like- 
wise made war against Persia, and, as some 
historians assure us, entertained the project 
of destroying the power of the English in 
Bengal, when a fit of apoplexy put an end to 
her life. 

Catharine II has been equally censured and 
praised. With all the weakness of her sex,_ and 
with a love of pleasure carried to licentious- 
ness, she combined the firmness and talent o£ 
a powerful sovereign. Two passions were pre- 
dominant with her until her death, love and 
ambition. She was never without her_ favorite, 
yet she never lost sight of her dignity. She 
was distinguished for activity, working with 
her ministers, writing letters to Voltaire and 
Diderot, and signing an order to attack the 
Turks, or to occupy Poland, in the same breath. 
She favored distmguished authors, and was 
particularly partial to the French.^ At Paris 
she had a literary agent (Baron Grimm). She 
several times invUea Voltaire to her court, pro- 
posed to D'Alembert to finish the 'Encyclp- 
psedia' at Saint Petersburg, and to undertake the 
education of the Grand Duke. Diderot visited 
her at her request, and she often allowed him 
the privilege of familiar conversation with her. 
By these means she gained the favor of the 
literati of Europe, who called her the greatest 
of rulers; and, in fact, she was not without 
claims to this title. She protected commerce, 
improved the laws, dug canals, founded towns, 
hospitals and colleges. Pallas and others trav- 
eled at her expense. She endeavored to put a 
stop to the abuses which had crept into the 
administration of the different departments of 
government; but she began without being able 
to finish. Civilization advanced but slowly in 
Russia under her reign; and her anxiety to 
enlighten her subjects ceased when she be^an 
to entertain the idea that the French Revolution 
had been brought about _ by the progress of 
civilization. Laws, colonies, schools, manufac- 
tures, hospitals, canals, towns, fortifications, 
everything was commenced, but frequently left 
tmfinished for want of means. Consult Bil- 
basoil, 'Geschichte Katharina II' (Berlin 
1893) ; Bruckner, 'Katharina die Zweite' (iK 
1883); Bury, 'Catharine II > (New York 1900) ; 
Castara, <Vie de Catharine IP (1796); Her- 
zen, 'Memoires de I'lmperatice Catharine II* 
(1859) ; Tannenberg, 'Lebcn Catherinens II> 
(1797) ; Hotzsch, «cStharine II» in 'C^ambridge 
Modem History' (Vol. VI, New York and 
London 1906) ; Lavisse and Btambaud, 'Histoire 
g6n6rale> (Vol. VII, Paris 1896); Waliszew- 
sld, 'The Romance of an Empress, and the 
Story of a Throne> (London 1895). 


England, the youngest daughter of Ferdinand 
of Aragon'and Isabella of Castile: b. Alcali de 
Henares, Spain, 15 Dec. 1485; d. Kimbolton, 
Huntingdonshire, 7 Jan. 1536. In 1501 she was 
married to Arthur, Prince of Wales, son of 
Henry VII. Her husband dying about five 
months after, the King, unwilling to return her 
dowry, caused her to be contracted to his re- 
nuuning son, Heniy, and a dispensation was pro- 

cured from the Pope for that purpose^ In his 
15th year the Pnnce made a public protest 
against the marriage; but at length yielding to 
the representatives of his council, he consented 
to ratify the contract, and on his accession to the 
throne in 1509 was crowned widi her. The 
inequality of their ages and the c^ricious dis- 
position of Henry were circumstances very 
adverse to the durability of their union, and it 
seems surprising that (^tharine should have 
acquired and retained an ascendancy over the 
affections of the King for nearly 20 years. The 
wantof male issue, however, proved a source 
of disquietude to him, and scruples, real or 
pretended, at length arose in his mind con- 
cerning the legality of their union, which were 
greatly enforced by a growing passion for Anne 
Boleyn, one of the Queen's maids of honor. He 
made application to Rome for a divorce from 
Catharine. But all that Henry could obtain at 
Rome was a promise to investigate the case. 
Catharine, meanwhile, conducted herself with 
gentleness and firmness, and could not in 
anyr way be induced to consent to an act 
which would render her daughter illegitimate, 
and stain her with the imputation of incest. Be- 
ing cited before the papal lejrates. Cardinals 
Wolsey and Campeggio, in 1529, she declared 
that she would not submit her cause to their 
jud^iment, but appealed to the court of Rome; 
which declaration was declared contumacious. 
His failure to secure the sanction of the Pope 
to the divorce induced the King to decide the 
affair for himself; and the condemnation of 
his conduct expressed on this occasion by the 
court_ of Rome provoked him to throw off his 
submission to it, and declare himself head of the 
English (^urch — an act of royal caprice and of 
great importance in English history. In 1532 he 
married Anne Boleyn; upon which Catharine: 
no longer considered Queen of England, retired 
to Ampthill in Bedfordshire. Cranmer, now 
raised to the primacy, pronounced the sentence 
of divorce, notwithstanding which Catharine 
still persisted in maintaining her claims. 
Shortly before her death she wrote a letter to 
the King, recommending their daughter (after- 
ward Queen Mary) to his protection, praying 
for the salvation of his soul, and assuring him 
of her forgiveness and unabated affection. The 
pathos of this epistle is said to have drawn 
tears from Henry. He had never presumed to 
call the virtues of his injured wife in question, 
and she certainly acted throughout with eminent 
dignity and consistency. _ Several devotional 
treatises have been attributed to Catharine 
which belong to Queen Catharine Parr. 

Bibliography.— The Calendars of State 
Papers 'for the reign, edited by Brewer and 
Gairdner* (1880-90); and the Spanish theories 
(edited by Bergenroth and Gayango, Vol. 11, 
1868) ; Hall, 'CSronicle' (London 1809) ; 'The 
Divorce* (1527-33. 2 vols., Oxford 1870) ; Le 
Grand, 'History of the Divorce of Henry VlII 
and Catharine* with Burnet's answer (London 
1690) ; Froude, 'The Divorce* (New York 
1891) ; id., 'History of Etigland* (Vols. I-II, 
New York 1871) ; Dixon, 'Two Queens* (Lon- 
don 1873-74) ; Brewer, 'Reign of Henry VHP 
(ed. by (^airdner, 2 vols., London 1884) ; Huth, 
'Marriage of Near Kin' (2d ed., London and 
New York 1887). 

gan'za, wife of Charles II. King of England, 

Digitized by 




and dauii^ter of John IV, KioB of Portugal: 
b. Villa Vwosa, PortugaL 25Nov. 1638; 4. 
Portugal, 31 Dec. 1705. In 1662 she married 
Charles II, in whose court she long endured 
ajl the neglect and mortification to which Us 
dissolute conduct necessarily exposed her, and 
which became still more galling from her hav- 
ing no children ;_ still she conducted herself 
with great equanimity, and after the death of 
Charles received muai attention and respect. 
In 1693 she returned to Portugal, where, in 
1704, she was made recent by her brother, Don 
Pedro, whose increasuig infirmities rendered 
retirement necessary. In this situation _ Cath- 
arine showed considerable abilities, carrying on 
the war against Spain with great firmness and 
success. Consult Strickland, ^Lives of tbf 
Queens* (Vol. IV^ London 1888): Jesse, 
•Memoirs of the Court of England' (Vol. 
Ill, London 1876) ; Ranlce, <Htstory of Eng- 
land, Principally in the Seventeenth Century' 
(Oxford 1875) ; Davidson, 'Catharine of 
Braganca* (London and New York 1906). 


Cathamne of Valois. 

Elngland. See Howard, Cathabine. 

Queen of Henry II of France: b. Florence 
1519; d. Blois, France, 5 Jan. 1589. She was the 
only daughter of Lorenzo de Medici, Duke of 
Urbino, and the niece of Pope Clement VII. 
Francis I consented that his son, Henry, should 
marry her only because he did not believe she 
ever would ascend the throne, and. because 
he was in great want of money, with which 
Lorenzo could furnish him. The marriage was 
celebrated at Marseilles in 1533. She was the 
mother* of four sons, of whom three became 
kings of France in her own lifetime. They 
were Francis II, lSS9-«0; Charles IX. 1560- 
74; and Henry III, 1574-89. Catharine was 
equally gifted with beauty and talents, and had 
cultivated her taste for the fine arts in 
Florence; but at the same time imbibed the 
perverted princi^es of politics then prevaihng 
in Italy. Catharine's ambition was unbouaded 
She sacrificed France and her children to the 
passion for ruling; but she never aimed 
steadily at one great end, and had no profound 
views of policy. The situation in which she 
was placed, on her arrival at the French court, 
gave her great opportunity to perfect herself^ in 
the art of dissimulation. She flattered alike 
the Duchess d'Etampes, the mistress of the King, 
and Diana de Poitiers, the mistress of her own 
husband, though these two ladies hated each 
other. From her apparent indifference she 
might have been supposed inclined to shun the 
tumult of public affairs ; but when the death of 
Henry II in 1559 made her mistress of herself, 
she plunged her children in a whirl of 
I>leasures, partly to enervate them by dissipa- 
tion, partly from a natural inclination toward 
prodigality; and in the midst of these extrav- 
agances cruel and bloody measures were ex- 
ecuted, the memory of which still makes men 
shudder. Her authority was limited under the 
reign of Francis II, her eldest son, who, in 
consequence of his marriage with the un- 
fortunate Mary Stuart, was entirely devoted to 
the party of the Guises. Jealous of a power 

she' did -not. exercise, Catharine then decided to 
favor the Protestants. If it had not been for 
her patronage, by which the ambition of the 
chiefs pi the Huguenots was stimulated, the 
conflicting religious opinions in France never 
would have caused such lasting civil wars. Cath- 
arine felt herself embarrassed by this indulgence 
toward the innovators, when the death of 
Francis II placed the reins of nrvemment, dur- 
ing the minority of Charles IX, in her hands. 
Wavering between the Guises on one ride, whq 
had put themselves at the head of the Roman 
Catholics, and Cond6 and Coligny on the other, 
who had become very powerful 1^ the aid oi 
the Protestants, she was constantly obliged to 
resort to intrigues, which failed to procure her 
as much power as she might easily nave grained 
by openness of conduct Despised by all parties, 
but consoled if she could deceive them; bddng 
arms only to treat, and never treating widiout 
preparing the materials for a new civil war, she 
prooght Caries IX, when he became of age, 
into: a situation in which he must either make 
the royal authority subordinate to a powerful 
party, or cause part of his subjects to b« mas- 
sacred, in the hope, at best a doubtful one, o{ 
subduing faction. The massacre of Saint Barthoir 
omew was her work. She induced the Kir)g 
to practise a dissimulation foreign to his 
cliaracter; and as often as he evinced a dispo&ir 
tion to free himself from a dependence of which 
he was ashamed, she knew how to pcevent him, 
by the fear and jealousy which she excited in 
him by favoring his brother Henry. After the 
death of Charles IX Catharine became again 
regent of tlie kingdom, till the return of Henry 
III, then king of Poland. _ She contributed to 
the man^ misfortunes of his reign by the meas- 
ures which she had adopted previously to its 
commencement, and by the intrigues in which 
she was uninterruptedly engaged. At her death, 
France was in a state of complete dismember- 
ment The religious contests were in reality 
very indifferent to her. The consequences she 
was not able to conceive. She was ready to 
risk life for the gratification of her ambi- 
tion. She was equally artful in uniting 
her adherents, and in promoting' dissen- 
sion among her adversaries. To mose who 
directed her attention to the prodig^al expendi- 
ture of the public treasure, she used to say. 
•One must Uve.* Her example contributed 
greatly to promote the corruption of morals 
which prevailed in her time. Her manners, 
however, were elegant, and she took a lively 
interest in the sciences and arts. She procured 
valuable manuscripts from Greece and Italy, and 
caused the Tuileries and the Hotel de Soissons 
to be built. In the provinces, also, several cas- 
tles were erected by her order, distingui^ed 
for the beauty of their architecture^ in an age 
when the principles of the art were still un- 
known in France. She had two daughters, 
Elizabeth, married to Philip II of Spain in 
1559, and Margaret of Valois, married to Heniy 
of Navarre, afterward Henry IV. Consult 
Alberi, <Vita de Caterina de' Medici' (Florence 
1838) ; Balzac, <Sur Catherine de Medicis' (Paris 
1864) ; Ch^ruel, < Marie Stuart et Catherine de 
Medicis' (id. 1858) ; Sichel. 'Catherine de' 
Medici and the French Reformation' (London 
1905); <The Later Years of Catharine de' 
Medici' (ib. 1908); Zeller, 'Catherine de 
Medicis et les Protestants' (Paris 1889); La 

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'Lettres de Catherine de Medicis' 


CATHARINE PARR. See Parr, Cath- 

Wtirtemberg: b. 21 May 1788; d. 9 Jan. 1819, 
She was a daughter of Paul I of Russia, and 
in 1809 married George, Dnke of Holstein 
Oldenburg. After his death in 1612, she accom- 
panied her brother, Alexander, on his cam- 
paigns in Germany and France (1813-14), to 
Paris, London and the Congress of Vienna 
(1815), assisting him by her talents and reso- 
lute spirit. The marriage of her yonnger sister 
to the Prince of Orange is said to have been 
e£Fected by her influence. In 1816 she married 
Willi^un, Crown Prince of Wtirtemberg, whose 
acquaintance she had made during her travels. 
During the famine of 1816 in that country she 
nroTed her- benevolence by the formation of 
female associations and an agricultural society- 
She was active in promoting the education of 
the people. 

Queen of England, youngest child of Charles VI 
and Isabella of Bavaria : b. Paris, 27 Oct. 1401 ; 
d. 3 Jan. 1438. In 1420 she was married to 
Henry V of England, who was then declared 
successor to the crown of France. To this 
prince she bore Henry VI, crowned in his 
cradle king of both countries. After the death 
of Henry, in 1422, Catharine went into retire- 
ment ana privately married Owen Theodore, 
or Tudor, a Welsh gentleman of small fortune, 
but descended from the ancient British princes. 
By this marriage she had two sons, the eldest 
of whom, Edmund, Earl of Richmond, by a 
marriage with Margaret Beaufort, of the 
legitimated branch of Lancaster, became father 
of Henry VII and founder or the house of 
Tudor. Consult Strickland, A., 'Lives of the 

gueens of England> (Vol. Ill, London 1840) ; 
e Viriville, <Hi^oire de Charles VII > 
(Vol. I, pp. 143, 187, 189, 218 et seq). 

CATHARINE-WHEEL, a . window or 
compartment of a window of _ circular form, 
sometimes with radiating divisions or spokes, 
used in medixval buildings, called a rose, or 
marigold window. It is a memorial of Saint 
Catharine's martyrdom. The term is also 
applied to a kind of firework in the shape of a 
wheel, made to revolve automatically when 
lighted; a pin- wheel. 

CATHARTIC, any remedy that will cause 
an increased discharge from the intestinal canal. 
For purposes of general description there are 
four classes of cathartics. These are mild 
cathartics, or laxatives; simple purges, drastic 
purges and hydragogues. Catharsis is accom- 
plished either by increasing the amount of 
water in the intestines or by stimulating the 
movements of the intestines — peristalsis. The 
laxatives are water, sugar, honey, fruits, 
stringy vegetables, coarse bread, cassia fistula, 
sulphur, figs, etc.; these act either by giving 
bulk, stimulation of peristalsis,^ or by adding 
water, all of the sugars attracting water from 
the intestinal wall. The simple purges act 
usually hy stimulating peristalsis. These are 
castor oil, cascara sag^rada, rhubarb, aloes, 
senna, iris, podophyllum, leptandra, calomel, 
etc. The drastic purges stimulate peristalns. 

and manjr of them cause a flow of water into 
the intestine. The simple purges in large doses 
are drastic. Gamboge, jalap, colocynth, scam- 
mony, croton oil and elaterium are drastic. 
AnoUier class of cathartics are salty, and by 
osmosis attract water into the intestines and 
stimulate the motor activity of the intestines: 
they thus act as hydragogues and are termed 
the saline cathartics. Those most commonly 
used are epsom salts, rochelle salts, magnesium 
oxide, citrate, sodium phosphate, tartrate and 
bitartrate. Most of the mineral waters belong 
to this class of cathartic. In former times 
cholagogues were described as cathartics that 
•stirred up the liver secretions.* It is now fairly 
well recognized that those drugs that stimulate 
peristalsis affect the gall bladder, causing it to 
empty itself more actively, and that the liver is 
unaffected. The only true hepatic stimulant 
that is now recognized is ox-gall. This is fre- 
quently employed as a cathartic. Abuse of 
cathartics is an evil above all description. It 
is almost safe to assert that the injudidous use 
of the manv patent cathartic pills on the market 
is responsible for more intestinal trouble than 
any other agent. They teach people to be 
unduly occupied with thar intestinal' functions 
and work incalculable injury. See Constipa- 

CATHARTID.ffi, the American vultures, 
a family of birds of the order occipUres or 
Raptores, differing from the more eagle-like 
Old World vultures (Vulturida) in having the 
beak comparatively slender, straight and 
blunt, the complete absence of a septum between 
the nostrils, the much more largely^ naked head 
and neck, and the weak feet with elevated 
hallux and but slightly curved claws. Alto- 
gether lhey_ are less predaceous birds, which 
feed exclusively on carrion or attack weakling 
animals. Five genera, each with but one or a 
few species, are found in America, more 
especially in the warmer parts. Among them 
are the carrion crow, the condor and the turkey 
buzzard (qq.v.). 

CATHAY, kith-a', a name by which Marco 
Polo designated a part of Asia, probably North 

CATHCART, Snt George, son of William 
Schaw Cathcart (q.v.) : b. London, 12 May 1794: 
d. Inkerman Crimea, 5 Nov. 1854. He entered 
the Life Guards in 1810, accompanied his 
father as attach^ to Russia, and subsequently 
acted as aide-de-camp to the Duke of Welling- 
ton at Waterloo. He served in Nova Scotia 
and the West Indies, quelled the rebellion in 
Canada in 1837, and was appointed in 1852 gov- 
ernor at the Cape of Good Hope, where he 
showed ability in subduing the Kaf)ir insur- 
rection. On the outbreak of the Crimean War 
great things were expected of him, but he fell 
as divisional commander at Inkerman. He was 
the author of 'Commentaries on the War in 
Russia and (jermany in 1812 and 1813' (Lon- 
don 1850). 

CATHCART, WiUUm Schaw, Eakl op, 
English soldier and diplomatist: b. Petersham, 
England, 17 Sept. 1755; d. near Glasgow 16 
June 1843. He studied at Dresden and Glas- 
gow, then entered the army, and served with 
distinction first in the American war and after- 
ward in the campaigns against the French 

Digitized by 



republic in- Flanders 'and Germany! in IBlh he 
was made lieutenant-general, and in J803 com- 
mander-in-chief for Ireland. In 1807 he was 
appointed commander of the land forces in the 
expedition against Copenhagen, and was 
created a viscount for his services on this 
occasion. In 1812 he proceeded to Rnssia as 
Minister-Plenipotentiary, joined the Emperor 
Alexander at the headquarters of the Russian 
army and accompanied him through the cam- 
paigns of 1813-14. He entered Paris with the 
allied sovereigns, and was present at the Con- 
gress of Vienna. The same year he was 
created an earl. Subset^uent to this he resided 
for several years at Samt Petersburg as Am- 
bassador to the Russian court. 

CATHEDRAL. See Cathedrals axd 

CATHEDRAL, The, a poem by James 
Russell Lowell, published in Boston in 1869, 
The particular cathedral which suggested the 
thought of the poem is that of Chartres. 

CATHEDRAL PEAK, a peak of the 
Sierra Nevada range, situated in the nordi- 
eastem part of Mariposa County, Cal., near lat. 
37° SO* N. It is of granite formation and con- 
tains the source of the Merced River. It is 
11,000 feet high. 

DIVINE. See Cathedrals and Churches. 


schools of western Europe were derived from 
bishop's schools (q.v.). The manifold duties 
of the bishop, however, which often caused 
his absence from his diocese, forced the con- 
trol of the school to devolve on those members 
of the chapter who were bound to stationary 
residence. In the process of time, the cathe- 
dral school developed into three or sometimes 
four schools : the theological school, the musk 
or song school, the choristers' school, a com- 
bined grammar and song school, and the 
grammar school itself, which becsuiie the 
cathedral school par excellence. These institu- 
tions were the first public schools of the Mid- 
dle Ages; and continued their high importance 
in England down to the 18th century. They 
were open to all students, and taught the 
classics in general, together with the rhetoric 
and logic of the scholastic trivmm. The four 
|mncipal dignitaries as the schools were organ- 
ized at the end of the 11th century throughout 
Europe were the dean, precentor, chancellor 
and sacrist or treasurer ^in order of rank, 
generally). The head of tne school was gen- 
erally a master of arts. When the monastic 
cathedrals at Canterbury, Rochester, Durham, 
Worcester, Norwich, Ely and Carlisle were 
abolished in 1540, and replaced by secular 
canons, a master and an usher were added 
to each new grammar school; provision was 
made for the admission of fee students; and 
exhiUts planned, to take the best scholars to 
the universities. "This last provision was soon 
canceled. The monastic cathedral schools 
meanwhile suffered through lack of funds and 
eventually became annexed to some other 
charitable enterprise of the cathedral or died 
put altogether. When in 1863 the great inquiry 
into the secondary schools was conducted for 
the purpose of revival, the old monastic 
schools were entirely overlooked and 

arrangements were ' made ' for ike ' ejcte*- 
sive assistance of the newer secular cathe- 
dral schools from the fimds of fte ecdesi- 
astical commissioners. Westminster, .through- 
out the 17th and 18th centuries, con- 
ducted the best and most famous of public 
schools; York had the chief school of the 
north; Durham has been the most uniformly 
successful ;_ Canterbury, for many years deca- 
dent has increased recently; Norwich, Here- 
ford and Ely have been fairly successful as 
local schools; Bristol and' Chichester have 
declined notably. See Almonry Schools. 

latter name derived from the Greek icupuuuc 
Lord's House, the former from the Greek 
KoSeSoa, a "seat.* Thus, "to speak ex cathe- 
dra," is to speak as from a seat of authority. 
A cathedral city is the seat of the bishop of 
the diocese and his throne is placed in the 
cathedral church. From the early days of the 
Christian Church the bishop ipresided in the 
presbytery or assembly of pnests. He was 
seated on a chair, a little higher than those of 
the pthers. The whole meeting of priests was 
called cathedra; and at a later period, when 
Christians were allowed to build churches, 
this, name was applied to the episcopal churches. 
Besides the cathedral churches we find those 
distinguished as collegiate, conventual, parochial 
and abbey, according to the classification of 
the Roman Catholic Church. The governing - 
body of an English cathedral is called the dean 
and chapter. The cathedral is commonly, though 
not invariably, the most important church build- 
ing, architecturally speaking, in the diocese. Its 
usual form is the Latin cross. From the com- 
paratively simple outline of the early Christian 
basilica has been evolved the complex cathedral 
structure of the Middle Ages. In its outline a 
typical cathedral exhibits navev extending east 
and west, transepts, north and south, choir, 
retro-chmr, and, sotnetimes, lady chapel. A 
tower rises where the traasepts cross the nave. 
Two towers usually flank die western front, 
which contains a large rose window. But it 
must be borne in mind that in size and archi- 
tectural style the cathedral is not necessarily 
superior to the other churches of a diocese. The 
dimensions of some of the abbor and parish 
churches are grreater than those of some cathe- 
drals. French cathedrals are distinguished by 
their great height, chevets, or apsidal east ends 
with a corona of chapels, elaborate and logical 
vaulting system, and, in the later GK>thic styles, 
by extremely profuse adornment. The portals 
of French churches are generally lofty and 
imposing and richly sculptured. English cathe- 
drals are much longer and lower than French 
ones. Their east ends are usually square and 
their portals small, and, in some examples, as 
at Wells, even insignificant. 

Early Roman and Italian Edifices. — The 
earliest churches that we know were of 
the time of Constantine. They were of the 
form known as the basilica, consisting of three 
aisles (or, rarely, five) separated by columns. 
The middle aisle, which is the nave, was higher 
and broader than the_ others and always ended 
in a round apse, which bowed outward from 
the wall at the rear of the church. This tjrpe 
was much used in Italy. The church of Saint 
John Lateran in Rome is also called the *Ba- 

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silica of tke Saviour.' Over its chief ^rtal 
is the inscription '^Omnium urbis ei orbts ec- 
clesiarutH mater et caput (mother and head of 
all the churches of Rome and the world). 
Saint John Lateran is the cathedral of the 
diocese of Rome. The Po^e as Bishop of Rome 
j)erfonned episcopal functions there until 1870, 
since when a deputy has officiated in his stead. 
Valentini calls it 'this venerable temple, the 
first that was raised to the true God of the 
Christians." It was built in the 4th century, 
but the interior has been entirely remodeled, 
and unfortunately by Borromini (q.v.). The 
facade is still later, for it was designed by 
Galilei in 1734; but wis, with the effective deep 
^adows produced by the double porch g^allery, 
deserves praise. 

The great church of Saint Peter's at Rome 
is surpassed by no cathedral in splendor of 
design and equaled by none in magnitude. It 
marks the culmination of Renaissance churdi 
architecture. Its interior is 619 feet in length 
and 449 in width (alon^ the transepts), llie 
diameter of the cupola is 141 feet; the hei^t 
from the ground to the top of the cross meas- 
ures 470 feet. Saint Peter's is the largest church 
in the world. About the middle of the 15th 
century plans were discussed for a new building 
to replace the ancient structure that occuiHea 
the same site. The foundation stone was laid 
18 April 1506, for a building according to the 
designs by Bramante, an Umbrian, who, 
through his plans for the basilica of Saint 
Peter and the Vatican i»lace^ became the most 
famous of Italian architects. Bramante's in- 
fluence was greater than that of any of his 
predecessors. Subsequently assigned to the 
work were Raphael, Michelangelo, Barozzi. 
Giacomo della Porta, Madema and Bemim 
— the last mentioned designed the colonnades. 
The completed church was consecrated by 
Urban VIII on 18 Nov. 1626. Thus 120 
years passed between the first planning and 
the dedication of the building, that period 
covering the reign of 20 popes; and, besides 
the seven architects mentioned, eight others 
succeeded one another in the construction of 
the edifice. The effect of the church itself, 
marred by Madema's facade in the first part of 
the 17th century, is wonderfully enhanced by 
Bernini's colonnade, added about the middle 
of the same century. The dome is its most 
striking feature. 

Ginspicuous examples of Italian Romanesque 
are the cathedral of Pisa, a.d. 1067-1118, with 
the Leaning Tower and the Baptistry; S. 
Miniato at Florence; Genoa, 989^1199 and 
1260; Pistoja, 1166- enlar^ in the 13th 
century; and Monreale in Sicily. The Italian 
Gothic IS exemplified veiv noblv by Milan Ca- 
thedral, 138S-1418. and the cathedral of Flor- 
ence, 1294-1462 (though here we must note 
that the octagonal dome, 138^ feet' in diam- 
eter, was added by Brunelleschi and belongs 
to the Renaissance period). Other fine Gothic 
Italian cathedrals are Siena, 1243; Arazzo, 
1278; Orvieto, 1290; Lucca, 1350; and Bo- 
logna, 1390. Saint Mark's, Venice, 1063-1350, 
that wonder of Byzantine architecture is in the 
form of a Greek cross, of equal arms. The 
delicate sculpture in every part and "inex- 
pressible color* Ruskin regarded as the char- 
acteristics upon which, as he expressed it, "the 
effects of Saint Mark's depend.* 

French Cathedralt and Chnrcbesv— The 

two most famous French cathedral churches 
are here briefly described. 

Pope Alexander III, being at the time a refu- 

fee in France, laid the first stone of Notre Dame, 
'aris, in 1163. The northern transept and por- 
tal were built in 1312 by Philip le Bel. Porte 
Rouge, on the north side, was erected in 1407 by 
the Duke of Burgundy, assassin of the Duke of 
Orleans, as expiation of his crime. But not 
until about 1714 was the choir completed as it 
now stands. The building is in the form of a 
Latin cross, with an octagonal east end. Two 
towers of equal height (204 feet) embellish the 
western fa^de. The spires have never been 
constructed. The lengdi of the building is 
about 390 feet; its width at transepts 144 
feet. It was the scene of the cor6nation 
of Napoleon on 2 Dec. 1804, and the wedding 
of the youthful Francis II and Mary, Queen 
of Scots. The capacity of the building is about 
22,000 persons. 

Reims (or Rheims) Cathedral was pro- 
claimed long ago, by Chades VIII in 1484, 
"The Noble Church among all those of the king- 
dom.* The learned M. Demaison (see Bibli- 
ography) writes: "Among all our Gothic 
churches I should not dare to say that Reims 
ought to hold first place. It would be very 
puerile to desire to open thus a kind of argu- 
ment and try to answer a (juestion in respect 
to which every one has his preferences and 
personal tastes. But it is none the less true 
that in certain details the superiority of the 
cathedral at Reims can he asserted in a 
manner almost beyond dispute, Its lateral 
facades especially are of incomparable beauty.* 
With infinite _ regret we must change the 
tenses of this distinguished writer's verbs 
from jiresent to past The barbarous in- 
vaders in the European War have utterly de- 
molished the noble fane. The building had 
the form of the Latin cross and was 453 feet 
long. It contained a collection of 5,(XX) stat- 
ues. In it the French kings were crowned 
down to the time of Charles X. First of that 
brilliant succession, Philip Augustus, in 1179, 
was crowned in the old cathedral which was 
destroyed by fire, 6 May 1210. On 6 May 1211, 
the first stone was laid for the new edifice. 
For two centuries and more the builders 
toiled to produce a great church which should 
express the beliefs of their day in nobly as- 
piring lines and sculptural adornment of rare 
charm. And after the fire of 24 July 1481, 
the work of reconstruction and the works for 
the completion of the edifice went forward. 
The facade with its twin towers (263 feet), 
its rose-window, 120 feet in circumference, 
and, the doorways with 530 statues, was of ma- 
jestic beauty. 

The principal Gothic cathedrals of France, 
besides Notre Dame of Paris and Notre Dame 
of Reims, are Leon, a.d. 1113-1200; Chartres, 
1194-1260; Amiens, 1220-28; Rouen, 1202- 
20; Coutances, 1254-74; Beauvais. with the 
most lofty choir in Europe, rebuilt 1337- 
47; Bourges, 1190; Bayeux, with its 22 
chapels. In addition there are (or were 
until the coming of the Germans), Chalons- 
sur-Marne, 1248; Soissons, 1175-1212 (demol- 
ished by the Germans) ; Meaux, 1170; Orl&ins, 
13th century, reconstructed by Henry IV; 
Rennes, 1180-1389; Saint Brienne, finished 1248; 

Digitized by 



1 Saint Patrick's Cathedral, New York City 

2 Antwerp Cathedral, Destrored by the Germans 

J, 3, 4. Cnpyi^hl liy L'mlerwoad k Cubrwood, N. Y. 

3 Lincoln Cathedral 

4 Cologne Cathedral 

Digitized by 



1 Durlum Cathedrml, Durham, Engluid 

2 Notre Dame, Paris, France 

I, a, 3, Col-yright by Uuderw<KHl A l'n<l«rw<H>d, N. Y. 

S Saint Iiaac'a Cathedral, Petrograd, Russia 
4 Saint Mark's Cathedral, Venice, Italy 

Digitized by 



Tours, 1170-1550; Angers, 12th century; Laval, 
12th to 16th century; Le Mans, 11th to 13th 
centMiy; Nantes, 1434-1840; Clemont-Perraud, 
1248; Le Puy, 12th century; Verdun, 13th, 14th 
and 15th centuries; Saint Die, 13th, 14th and 
18th centuries; Beliey, 1413; Saint Fleur, 1396- 
1466; Limoges, 1273-1510; Tulle, 12th century; 
Sens, 1124-68; Moulins, 1465-1885; Nevers, 
11th century (Romanesque); Troyes, 1208- 
1640; Lyons, 1107-1480; Autun, 1060-1178; 
Dijon, 1280 J Grenoble, 11th, 12th, 16th cen- 
turies (Gothic and Romanesque) ; Saint Claude, 
1340-1726; and Besangon, 11th and 15th cen- 
turies. Southern France boasts of Bordeaux, 
13th and 14th centuries (Gothic) ; Agen, 12tb 
and 16th centuries; Lu(on, 13th and 17th cen- 
turies Ovarious styles) ; Angouleme, 12th cen- 
tiuy (Romano-Byzantine) ; Peri^eux, 1047 
(Byzantine and Aquitaine) ; Poitiers, 1162- 
1379; Auch, ISth and 17th centuries; Bayonne, 
1213; Tarbes, 12th and 14th centuries; Tou- 
louse, 15th and 16th centuries; Carcassonne, 
13th_ century: Albi, 1272-1512, one of the most 
original buildings in Europe; Cahors, Romano- 
Byzantine; Perpignan, begun in 1324; Rodez, 
1277 and 15th century; Avignon, 11th century; 
Nimes, 11th century; Valence, 109S; Viviers, 
14th and 15th centuries; Aix, 13th and ISth 
centuries; Fr^jus, llth-13th century; and the 
modem La Major, Marseilles, 1852-93. 

Of French Romanesque, the most famous ex- 
amples are the Abbaye-aux-Hommes (S. 
Etienne) ; Caen, commenced in 1066 by Wil- 
liam the Conqueror, to expiate his fault in 
marr3ring his closely related Matilda; also, in 
the same place, the Abbaye-aux-Dames (La 
Trinit€). The Gassic movement in Paris 
produced the Madeleine (1764-1806), which 
combines Hellenic and Roman elements. It is 
an excellent reproduction of a Corinthian tem- 

English, Scotch and Irish Cathedrals. — 
Of English church buildings the most in- 
teresting is Westminster Abbey, begun in 1050 
by Edvrard the Confessor, who diea soon after 
the choir was finished in 1065 and was buried 
there. Mr. Allen (see Bibliography) writes 
that "Edward the Confessor was interred 
before the high ahar eight days after the dedi- 
cation.* To be crowned beside that tomb lent 
additional sanctity to the rite of coronation; 
and every British sovereign, from William the 
Conqueror to George V has received the crown 
before its altar. Henry III, who rebuilt flie 
church, palace and monastery at Westminster, 
*chose his own burial-place on the north side 
of the stately shrine to which he had <trans- 
lated'_ the body of the Confessor. There, in 
due time, lay his son Edward I and his Queen ; 
there king after king was buried* ; there Chau- 
cer_ was laid to rest, and there, nearly two cen- 
turies later, the poet's poet, Spenser, — and after- • 
ward the other poets of the famous "comer.* 
Nelson's cry: "Westminster or victory" I epi- 
grammatized the feeling and settled conviction 
of Englishmen that to be laid to sleep "in 
ground sacred with the dust of kings, warriors, 
churchmen, statesmen and poets, vras an honor 
of the highest order.* For three centuries Par- 
liament met in Westminster's Chapter House, 
we cradle of Parliamentary government of Ac 
British empire. Edward III spoke of the Ab- 
wy as not only "die monastery church of West- 
nunster,* but also as the "special chapel of out 

Srindpal palace.* Twice in its long history a 
(shop's throne has adorned its choir stalls ; but 
to-day it is not a cathedral it is — Westmins- 
ter Abbey. The nave is the loftiest in Eng- 
land and the transepts contain some of the 
most beautiful work that can be found any- 
where. The south transejgt is the "Poets' Cor- 
ner,* a name given by Goldsmith. Chaucer^s 
tomb is here. Henry Vll's chapel is the most 
perfect example of Perpendicular in exist- 
ence. The vault is beautiful with "fan-tra- 
cery.* Above the superbly carved stalls of the 
Knights of the Bath hang ancient banners. In 
this impressive and elaborate chapel the tombs 
of Queen Elizabeth and her victim, Mary, 
Queen of Scots, are side by side I 

The famous "Jerasalem Chamber* (see 
Shakespeare's <Henry IV > Part II, Act V, Sc. 
IV) is on the right of the chief, or west, en- 
trance. In this room the Assembly of Divines 
met in 1643, to frame the Westminster Cate- 

Saint Paul's Cathedral, in London, replaces 
the first Saint Paul's which was destroyed in 
the great fire of 1666. The first stone of the 
present edifice was laid 21 June 1675 by Chris- 
topher Wren, who drew up a comprehensive 
scheme for the new streets and squares of Lon- 
don, but was permitted to exercise his gre^t 
talent only upon this main building in his 
general plans. Sir Christopher's son laid the 
last stone, the highest slab on the top of the 
Lantern, 363 feet above the pavement, in 1710. 
The entire building was finished in 35 years 
under one architect, one master mason, and 
while one bishop, Dr. Henry Compton, occu- 
pied the see. Compare what is said above about 
Saint Peter's. The plan of the building is the 
Latin cross surmounted by a dome 145 feet in 
diameter, and the latter combines characteristics 
of both Bramante's and Michelangelo's designs 
for the dome of Saint Peter's in Rome. The 
dome is the great feature of Saint Paul's and 
almost seems to tyi»fy London. The length 
of the building, east to west, is 500 feet; 
its width is 125 feet, except at the west end 
where two towers extend the width to 180 feet. 
The choir stalls, carved by Grinling Gibbons, 
are superb. 

Saint Paul's is second only to Westminster 
Abbey in its number of monuments to the 
celebrated dead. Here lie Wellington, Nelson, 
Rodney (k)rdon. Lord Corawallis, Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, Landseer, Turner and the American 
painter, Benjamin West. Westminster Abb^ 
IS the church of the king: Saint Paul's is the 
church of the citizen. It has always been 
chosen as the scene for stirring commemora- 
tions and thanksgivings ever since Queen Anne 
celebrated Marlborough's victories there. "The 
streets around Saint Paul's bear such names as 
Amen Comer, Creed Lane, Canon Alley and 
Paternoster Row. 

(Canterbury Cathedral, founded soon after 
the Norman conquest, is 545 feet long and the 
greater transept is 170 feet. It has three towers, 
the central one being 230 feet high. The 
crypt, which extends under the entire structure, 
is die finest m England. In 1561 Elizabeth 
gave it to the Flemish and French refugees 
fleeing from the bloody wars of the Spanish 
Alva. The choir is the earliest example of the 
importation of the pure Ile-de-France style of 
tiansitioiial Gothic After a fire which de« 

Digitized by 



strayed the original choir (that o( the Norman 
Church) the -work of reconstruction was en- 
trusted, in 1174, to the French architect, Wil- 
liam of Sens, -who naturally supplied a purely 
French contemporaneous design. As Cantefr- 
buxy was four centuries in building it contains 
specimens of all classes of Pointed Architec- 
ture. The tomb of Stephen Langton, first sub- 
scribing witness of the Magna Charta, is here. 
The shrine of Thomas k Becket, who was 
murdered here in 1170, became a pilgrimage 
place of great celebrity and veneration. 

Salisbury Cathedral, begun in 1220 and fin- 
ished in 1258, is universally selected as die 
best embodiment of Early English design; 
and this for the good and sufficient reason that 
it has the excellent quality of unity, which 
bears the same relation to architecture that com- 
position does to painting. The plan is a double 
cross ; extreme length, 4/4 feet, and width along 
greater transept, 230 feet_. The great east win- 
dow is the finest specimen of its kind in 

In Lincoln Cathedral was developed the first 
complete form of the Pointed Arch. Lincoln 
greatly resembles the Cathedral of Dijon, but is 
earlier. It was begun by Hugh of Burgundy in 
118S, after an earthquake had destroyed the 
earher building. The Lincoln east front is 
re^rded as almost perfect in design. The 
main stylistic divisions at Lincoln are given as : 
First, Saint Hugh's choir and east transept, 
1191-1205; second, nave and west front, 1205- 
50; third, presbytery or Angel choir, 1256-80; 
fourth, upper portions of towers, 14th century. 
Lincoln Cathedral has a length of 524 feet ex- 
ternally, and measurement inside gives 482 feet 
Its central tower is 300 feet high. 

Peterborough Cathedral has been called a 
monument of the latest English Romanesque 
style. The first part of this building to be 
erected was the apse, about 1120. A critic says: 
'nothing of the Romanesque architecture in 
England is quite so fine" as that rounded apse, 
the east end of Peterborough. According to the 
same observer, "the interior of the church is 
even more impressive, relatively speaking, than 
the outside, and is probably the finest early 
interior in England.''* 

There is much Early English work and some 
Perpendicular in this cathedral.^ The west front 
with its three enormous doors is famous. 

Ely is one of the long and comparatively 
narrow EngUsh cathedrals, whose main struc- 
tures, the nave and transepts, are Norman. Its 
length is 516 feet and its width 190 feet The 
great west door is both Early English and 
Decorated and the Galilee Porch is one of the 
finest examples of Early Elnglish in eiustence. 
The Octagon, the work of Walsingham (13th 
century), is the gem of Ely. The choir-stalls 
are the finest Decorated stalls known. 

The cathedral at York is 524 feet long, 250 
feet wide and has a superb central tower. The 
nave is 93 feet hi^. This "King of Cathe- 
drals' is always called York Minster. Gen- 
erally speaking it is of the Perpendicular style. 
The west front is Early Decorated, Late Dec- 
orated and Perpendicular. The towers rise to 
200 feet. The south transept (1216-41) and 
the north transept (1241-60) are Eariy English. 
For stateliness and magnificence the choir is 
unrivaled. Ilie glass is magnificent and there 

is more ancient glass here than in any odier 
building in the world. 

Winchester, the largest cathedral in Eng- 
land, represents every style from pure Norman 
to early Renaissance. It has the most beautiful 
nave in England. The choir-stalls are magnifi- 
cent. Alfred the Great was crowned here. It 
is pre-eminently a cadiedral of royal associa- 

Elxeter is the best specimen of the Decorated 
style. The finest work of the 14th century is 
here. Its special features are the screen on the 
west front, lady chapel, bishop's throne, east 
window and minstrels' gallery with wonderful 

Lidtfield, Early English and Decorated, pi 
the 13th and 14tn centuries, is famed for its 
three lovely and delicate towers, west front and 
lady chapel. 

CHiichester, though small, b a treasure-house ; 
for it contains every style without a break from 
the 11th to the 16th century. It is called *an 
epitome of English architecture." 

Gloucester is noted for the most beautiftd 
choir in England with the magnificent east 
window, 72 leet high and 38 feet wide, the 
largest window in Europe. The central tower, 
cloisters and lady chapel are also famous. 
GloiKester offers splendid examples of the 
transition from the Decorated to the Perpen- 

Wells is celebrated for the carvings of its 
capitals, its chain-gate, chapter-house, inverted 
arches m the nave, east end and singular west 
front. It was built in 1206-42. 

Rochester has the finest of all Norman door- 
wa_ys in its west front. This cathedral was 
built in the 12th century. 

Durham is the most mcturesquely situated of 
all English cathedrals. Its Galilee chapel, choir 
of nine altars, Neville screen and Joseph's win- 
dow (a splendid example of Early Decorated 
tracery) are its features. Early Norman, Ear)y 
EngH^ and Early Decorated are found here; 
The tomb of the "Venerable Bede" is here. 

In Scotland there are, besides modem 
edifices, only two complete and entire cathe- 
drals — those of Glasgow and Kirkwall. Con- 
sult Addis, M. E. C, <The Cathedrals and 
Abbeys of Presbyterian Scotland,' Philadelphia 

In Dublin there are two cathedrals: Christ 
Church, built in 1038, restored and, in 187& 
reopened; Saint Patrick's, erected 1190 and 
restored between 1860 and 1865. 

German Cathedrals and Churches.— 
Turning now to German cathedrals, we may 
mention as typical structures the enormous 
structure at Cologne and the new cathedral at 
Berlin. The former was beg^un in the middle 
of the 13th century and only in part finished 
by 1509, after which date work was discon- 
tinued, and not resumed until 1830. In 1863 
it was thrown open to the public, and in 1880 
it was finished. It is 511 feet long and 231 
feet wide. The towers reach the height of 513 
feet above the ground. The nave, although five 
feet narrower, is 11 feet higher than that of the 
cathedral at Amiens. Consult Fergusson,_ J., 
<A History of Architecture in All Countries? 
(London 1874, Vol. I, p. 533 and Vol. II. p. 
67) ; also Moore, C. H., <Development and 
Character of Gothic Architecture^ (2d ed., 

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New YoHc 1906, p. 253). The new cadiednkl 
at Berlin, dedicated in 1905, has its princi- 
pal entrance for the people of that city 
and for the general public at the side; the 
traditional west'fa^ade door or doors are 
reserved for *exits and entvances^ oif the 
Imperial family, and for entrances not followed 
by exits — since this cathedral is intended to 
serve as an Imperial mausoleum. The archi- 
tect, apparently striving after Italian Re- 
naissance effects, has produced a mere "sdiool 
classic,** architecturally cominonplace in execu- 
tion though unusual in plan. Examples of Ger- 
man Romanesque are the cadiedrals at Mayence 
(1036), Worms (1110-1200), Trives (1047), 
and Spe^r (Uth century) — diese four being 
regarded as representative cathedrals of that 
period. France and (lermany claim the Cathe- 
dral of Aix-la-Qiapelle, built by Charlemagne as 
a royal tomb for himself. It "is interesting as 
resembling Saint Vitale at Ravenna,^ says 
Prof. Banister Fletcher in <A History of 
Architecture on the Comparative Method' 
(London 1901). "In plan it is a polygon of .16 
sides, 105 feet in diameter. Internal!:^, every 
two angles converge on to one pier, wmch thus 
number eight. These support a dome 47 feet 
6 inches in diameter. It is of historic in- 
terest as the crowning place of the Western 
Enrperors. Lubeck (Cathedral is a type of brid 
architecture peculiar to North Germany; the 
nave and transept are of this period, being 
founded in 1173.* Examples of Gothic in Ger- 
many (besides Cologne Cathedral) are Strass- 
burg Cathedral, 1240-1365, which has two west- 
em towers, though only one spire (which dates 
from 1429) of open work tracery; Ratisbon 
Cathedral, 1275-1534, the open spires of which 
were added in 1859-69 ; Ulm Cathedral, spacious 
and lofty, with fine choir stalls; Magdeburg, 
1208-11; Halberstadt, 1250; Altenburg, 1255; 
Freiburg, 1270; Meissen, 1274: Osnabriick; 
1318; Augsburg, 1321-1431; and Metz, 1330. 
Saint Elizabeth, Marburg, 1235-83, has the side 
aisles raised to the same height as the centnd 
aisle, a new type which Germans call the *HaM 
Church" — ^as is also Munich Cathedral; Saint 
Stephen, Vienna, 1300-1510, a splendidly impres- 
sive church in the heart of the city with 
traceried vaults, a spire and the original stained 
glass. The cathedral of Prague (1344-52) 
shows French influence. 

Russian Ecclesiastical Edifices. - In Rus- 
sia, the largest and most famous of Petro- 
grad's churches is the cathedral of Saint 
Isaac of Dalmatia, which was erected 1819- 
58) in olace of an earlier church, after 
plans by R. de Monferrand, and at an 
expense of about $12,000,000. Its plan is a 
cross 364 feet long, and the extreme width 
is 315 feet. It is built of granite and marble. 
The central dome, which is gilded and is 
87 feet in diameter, is crowned by a lantern 
more than 40 feet high. Above the floor the 
dome rises to the measured height of 269 feet 
(interior), and 333^4 feet (exterior) to the 
top of the cross on the lantern. The walls of 
the interior are lined with marble of many dif- 
ferent kinds, and each of the chief entrances is 
ornamented with 16 monolith columns, 7 feet 
thick and 54 feet high, of red granite from 
Finland. In the same city; the cathedral of 
Saints Peter and Paul is the mausoleum of 
the Russian Imperial family. It is a domed 

structure 210 feet in length and 98 feet wide 
In Moscow, and near the centre of the ICremlin, 
which is in the very heart of the city, stands 
the cathedral of the Assumption, the <^urch in 
which the Tsars are crowned, built by Fior»< 
venti of Bologna in 1475-79. Its form is rect* 
aimular and its dimensions moderate (le^^ 
125 feet and width 82 feet). Its central dome 
rises to a height of 138 leet, and there is a 
smaller dome at each ol the comers. Arch- 
angel Cathedral in Moscow wjus, before the 
time of Peter the Great, the mausoleum of the 
Tsars; and near it is the building in which 
rulers of the same fantily are christened asd 
married, the ca.thedral of the Annunciatioo. 
The Inner City contains one of the most revered 
sanctuaries in Russia, that of the chapel of the 
Iberian Virgin. Saint Basil's, with its variety 
of domes and strange colors, is one of the most 
famous churches in Russia. The cathedrals 
at Moscow, Kiev, Novgorod, and elsewhere, 
have an eastern aspect, because o£ their 
bulbous-shaped domes and barbaric details. 
Prof. Banister Fletcher writes: *In Greece 
and Russia the Byzantine style has bees 
the accepted treatment of the Greek Church 
up to the present day. In Greece the 
buildings are. small, but often exquisitely 
eifecuted, as the church of Daphni, near Ath- 
ens; the well-known cathedral at Athens,* 
etc. Saint Sophia at Constantinople, built hy 
order, of Justinian k^d. 532-37, is a masterpiece 
of Bvzantine architecture; the minarets were 
added many years later. i 

Spanish and Portuguese Cathedralt;r-> 
Spanish Gothic cathedrals of special in^ 
terest or beauty are Burgos Cathedra^ 
dating from 1230; Toledo, 1227: Tarra- 
gona, 1235; Barcelona, 1298; and Seville, 
1403-1520, the last-mentioned being the largest 
mediteval cathedral in any country. Its tower, 
called the Giralda (upper part Ktinilt in 1395;- 
the lower built in 1195) is not Gothic but Span^ 
isb Saracenic. Others are Zamora, 1151 ; 
Leon, 1250; Valencia, 1262; Oviedo, 1388; 
Pamplona, 1397; Gerona, 1312; Salamanca, 
1510-60; Segovia, 1525, and Valladdid. 1585. 
Also Spaaisn Saracenic is the great Mosque 
at Cordova (a.d. 786), some portions of which 
were destroyed by Charies V to build his chureh. 
described by Russell Sturgis as an "interpolated 
Christian cathedral cfanna in the very heart of 
the great prayer-hall of the mosque.* In Portur 
gal the cathedral at Coimbra is a fine example. 

Fleraiah, Dutch, Scandinavian and Swiaa. 
— In the Netherlands, the famous ecclesiasti- 
cal buildinffs are the cathedral of Sainle Gudule 
of Brussels; Saiht Martin at Ypres, begun 
in 1254; the cathedral of Antwerp with six 
aisles; the cathedral of Liege; Saint Sanrear, 
Bruges, 13th and 14A centuries; Saint Baron, 
Ghent, made a cathedral in 1559; Toumai (11th 
and I2th centuries) ; Saint Rombaut, Malines 
(Mechlin), with its huge spire; the cathedral 
of Bois-Ie-Duc (1419) in Holland, and that of 
Utrecht (1251). Norway, Sweden, Denmark 
and Switzerland have borrowed ardiitectural 
forms or received guidance for the construc- 
tion of their most important building from 
other countries. Thus, the Cathedral of Upsala 
was built from the designs of Etienne de Bon- 
neval of Paris. Switzerland has Lausanne and 
Bern (1421). 

American Bedesiastlcal ArchTtecture<~ 

Digitized by 




In the United States some churclies show 
independent architecture while odiers are in" 
fluenced by foreign styles. 

The cornerstone of Saint Patrick's Cathe- 
dral, New York, was laid 15 Auk. 1858, exactly 
six centuries to the year, after the com- 
pletion of Saliidwiy Cathedral, England, and 
about six centuries after the lajrine of the 
cornerstone of Saint Patrick's Cathedral in 
Dublin. Hie original plans of its architect, 
lir. James Renwick, were drawn in 1853. 
The eround on which it stands (Fifth 
and Madison avenues, SOth and 51st streets) 
was bought in 1852 by the trustees of the 
cathedral for $59,500. The building admirably 
and quite frankly perpetuates the decorated 
and geometric style of Gothic ardiitecture 
which prevailed in Europe from 1275 to 140CL 
examples of which are the cathedrals of 
Rheims and Amiens and the naves of York 
Minister, Exeter and Westminster. Its plan is 
a Latin cross. The exterior dimensions are: 
Extreme length (with lady chapel), 398 feet; 
extreme breadth, 174 feet; towers at base, 32 
feet; height of towers, 330 feet The interior 
dimensions are: length, 370 feet; breadth of 
nave and choir, including chapels, 120 feet; 
length of transept, 140 feet: central aisle, 48 
feet wide and 112 feet high; side aisles, '24 
feet wide and 54 feet high; chapels, 18 feet 
wide, 14 feet high and 12 feet deep. Above the 
granite base-course, the exterior is entirely of 
white marble. The lady chapel, which was 
finished in 1906, is of 13th century French 
(k>thic design, by Mr. Charles T.' Mathews. 
lU length is 56^ feet, its width 28 feet and its 
height 56 feet The cost of the buikling was 
about $4,000,000. The ceremony of dedication 
took place 25 May 1879, somewhat less than 
21 years after the laying of the cornerstone. 
Between the lad;y chapel and Madison avenue 
•stand the archbishop's house and the presby- 

_ The cathedral church of Saint John the 
Divine, situated on Momingside Heights, in 
New York city, was begun in 1892. It has been 
under active construction since 1901. _ The design 
of Heins and_ LaFarge was adopted in 1891, and 
the consecration of the choir occurred 19 April 
1911. The material of the walls is Mohegan 
granite; Wrought work of exterior, Frontenac 
stone and Mohegan granite; wrought work of 
interior, Frontenac stone; columns of apse. 
Penobscot granite; marbles in choir ana 
diapels, Siena, (^pollino, serpentine, Alps 
green, Belgian black, yellow Numidian, red Nu- 
midian, Hauteville, Skyfos, Briche violaces and 
Grueby tile. The rose red bases of walls and 
piers are of South Dakota Jasper, The total 
projected length of the building is given as 
520 feet; the total projected breadth, across 
transepts, 290 feet; total projected height to 
crown of dome, 254 feet; total projected height 
to top of spire, 425 feet Both The American 
ArtMteet (Vol. XClX,p. 146) and Mr. LaFarge 
(in Scribner's) lav special stress on the octagon 
of Ely Cathedral when tracing to its source 
the idea carried out in Saint John's "of the 
arrangement proper to_ the modern and Protest- 
ant Cathedral in which the preaching is as 
important as the procession. Stated in sim- 
plest terms, this is to be essentially a modem 
cathedral ; not a mere copy of any ancient otie 
or a reproduction of an andtnt :type; and it 

borrows suggestions not alone from Ely but 
also from Spanish churches, perhaps partico,- 
larly that of Toro." The Architectural Record 
reminds us that "the winning design was de- 
scribed, at the time of the competition of 1891, 
as a domical church in a Gothic shell.* Up to 
1916 somewhat less than %t,000,000 had been 
spent for the choir, with its ambulatory and 
chapels, the arches of the crossing and the 

Saint Thomas's Church, New York, was 
founded in 1823. In 1867 the present site was 
acquired (Fifth avenue at 53a street) ; three 
years later the *old" Saint Thomas's was dedi- 
cated, and for a third of a century its tower 
was a noted landmark on the avenue; more- 
over the church was beloved on account 
of its magnificent altar, with LaFaixe's 
decorations, and for its organ. That earUer 
building was _ destroyed by fire 8 Aug. 
1905 ; a competition for architects' designs was 
held; the design by Messrs. Cram, (joodhue & 
Fer^son was selected. Adequate size was 
achieved (the nave is 43 feet wide and the 
vault rises 90 feet above the pavement), de^ 
spite the_ limited area available, by the success^ 
fill solution of novel problems in ecclesiastical 
architecture. The building-stone employed for 
the exterior is the oolithic limestone of 
Bowling Green, Ky.; for the interior, soft 
yellow sandstone from South CarroUton in the 
same State. Guastavino tile was used for the 
vault The cost of the new Saint Thomas's 
was approximately $1,000,000. The interior is 
simple, though restful rather than severe, as 
to Its main lines and proportions. 

Other beautiful, or historically interesting 
churches in New York are Trinity; Grace; 
and Saint Paul's Chapel (Colonial period 
and single example of original church architec- 
ture of that period remaining in the dty), 
etc Among _ the American cathedrals and 
churches outside of New York ci^ are the 
Roman Catholic Cathedral at Baltimore, which 
dates from 1800; that of Saint Peter and 
Saint Paul at Philadelphia, a domical Renais- 
sance structure (height of dome, 210 feet); 
the Immaculate Conception Cathedral at Den- 
ver: Saint Joseph's Church, and the Cathedrals 
at Hartford, Saint Louis, Providence, Boston, 
Albany, Buffalo and Rochester. 

Montreal, Canada, is fortunate in the pos- 
session of the Catholic (Cathedral of Saint 
James on Dominion Square; the large church 
of Notre Dame, built 1824^ and the An^ican 
Christ Church (Cathedral (Early English archi- 

Pmally, looking southward to Mexico and 
other New World countries, attention should 
be called to the powerfully designed and exe- 
cuted cathedral at Puebla before mentioning the 
enormous jumbled mass of the cathedral in the 
Citv of Mexico, which has Italian Renaissance 
and Oriental domes and Churrigueresque 
facades. In Peru the most noteworthy ecde- 
siastical buildings are the catliedral and the 
church of the Compaiua in Cuzco and the 
cathedrals, in Arequipa and lima. The Brazil- 
ian capital possesses, in its not quite appreciated 
cathedral, a building of rather impressive dig- 
nity. The wide facade of the shallow cathe- 
dral at Buenos Aires does not harmonize with 
the geirius of a country that sends the roots of 
its power every year deeper into, the soil. 

Digitized by 



MbUographT^ Allen, F. H., <The Great 
Cathedrals of the World> (Boston 1886); 
'American Churches> (New York 1915): De- 
maison, L., 'La Cathedrale de Reims > (Paris, 
undated) ; Moreau-Nealtooi 6., <La C^tliMralc 
de Reims> (Paris 1915); <Saint John the 
Divine, CJithedral of (in The ArckiUcttml 
Record, Vol. XXX, pages 185-92); Stutgis, 
R., and Frothinfrham, A. L, <A History of 
Architecture> (New York 1906-15); Valen- 
tini. A., <La Patriarcale Basilica Lateranense' 
(Rome 1834) ; Rodin, A., <Les cat^drales de 
France' (Paris 1914) ; Singleton, Esther, 'How 
to Visit the English Cathedrals* (New York 
1912); Rudy. Charles, 'The Cathedrals of 
Northern Spam> (Boston 1905) ; Hartley.Cath- 
erine G., 'Cathedrals of Southern Spain' (Lon- 
don 1913) ; Bumpus, T. F., 'The Cathedrals of 
Central Italy' (London 1914) ; Edwards, 
George Wharton, 'Vanished Halls and Cathe- 
drals of France' (Philadelphia 1917). 

£sTHES Singleton', 
Author of ^-Famous Cathedrals.^ 

CATHELINBAU, ka'te-le'no, Jacques, 
French Vendean general: b. Pin-en-Mauge, 
Anjou, 5 Jan. 1759; d. II July 1793. On the 
breaking out of the French Revolution he was 
living quietly with his family, when an unfore- 
seen event suddenly called him forth from 
obscurity. In March 1793, during the levy of 
the conscription which the National Assembly 
had decreed, the youth of the district of Saint 
Florent rose in insurrection, and put the officials 
and gerts d'armes to flight. They then returned 
home, and were awaiting the terrible revenge 
of the Republicans, when news of the outbreak 
reached (^thelineau. He instantly determined 
to put himself at the head of his countiymen. 
Causing the alarm-bell to be rung in different 
places, he was soon followed by almost all the 
men capable of bearing arms, surprised several 
Republican posts, carried ofi their cannon and 
now mustered several thousand strong. As he 
did not deem himself equal to the post of com- 
mander, he placed himself under Bonchamp, 
and ElMe, but after the victory of Saumur, 9 
June 1793, was formally invested as com- 
mander-in-chief. On this he resolved to make 
a decisive attack on Nantes, and appeared be- 
fore it with 80,0(X) men, still further increased 
bv 30,0(X), whom Charette brought from lower 
Poitou. Notwithstanding these vast numbers, 
and the greatest display of undisciplined gal- 
lantry, the attack was repulsed, and Cathelineau 
died shortly after of the severe wounds which 
he had received. For his piety he was called the 
•Saint of Anjou.* Consult La Porte, *La 
l^gende de Cathelineau' (Paris 1893) ; Muret, 
'Vie populaire de Cathelineau' (Paris 1845). 

CATHERINE. See Catharine. 

CATHARINA, an island dose to dw coast of 
Brazil, between lat. 27° and 28° S., and belong- 
ing to the province or state of Santa Cathanna 
(q.v.). It is 30 miles long and 10 broad, and 
contains Desterro, the state capital. The sur- 
face is mountainous. 

CATHETER, any tubular organ used to 
insert into a mucous canal or hollow organ. 
Thus, there are nasal catheters for the nosc^ 
eustachian catheters for the internal ear, 
prinary catheters for the bladder. This latter 
is the more frequently used. Materials 'used in 

maldiig urinary cadietcrs are silver, glass, 
rubber, woven lin^ and gum. elastic. A 
stylet is generally used for putting the less 
flexible catheters in place. (Catheters used for 
male patients are about 10 inches with a curve 
of two inches at the extremitv in metal instru- 
ments. For females, five inches is the proper 
length, the metal instruments curving a half- 
iocn. Great care should be exercised m its use^ 
that it be kept clean, to avoid cystitis (q.v.). 

CATHBTOMBTBR, in physics, an instni- 
ment for the exact measurement of small verti- 
cal distances. In its usual form it consists of a 
horizontal telescope, mounted so as to slide 
upon a fixed, graduated, upright support or 
post. The telescope is raised or lowered until 
Its cross-hairs coincide with one of the objects 
whose difference in height is to be determine^ 
and the position of the telescope upon -the 
vertical, graduated post is noted by means of 
a vernier or microoieter. The telescope is then 
brought to the elevation of the second object 
in the same way, and the difference in the two 
readings gives the desired difference in height 
A cathetometer that is well designed and con* 
structed is an instrument capable of giving very 
precise results when in the hands of a skilful 
observer. It is greatly used in accurate 
harometr^, for dcterminmg die height of the 
barometric column above die mercury in the 

CATHODE, the negative pole of any given 
portion of an electric arcuit, such as a battery, 
an electrobrtic cell, vacuum tube, a motor, etc. 

CATHODE RAYS. See Ether; Elec- 
tron; Molecular Theory; Radiation, etc. 

body of (Christians founded t^i; Rev. Edward 
Irving, in London, England, in 1835, hence 
often called *Irvingites.^ Irving was pastor of 
a Scotch Presbytenan Church, but, chanmng his 
views, was dismissed. He held that the gifts 
bestowed upon the Ajx>stoUc Church — words 
of wisdom and prophecy, powers of healing 
and miracles, discerning oi spirits and speaking 
in divers tongues and interpretation thereof — 
were not meant exclusively for the apostles and 
their immediate successors, but are given to all 
who have the living faith. He died soon after 
he ceased to be pastor of the Presbyterian 
CHiurch, but his followers developed his ideas 
and completed the organization of the Catholic 
Apostolic (Thurch, which has four classes of 
mmisters: Apostles (the chief of all), prophets, 
evangelists and pastors, each comprising 12 
fflcmbers, when complete these 48 presiding 
over the 12 tribes of the g^erat churcn. Each 
congregation has its *Angel,* or bishop, with 
24 priests, six of each class of the ministry: 
there are also elders and deacons for temporal 
affairs, and a corps of sub-deacons, acolytes, 
singers and doorkeppcrs. The service is highly 
ritualistic, with *Hlpi» and "Low* celebrations, 
. vestments, candles, incense, holy oils, etc. The 
Church accepts the Apostles', Nicene and 
Athanasian creeds, and expects soon the second 
coming of the Lord. The denomination was 
established in the United States before 1851. 

The New Apostolic (Church arose in Europe 
as the result of a difference of view as to the 
number of apostles who might be appointed. 
The original body limits it to 12; the new 
branch holds that a larger number may be 

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created. The latter has in the United States 
13 churches, 19 ministers and 2,020 members; 
the former, 11 churches, i4 ministers and 2,907 
members. These figures are those of the cen- 
sus of 1906. Consult Life of Edward Irving 
(of which there are several) and K Miller's 
^History and Doctrines of Irvingism^ (London, 
Eng., 1878). 

a fraternal society for Roman Catholic laymen, 
designed to afford to the members facilities for 
intellectual improvement, social advancement 
and such other advantages as are offered by 
similar non-Catholic fraternities. It was or- 
ganized in 1881 and incorporated under tfa« 
laws of the State of New York with 11 charter 
members. Thirty years later the Society had 
17,000 active members, and had paid to widows 
and orphans of 8,000 deceased monbers the 
sum of $21,000,000. The organization is incor« 
porated under the style of the Supreme Couiw 
dl. Catholic Benevolent Legion, and to the 
Supreme Council final appeal is made on all 
matters of importance emanating from State 
or subordinate councils. Male Roman Catholics 
who are personally acceptable, of sound bodily 
health, and between die ages of 18 and 55, are 
alone eligible to membership. There is a relief 
fund on behalf of sick and distressed members, 
and a benefit fund, out of which a sum not 
exceeding $5,000 is paid to the beneficiaries of 
deceased members, and a sum not exceeding 
$2,500 to a member who is permanently dis- 
abled. A subordinate council of the Catholic 
Benevolent Legion may be formed in any con- 
gregation or parish; a charter is granted by 
me Supreme Council to a group of IS or even 
of 7 eligible persons who associate themselves 
with a view to enter the fraternity. The or- 
ganization has the express approval of the 
Pontiff and of all the archbishops and bishops 
in whose jurisdictions councils of the fraternity 
have been formed. 

CATHOLIC CHURCH, a phrase signify- 
ing universal Church, the whole body of true 
believers in Christ; but the term is commonly 
used as equivalent to the Roman or Western 
Church. Like most other words used in 
ecclesiology, the term Catholic, was borrowed 
at first from the New Testament. It occurs in 
some editions of the Greek original — including 
that issued in connection with the last revision 
— in the titles prefixed to the Epistles of James, 
1 and 2 Peter, 1 John and Jude, and is the 
word translated "generaP in the King James 
Bible. The first to apply it to the Church was 
die Apostolic Father Ignatius. When he and 
his successors used it they meant to indicate 
that the Church of which they constituted a 
part comprised the main body of believers, and 
was designed, as it was entitled, to be universal. 
In this sense the (Thurch was op^sed to the 
sects and separate bodies of heretics who had 
separated themselves from it and were now 
outside its pale.. When, in the 9th century, 
the separation between the Eastern and_ West- 
em churches took place, the latter .retained as 
one of its appellations tlie term "Catholic,"* the 
Eastern Church being contented with the word 
'Orthodox'^ still used by the Russian emperors 
in their politico-ecclesiaBtical manifestos. When 
the Protestant churches separated from their 
communion with Rome in the 16th century. 

those whom they had left naturally regawled 
them as outside the Catholic pale. They, on 
the other hand, declined to admit that this was 
the case, and the term "Catholic (Thurch'* is 
used in the English Liturgy apparently in the 
sense of all persons making a Christian pro- 

CATHOLIC CHURCH, Roman. By this 
name is designated the large body of Christians, 
united in doctrine and worship under the su- 
preme jurisdiction of the Pope, the bishop of 
Rome. (See Papacy). The members of this 
communion are wont rather to speak of it as 
the "Catholic C^iurch,* but admit the tenti 
"Roman* in the sense that "to be Roman is to 
be Catholic and to be Catholic is to be Roman.* 
They hold that their Church alone possesses in 
Its fullness the system of truths, laws and prac- 
tices for the worship of God which was insti- 
tuted by Jesus (^nst (q.v.). Hence a brief 
statement of Catholic teaching on the origin, 
nature and properties of the Church of Cfa^t 
will enable us to understand why the Roman 
Catholic Church demands that all men submit 
to her authority as a teacher, divinely appointed 
to make known with absolute certainty the con- 
ditions of salvation. 

From the Four (jospels, considered as trust- 
worthy historical documents, we learn that 
Jesus Christ was certainly a divine messenger 
to all mankind, and that therefore all men are 
bound to receive His message with implicit 
submission. The doctrine which He teaches 
may be an enforcement of truths which than 
might have jeamed, however imperfectly, by 
the use of his natural powers, or may include 
new truths which his natural powers would 
never have discovered. As Christ did not re- 
main on earth to teach all men in person. He 
chose a band of apostles, whom He commis- 
sioned to preacli to all nations the truths He 
had taught them, promising His assistance unto 
the end of the world, and imposing upon all 
men, under penalty of losing their souls, the 
obligation of receiving His doctrine. The 
presence of the Holy Spirit was to preserve the 
Apostles from error and keep them perfectly 
united in their teaching. 

Besides the gift of infallibility (q.v.). He 
conferred on them jurisdiction over all be- 
lievers, the_ right to govern with threefold 
Dower, legislative, judicial, and executive. 
Moreover, they were to sanctify men by certain 
religious rites, called sacraments (q.v.), and 
for this purpose received the gift of Holy 
Orders (q.v.). To Peter (see Saint Petek), 
one of the Twelve Apostles, was granted, a 
primacy, not merely of honor, but of jurisdic- 
tion. On him was Christ's Church to be built; 
he was to feed the entire flock, the lambs and 
the sheep. By thus organizing a body to teacK 
govern and sanctify men under the primacy of 
Saint Peter, Christ founded a religious society, 
supernatural in aims and means, and he chose 
for it the special name, the Church. (See 
CHtjRCH, AN Organization of Christians). 
"This society was to last even unto the day of 
judgment ; its duty was to teach all men ; where- 
fore the Apostles appointed their successors 
and transmitted to them the authority received 
from Christ As the primacy of Saint Peter 
was the first foundation, necessary to ensure the 
unity and stability of the Church, it too was to 

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last forever. The power he received was for 
him and his successors. There never should 
come a time when the doctrine of Christ would 
be lost through corruption. 

Whence we gather that there exists to-day 
a religious sotiety, empowered to teach with 
certainty all the truths of Christianity, and that 
it is a visible body, united in its government 
and religious teachings. The members of this 
society submit to its m fallible teaching by pro- 
fession of the faith, to its sacred ministry by 
the reception of baptism (q.v.) and to its 
ecclesiastical rule by obedience. If all men are 
obli^d to enter this society, it is evident that 
Christ provided some signs, notes or marks by 
which His Church can become known to aU 
earnest inquirers, by which it can be distin- 
guished from other associations. Christ in- 
tended that His Church should be known by 
Unity. It was to be one in faith, one in gov- 
ernment, one in worship and one m the charity 
uniting all its members. It was to be known 
by Holiness. The Church is holy in its 
Founder; in its aim to lead men to God; in 
its means of sanctiiication, in the heroic virtue 
of many members and in the permanence of 
miracles among them. It was to be Catholic; 
that is, conspicuously diffused everywhere. 
Finally it was to be Apostolic. The governing 
and teaching body is the continuation of the 
Apostolic body to which Christ gave His mis- 
sion and with which He promised to remain 
until the end of time. Whoever is not in 
communion with the successor of Saint Peter 
cannot possess union with the Apostolic body. 
The obligation of becoming a member of the 
Church is often expressed in these words : 
•Out of the Church there is no salvation." They 
do not mean that all who die out of the visible 
communion are lost. God does not inflict pun- 
ishment but for a wilful fault, and those who 
without fault cannot see their obligation of 
joining the Church are not to blame. If, how- 
ever, anyone, knowing this obligation, refuses 
to comply with it, he puts himself out of the 
way of salvation. The same holds true for 
those who neglect to examine properly into a 
matter of so great importance. 

Catholics hold that the marks of the true 
Church of Christ are found only in the Church 
in which the bishop of Rome holds the primacy. 
The bishops of this Church all over the world 
are the successors of the apostles, possessing 
the right to teach, to rule, and to sanctify. The 
gift of infallibility, that is, the right to declare 
that certain doctrines have been revealed by 
God is not personal to each bishop, but belongs 
only to the whole body of bishops, whether 
gathered in general council or not. The consent 
of the universal Church according to_ Christ's 
promise is a sure criterion of revelation. To 
the bishop of Rome as the successor of Saint 
Peter belongs the primacy of jurisdiction over 
the whole Oiurch, complete, supreme, ordinary, 
and immediate over each and all the churches 
of the world, over each and all the bishops and 
the faithful. 

In this primacy is included the supreme au- 
thority as teacher of the Church, or the pre- 
rogative of papal infallibility. By virtue of a 
special supernatural assistance of the Holy 
Spirit promised to Saint Peter and his succes- 
sors, the Pope cannot err when, as supreme 
teacner of the universal Church, he defines a 
VOL. 6 — 5 

doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held 
by the whole body of the faithful. Only when 
these four conditions are fulfilled is the Pope 
infallible: First, he must speak not in his pri- 
vate capacity, not merely in his official charac- 
ter, but as supreme teacher. Secondly, the 
matter defined must concern faith or morals. 
Thirdly, the judgment must be delivered with 
the manifest intention of commanding intellec- 
tual assent. Fourthly, the definition must be 
given to the whole body of the faithful. It is 
clear that infallibility has absolutely no connec- 
tion with the Pope s personal qualities and is 
entirely distinct from impeccability, or incapa- 
bility of sinning. The extent of papal infalli- 
bihty is the same as that of the Church's in- 
fallibility. It embraces all the truths that God 
has revealed as the object of faith, and extends 
to other truths and matters of faith without as- 
surance of which it would be impossible or very 
difficult to preserve the deposit of revealed 

It follows from what we have hitherto said 
that whoever wishes to know Christ's doctrine 
must appeal to the living authority. The 
Church as teadier, that is, the bishops now 
living in union with the Pope, can alo^e tell 
us what doctrines were revealed. This knowl- 
edge is not acquired from new revelations, but 
with the assistance of the Holy Ghost from 
various sources, chief amon^ which is the 
preaching of the Gospel, by which the doctrines 
of Christ are handed down as a sacred heritage 
from age to age. Thus, even if nothing had 
ever been written, we should have to-day, in- 
corrupt and infallible, the means of preserving 
religious truth which Christ established, namely 
Tradition. However, it was natural that those 
who were commissioned to teach should also 
set down their teaching in writing. Hence we 
possess many documents and monuments from 
which we learn what the Church taught in past 
ages and what it now teaches; the truths re- 
vealed remain unchanged Moreover, we learn 
from the Church that God Himself provided, 
by means of men, certain writings,' containing 
revealed . truth, and gave them to the Church 
for the instruction and direction of the faithful. 
(See Bible). From it alone we learn what 
books have been so inspired and constitute 
Holy Scripture; the Church alone can au- 
thoritatively interpret these writings. Tradi- 
tion, therefore, is prior to the Christian scrip- 
tures both in time and in thou^t.^ It is wider 
in its scope, for it embraces Scripture as an 
instrument by which tradition is handed down 
and on' the other hand contains matters which 
are not in Scripture. First and principally, 
tradition teaches us the authoritative character 
of Scripture itself. Even were all the copies 
of Scripture destroyed, the living voice would 
still proclaim the entire Christian teaching. 
Catholics yield to none in their esteem of Holy 
Writ, as the inspired word of God, but they 
so esteem it because of what they learn con- 
cerning it from tradition. The chief sources 
from which this tradition is learned are the 
acts of councils, the writings of the Popes, of 
the Fathers of the Church,_ inscriptions, mon- 
uments, -pictures, liturgies, rites and pious cus- 
toms, in a word, every way in which the 
Church is wont to profess her faith. 

The Chief Doctrines of the Catholic 
Faith. — Catholics believe in one, true, living 

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God, the Creator and Lord of heaven and 
earth and of all things visible and invisible, 
almighty, _ eternal, immense and incompre- 
hensible; infinite in will and intellect, and in 
all perfection, who, being one, singular, ab- 
solutely^ simple and unchangeable spiritual sub- 
stance is to be regarded as distinct really and 
in essence from the world, infinitely happy in 
and from Himself and tmspeakably elevated 
above all things that exist or can be conceived. 
He knows all things in the most perfect man- 
ner, by one all-embracing act of His intellect, 
from eternity to eternity ever the same. He 
laiows His own being, all things that are pos- 
' sible, past, present and future, and all things 
that are not and never have been nor will be, 
but which would beif some condition were 
fulfilled. He is all-wise, all-holy, all; just, true, 
faithful and bountiful. Moreover, in God as 
there is one divine nature, so there are three 
divine persons Father, Son and Holy Ghost, 
really distinct from one another, perfectly equal 
to one another. Nevertheless there are not 
three Gods, but one God. The Father is un- 
begotten, the Son is begotten of the Father, 
and the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father 
and the Son. (See Trinity, Doctrine of the). 
This one true God of His goodness and by 
His omnipotent power, not in order to increase 
His happiness, not to acquire perfection, but 
to manifest it by the good which He imparts 
to His creatures, in accordance with His ab- 
solutely free decree, at once from the beginning 
of time framed out of nothing as to the whole 
of_ their substance, two kinds of creatures, 
spiritual and material, the angels and the world, 
and then man, in whom spirit and matter were 
united. God preserves and governs by His 
providence all things that He has created. 

_ To the angels He gave sanctifying grace and 
with it the power to merit eternal happiness by 
free service. Maiiy of them rebelled and were 
cast into everlasting fire, the rest were con- 
firmed in grace and admitted to the beatific 
vision of God. God "formed the body of the 
first man out of the slime of the earth." He 
created his soul immediately, as He creates the 
soul of every man; the soul is a spirit, endowed 
with intellect and free-will and immortal. All 
men are descended from Adam (q.v.) and Eve. 
Like the Angels, our first parents were also 
raised to a supernatural state by the infusion of 
sanctifying grace into their souls, being made 
adopted children of God, destined to the en- 
joyment of the beatific vision. This is the prin- 
ciple of supernatural life, whereby man can 
produce works that merit a heavenly reward. 
Moreover, God bestowed on man other preter- 
natural gifts: great powers of mind and in- 
fused knowledge, complete control of the pas- 
sions, immortality and exemption from suffer- 
ing and decay. This original justice our first 
parents lost by mortal sin, that is, by a grievous, 
wilful violation of God's law; in consequence 
of Adam's sin all of_ his descendants were 
deprived of those privileges, are conceived in 
original sin and cannot of themselves enter the 
kingdom of heaven. 

To atone adequately for the grievous insult 
to God and to repair the evil_ done to mankind, 
the second person of the Trinity became man. 
Jesus is true God and true man, one Divine 
Person subsisting in two natures, divine and 
human, not by the conversion of Divinity into 

flesh, but by the assumption of humanity unto 
God, He was bom of the Virgin Mary, who 
was truly the Mother of God and remained a 
Virgin m conceiving and bearing her divine 
Son and ever after till the end of her life. By 
singular privilege of God through the merits of 
Christ, the Redeemer, the Blessed Virgin was 
preserved free from original sin (q.v.), that is, 
m the first moment of her conception, when her 
soul was created, it was endowed with sanc- 
tifying grace. By further privilege she was 
never guilty of any actual sin, mortal or veniaL 
See Mary; Immaculate Conception. 

Christ the God-man, became our Redeemer, 
not by the mere effect of His preaching and 
example, but by His bloody death on the cross. 
He made Himself our mediator with His 
Father, offering atonement for the sins of all 
men. This satisfaction is not applied to those 
who have use of reason without their free em- 
ployment of the means ordained b]f Christ He 
merited for us the remission of sins, sanctify- 
ing grace and all other graces conferred on 
man. After His death. He rose again on the 
third da^r, ascended into Heaven, where He sits 
at the right hand of the Father, whence He 
shall come with glory to judge the living and 
the dead, and of His kingdom there shall be 
no end. He founded a Church and confided to 
it the task of teaching His doctrines and apply- 
ing to men's souls the means of sanctification. 
Tms Church is the guardian and interpreter of 
revelation; for though the existence of God 
can be known with certainty by the light of 
reason, it has pleased the Divine Wisoom to 
reveal many natural truths as well as all those 
that regard our supernatural life. This revela- 
tion is contained both in written books and in 
unwritten traditions. The books of the Old 
and New Testament, held by the Church to be 
sacred and canonical, were written by the in- 
spiration of the Holy Ghost and have God as 
their author. In matters of faith and morals 
the true meaning of Scripture is that which is 
maintained by the Church. All interpretations 
at variance with the unanimous consent of the 
Fathers, when they speak as witnesses of tradi- 
tion, are false and forbidden. 

Whatevef is presented to us by the Church 
as revealed 'truth must be accepted by the free 
assent of the intellect, not because of its in- 
trinsic truth seen by the lig^t of reason, but 
on the authority of God who has given the 
revelation, and who can neither be deceived nor 
deceive. This divine revelation has been made 
credible by external proofs, especially by mir- 
acles and prophecies; yet as faith is a super- 
natural virtue, the act of faith requires the 
assistance of divine grace, enlightening the in- 
tellect and strengthening the will and making 
our act supernatural. Without faith there is no 
justification, but as God wishes all men to be 
saved, all receive, either proximately or re- 
motely, the grace to believe. Among revealed 
truths some are mysteries that cannot be 
demonstrated by human reason, but must be 
believed. The demonstrations of reason can- 
not contradict revelation, hence any assertions 
of human science that arc at variance with 
what the Church teaches to be revealed must 
be false. 

As grace is necessary for the beginnings of 
faith, and even for the pious affection toward 
believing, so it is needed to make our good 

Digitized by 




works Reserving ot a supernatural reward- 
Grace is needed even for the jvst to avoid sin. 
Final perseverance is a special privilege of dying 
in the state of grace. Apart from a special 
revelation, no one can know that he will re- 
ceive this blessing. Without grace, however, it 
is possible to resist less urgent temptations and 
perform acts that hav«: natural goodness; hence 
all work.<) done before justification are not sins. 
Accordir^ to Catholic doctrine, actaal grace is 
a reaf influence exerted by the Holy Ghost upon 
the soul, but it does not destroy the free-wili 
of man. A gn^ce may be fully sufficient for a 
supernaturally good act, but if a man refuse to 
act with it, the grace will not be efficacious. 
God will not save us. without our co-operatioa. 
See Grace of God. 

Actual graces aid us to obtain habitual or 
sanctifying grace, that is, to be justified by the 
rembsion of ori^nal sin or of grievous actual 
sin. _ This sanctifying grace makes us like unto 
Christ, holy and supernaturally pleasing to 
God, and brings with it the infused virtues and 
the gifts of the Holy Ghost (q.v.). There are 
many grades of habitual grace; it may be in- 
creased by good works, and on the other hand 
may be entirely lost by mortal sin. God in His 
mercy offers to man supernatural happiness 
and makes this offer known by the preacmng of 
His Church, which he accompanies by an in- 
terior stirring grace. When a man co-operates 
with this grace, he believes the truth with 
absolute certainty and is moved by the thought 
of God's love; ne sees reasons to fear God's 
justice and throws himself on God's mercy, 
trusting in the merits of Christ; hence he con- 
ceives a love of Go|d and a detestation of sin. 
Thus. by the working of grace and the co- 
operation of man's free will, the way is pre- 
pared for justification; and, provided that man 
puts no obstacle, the HoW Ghost works this 
justification by infusing charity into his soul, 
thereby destroying sin. Thus purified, he 
enters on a virtuous life, hoping by the merits 
of Christ to enter heaven, but he has no 
absolute certainty of _ his salvation. 

In the process of justification, the fir-st grace 
cannot be merited at all: for no . supernatural 
reward is due to natural acts.^ With the aid 
of grace both sinners and . just can merit 
further actual grace, but onl]^ congruously and 
not with any strict right in justice. The just, 
that is, those in a state of grace, can merit final 
perseverance congruously^ and, because of 
God's promises, can merit in justice the in- 
crease of habitual grace, eternal life and in- 
crease of glory. By mortal sin, all merit is lost. 

As a means of justification Christ has en- 
trusted to His Church seven Sacraments (q.v.), 
or sensible rites, instituted by Him to effect m 
the soul the grace which they signify. When 
the necessary conditions are placed, the Sacra- 
ment works by its own efficacy and not through 
the piety of the minister nor of the recipient. 
The Sacraments are Baptism, Confirmation^ 
Holy Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, 
Holy Orders and Matrimony. Baptism ana 
Penance remit sin; the others cannot lawfully 
he received in mortal sin. Baptism, Confirma- 
tion and Holy Orders can be received only 
once, because they imprint on the soul an inef- 
faceable mark, called the sacramental character. 
All the Sacraments, if properly received, give 
sanctifying grace or increase it; if already in 

the soul. Siocc the promolgation of i the Gos- 
pel, justification cannot be obtained without 
Baptism of water, which blots ont original sin 
and all actual sin. Infants who die widiout 
Baptism cannot enjoy the supernatural vision 
of God. In adults, when Baptism of water 
cannot be received, pardor of sin can -be ob- 
tained by the baptism of desire, which consists 
in a perfect love of God and a sorrow for sin, 
including, at. least implicitly, the desire of the 
Sacrament. Remission of sin is also granted 
to all who suffer martjrrdom for Qirist. Sins 
committed after Baptism are remitted by the 
Sacrament of Penance (q.v.), in which the 
sinner confesses with contrition all bis mortal 
sins to the duly authorized priests of the 
Church, from whom he receives absolution. 
Sins are also _ remitted by perfect contritioi^ 
but the obligation of Divine Law requires that 
even then, if possible, they must be confessed. 
Penance pardons the guilt of sins confessed 
^nd repented of, infuses or increases sanctify- 
mg grace, remits eternal puiushment, if it was 
due,, secures actual graces to avoid sin in 
future, and may also remit, wholly or in part, 
the temporal punishment still to be undergone 
for sins the guilt of which has been pardoned. 
The whole punishment is not always remitted 
with the fault; for the remaining debt satis- 
faction is made to God by sufferings patiently 
borne or voluntarily inflicted. For this purpose 
also the Church has the power of granting 
indulgences which are not a remission of sin, 
much less a permission to commit sin, but the 
remission of the whole or part of the temporal 
punishment which may be due for sins, after 
the guilt has been pardoned. See Indulgence, 
In the Holy Eucharist there is really and 
substantially present the Body and Blood, Soul 
and Divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, under 
the appearances of bread and wine. By the 
words of the priest at the consecration, there 
is effected a conversion of the whole sub- 
stance, of the bread into the jBody and of the 
whole substance of the wine into the Bloody 
whidt conversion is called transubstantiation 
(q.v.). By force of the words, the Body is 
under the species of the bread and the Blood 
under the species of the wine, but in virtue 
of the natural connection and concomitance by 
which the parts of Christ are linked together. 
He exists whole and entire under each species 
and every part of the species. In the Mass 
(q.v.) there is offered to God a true, proper 
and propitiatory sacrifice for the living and the 
dead. To offer up this sacrifice, Christ insti-i 
tuted a vbible ana external priesthood and the 
Sacrament of Holy Orders (q.v.) : the minister 
of this Sacrament must be a bisnop, who has 
received the fullness of the sacred ministry. 
The various orders constitute the Hierarchy. 
Priests cannot ordain or confirm. Other orders 
are the diaconate, spbdiaconate and the minor 
orders (Acolyte, Exorcist, Lector and Ostia- 
rius). Before the minor orders, the tonsure is 
conferred as a sign of enrolment among the 
clergy, who are separated from the rest of the 
faithful, called the laity. The right to exercise 
the sacred functions within appointed limits is 
called jurisdiction; it is required for the law- 
ful performance of all functions and for the 
validity of some. The Roman pontiffs have, by 
Divine institution, universal jurisdiction. The 
other bishops nave power to govern the 

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dioceses to which they have been assigned by 
the Pope. 

Marriage between Christians was raised by 
Christ to the dignity of a sacrament. Its es- 
sence lies in the contract freely made between 
man and wife; the grace conferred is first an 
increase of sanctity, and, secondly, actual grace 
to fulfill the duties of the married state. The 
bond of Christian marriage after consumma- 
tion is absolutely indissoluble; it is also exclu- 
sive, no man can have several wives, no woman 
several husbands, at the same time. Those who, 
with the aid of God's grace, fulfil the obliga- 
tions of virginity or celibacy live in a state 
more holy and better than the state of matri- 
mony. From the fact that Christian matrimony 
is a Sacrament, it follows that it has been en- 
trusted to the Church and is subject to the laws 
of the Church, not to those of the State ; hence 
the Church has the power of assigning condi- 
tions necessary for the validity or lawfulness 
of the contract between those who have been 
baptized. See Maiiiiiage. 

The means of sanctification are given to 
men to enable them to live and die in the state 
of sanctifying grace. At the hour of death each 
soul is judged by Christ, and if in mortal sin. 
is condemned to hell to be punished by eternal 
torments, vaiying in intensity according to the 
degree of guilt. Those who die free from all 
sin, mortal and venial and from all the tem- 
poral punishment for sin, are admitted at once 
to life everlasting, to perfect beatitude in the 
vision of God. The saints and angels in heaven 
offer up prayers for men, and it is good and 
useful to invoke their intercession that we may 
obtain favors from God through Jesus Christ, 
who is our sole Redeemer and Saviour. Catho- 
lics honor and worship the saints and angels, 
and especially the Blessed Virgin Mary, be- 
cause God loves and honors them, and because 
of their own personal sanctity; not, however, 
with the supreme worship that belongs only to 
God. Because of their spedal^ connection with 
holy persons, honor is also ^ven to relics of 
the saints, to images and pamtings -of Christ 
and His saints. If men die in venial sin, or 
temporal punishment be still due, their souls 
are detained in purgatory (q.v.) tmtil expiation 
is made. In this state they can no longer merit 
for themselves, but can be assisted by the pray- 
ers and good works of the faithful and par- 
ticularly by the holy sacrifice of the Mass. The 
Church has the power to apply indulgences for 
their relief. In addition to the particular judg- 
ment, immediately after death, there will be a 
general judpnent at the end of the world. The 
body will nse from the grave reunited to the 
soul, and share for eternity either happiness in 
heaven or punishment in hell. 

The chief duties of Christian life are ex- 
pressed in the Ten Commandments of God and 
the commandments of the Church. Many laws 
have been imposed by the Church on particular 
classes or for special purposes; all Catholics, 
however, are bound, under pain of mortal sin, 
to hear Mass and rest from servile work on 
Sundays and Holydays of obligation, to fast 
and to abstain from certain food on the days 
appointed, to confess all mortal sins at least 
once a year and to receive the Holy Eucharist 
during the Easter time. 

A Catholic must believe all the truths God 
has revealed and teaches through His Church. 

Denial of one such would mean either the de- 
nial of God's veracity or of the Church's in- 
fallibility. But it is not necessary that he 
should know explicitly more than the principal 
truths ; all others are included in his acceptance 
of the Church as a divine teacher, alone capable 
of declaring what truths are contained in the 
deposit, of^ faith handed down from the apostles. 
The definition of a dogma by the Church brings 
no chan^ in doctrine ; for no truth once taught 
as of faith is ever given up nor can any point 
be - added which was not contained, at least 
implicitly, in the original teaching. However, 
the Church's infallibility is not limited merely 
to revealed doctrines ; she can also speak infaf- 
Kbly on matters necessary to safeguard re- 
vealed teaching. Belief in such decisions is 
called ecclesiastical faith. Outside the domain 
of divine or ecclesiastical faith, there are many 
subjects of pious belief among Catholics. Some 
of_ these may perhaps belong to the deposit of 
faith, but they are not yet authoritatively pro- 
posed. Others depend on human testimony, 
and are accepted with that degree of certitude 
which the testimony warrants. 

In the expression of revealed truths and in 
the defense of faith from the charge of con- 
flict with demonstrated truths of science and 
philosophy, the Church makes use of terms 
derived from the philosophy current among its 
subjects. Thus it has come about that the 
dogmas are expressed in the terms of scholas- 
tic philosophy and officially in the Latin lan- 
guage. As its doctrines can be taught in any 
language, so, too, the expression of them may 
be narmonized with whatever is found to be 
true in any system of philosophy. 

In the worship, liturgies, discipline and 
practices of the Church, some regulations may 
be of divine origin, others are of ecclesiastical 
origin, and still others arise from the voluntary 
piety of individuals. Besides the ordinary obli- 
gations of Christian life, she invites those of 
her children who feel the call from God to 
bind themselves by vow to His service. The 
principal vows are those taken to observe the 
evangelical counsels of poverty, chastity and 
obedience. Those who have thus bound them- 
selves in approved congfregations or religious 
orders are called religious. ^See Orders, Re- 
ligious). As a matter of discipline all those in 
Sacred Orders in the Latin portion of the 
Church are bound to observe celibacy. In the 
Greek portion, to-day, no priest can marry, but 
married men may receive Holy Orders, except 
episcopal cbnsecration. 

External Organization of the Church.— 
Supreme jurisdiction, as we have seen, resides 
in the Pope; the bishops are the rulers of 
dioceses, which are subdivided into parishes or 
missions under a parish priest or rector, as- 
sisted by curates. The dioceses are united into 
provinces, over each of which is an archbishop 
or metropolitan, the other bishops being called 
his suffragans. The archbishop convokes pro- 
vincial synods, hears certain appeals from the 
episcopal court, watches over the observance of 
ecclesiastical law in some particulars, and, 
under certain circumstances, appoints an ad- 
ministrator when a suffragan dies. The patri- 
archate is to-day only an honorary rank. The 
Pope is represented in some countries by ap- 
ostolic delegates, to whom are referred appeals 
from the lower courts and through whom the 

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Pope sends his communications. In som« 
countries there are apostolic nuncios, who deal 
directly with the various governments tliat have 
their representatives at Rome. 

The Pope is assisted immediately hy the 
Sacred Gillege of Cardinals and by the Sacred 
Congregations. The College of Cardinals, 
when complete, contains 70 members: 6 Car- 
dinal^ Bishops of the Suburban Sees, 50 
Cardinal Pnests and _ 14 Cardinal Deacons. 
The Sacred Congregations, 21 in number, are 
committees of Cardinals to whom special affairs 
are entrusted. They were arranged, almost as 
at present, by Pope Sixtus V. The Cardinals 
alone cast votes for the final decisions, but they 
are assisted by secretaries and consultors. The 
Pope himself acts as prefect of some conce- 
ptions (the Inquisition, the Apostolic Visita- 
tion and the Consistonal). A Cardinal pre-' 
sides over each of the others. The acts of all 
congregations are submitted to the Pope for 
his approval. These acts, unless promulgated 
in a solemn manner as the acts of the Sov- 
ereign Pontiff himself, are subject to change; 
though not infallible, they must be received by 
the faithful with an internal assent, such as is 
due to religious authority and obeyed as laws 
of the Church. The more important congre- 
gations are: the Holy Roman Inquisition (the 
supreme tribunal to judge of heresy and crimes 
allied with heresy), the Consistorial (which 
selects the matters that are presented and sanc- 
tioned by the College of Cardinals assembled in 
the Papal Consistories), the Apostolic Visita- 
tions, Bishops and Regulars, and Council of 
De Propa£[anda Fide (which cares for mission- 
ary countnes). Sacred Rites, the Index (which 
prohibits the reading of books condemned as 
contrary to faith or good morals). Indulgences 
and Relics, and the congregation of Studies. 

The Church and Civil Authority.— The 
Church was established by Christ as a perfect, 
independent religious society. Its authority de- 
pends on God's ordinances alone: wherefore it 
has always denied any right on tne part of the 
state to interfere in its internal affairs. In 
Catholic countries,^ the Church claims im- 
munity for its officials from the authority of 
civil tribunals ; in past ages this immunity was 
often absolutely necessary for their just pro- 
tection. Sometimes the Pope makes a Concordat 
with temporal rulers ; that is, a treaty whereby, 
in consideration of certain promises of these 
rulers, the Pope abstains from urging certain 
of his rights. To exercise the prerogatives 
which we have described, the Pope, his Car- 
dinals and other officials must be exempt from 
the jurisdiction of any civil tribunals. Prac- 
tically this cannot be secured without the Tem- 
poral Power (q.v.), or better, the Temporal 
Independence of the Sovereign Pontiff. It is 
not enough for the Pope to be free, he must 
be known to be free; suspicion of being under 
the influence of a sovereign would be fatal to 
his influence. This independence he possessed 
for more than 15 centuries; it was assured by 
the recognition of his sovereign authority in 
the states of the Church. Since the usurpation 
of these states by the Italian government, die 
Popes, Pius IX, Leo XIII and Pius X, have 
not ceased to proclaim: (H That this seizure 
was an act of injustice; (2) that the Pope no 
longer possesses the freedom, security and in- 
.dqtendence demanded by his difpfoty, nis rights 

and for the proper exercise of his_ authority; 
and (3) that the Holv See must insist on these 
facts and look forward to some efficient remedy 
for the injustice and indignity of present con- 
ditions. To deal rightly with Catholics of all 
nations, the Pope must be extra-national. As 
the seat of our general government, the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, is independent of all the 
States, so the seat of the general government 
of theChurch should be independent of all the 
countries of the earth. 

Hiatoiv. — The history of the Roman Catho- 
lic (Church may be divided into three great 
epochs : ( 1 ) (Christian Antiquity, embracing; the 
first seven centuries, during which 'Clhristian 
civilization was chiefly Greek and Roman. (2) 
The Middle Ages, from the 8th century to the 
16th, characterized by the Church's action 
among the various peoples of north and central 
Europe, who were molded into organized na- 
tions by her influence. (3) The Modem Age, 
from the rise of Protestantism to the present 
day, during which the Germanic nations sepa- 
rated from the Church and attached them- 
selves to various sects, and the Church has had 
to_ struggle against the modem, infidel spirit in 
science and government _ 

The first epoch contains two periods. First 
comes an era of persecution, during the strug- 
gle with paganism, which was terminated by the 
edict of Milan (313) ; then, an era of develop- 
ment in definitions of dogma against the at- 
tacks of heresy. The second epoch embraces 
four periods: I. The conversion of the bar- 
barians. II. The development of the Western 
Empire and the Church's struggle to maintain 
her independence (800-1(^3). _ III. The su- 

firemacy of the Church maintained (1073-1300). 
V. Attacks on the Cliurch's supremacy, from 
Boniface VIII to Protestantism. 

During the third epoch three periods may be 
distinguished: 1. "The period of religious war- 
fare, ending with the Peace of Westphalia, 
1648. II. From 1648 to the French Revolution, 
the era of established Churches. III. Dawn to 
the present day: Neo-paganism in science and 
life, the age of unrestrained freedom to accept 
or deny the tmths of religion. 

Even while the Church was undergoing cruel 
persecution, she was also developing her dis- 
cipline and defending her doctrines against the 
pa^ns and heretics. From the first three cen- 
turies have come down to us the valuable works 
of I^atius, Polycarp, Justin, Clement of Alex- 
andria, Ongen, Tertullian, Cyprian and many 
others. The mightier struggle with heresy, and 
her marvelous growth after she emerged from 
the catacombs, gave renown to Athanasius, 
Basil, the Gregories in the East and West, 
(Ilhrysostom, the Cyrils, Hilary, Ambrose, Je- 
rome, Aug;ustine, Leo and a host of other 
Christian writers, of whose works the modem 
world knows very little. The growth of mo- 
nasticism is one of the glories of this age. 
Monks and nuns consecrated their lives to 
God's service by prayer and study and labor, 
thus preserving the ancient civilization from 
litter destruction by the barbarians, and prepar- 
ing for the Church the' means of converting 
these barbarians itnd transforming them into the 
civilized communities of Europe. The intimate 
union which existed between (Thurch and State 
gave rise to the Holy Roman Empire (q.v.) 
and to the great body of laws by which their 

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mutual relations were regulated. Frequent at- 
tempts were made later to subject the Church 
to the Empire. They were frustrated by the 
Popes, and especially by Gregory VII, after 
whom comes the glorious period of vigorous life 
and. eminent learning. Among the orders that 
were then founded we may mention the Car- 
thusians, Cistercians, Franciscans, Dominicans 
and Servites, fruitful in numerous saints and 
sdiolars. The Church boasts of Saint Anselm, 
Peter Lombard, Albertus Magnus, Saint Thomas 
Aquinas, Saint Bonaventure, Duns Scotus, 
Saint Bernard and others. It was also the age 
of Crusades (q.v.) for the recovery of Pales- 
tine. The 14th and 15th centuries are noted 
for the revival of interest in pagan literature, 
the sad exile of the Popes at Avignon and 
frequent movements to effect a much-needed 
reformation of morals. In this work, many 
rejected the divine authority of the Church ana 
were cast out as heretics; they are generally 
regarded as forerunners of Martin Luther 
^q.v.), who succeeded in separating whole sec- 
tions of Germany from the Church, and became 
the occasion for the counter reformation that 
was effected by men like Francis de Sales, 
Ignatius Loyola and Peter Canisius during the 
loth century, and especially by the great work 
of the Council of Trent (1545-63). In this 
same period, millions of pagans were brought 
into the Church by the heroic labors of her 
missionaries, notably in South America, India, 
Ethiopia and Japan. England, under Henry 
VIII and Elizabeth, renounced the supremacy 
of the Pope, made a state religion of its own, 
and by the penal laws almost annihilated the 
Catholics. France remained Catholic, but, be- 
coming infected with Jansenism and Galhcan- 
ism (qq.v.), and later with atheism and social- 
ism. Drought about the utter disorganization of 
Continental society. In the reconstitution of 
the shattered nations. Napoleon (q.v.) thought 
to make the Papacy his tool, and thus ruin the 
ChuTch; but he failed, and the 19th century 
witnessed the gradual revival of the Churcn 
in almost all European countries, and its stu- 
pendous growth in the United States and other 
jEnglish-speaking countries. Catholic emancipa- 
tion in England (1829), the Tractarian move- 
ment (see Tract.^rianism) in the Established 
Church, that resulted in so many converts to 
Rome, and the restoration of the Catholic hier- 
archy (1850), have given Catholics prominence 
in English life. In France, though the people 
are loyally Catholic, the government is engaged 
in controversy with the Church and in the at- 
tempt-to control Catholic education. When the 
French garrison was withdrawn from Rome in 
•1870, the Papal states and the city of Rome were 
annexed and added to the Italian kingdom. 
For the past 34 years the Pope has never left 
the Vatican Palace. Shorn of their earthly 
kingdom, Pope Pius IX (q.v.) and Leo XIII 
(q.v.) witnessed the attempt of Bismarck (q.v.), 
■in Germany, to subject the Catholic Church to 
.the state; but they witnessed also the failure 
'of the attempt ana the repeal of almost all the 
iniquitous laws. Persecution served only to 
.unite all C!atholics aiid revealed to them the 
power of united action. ■ In continental United 
States the Church has grown from 244,500 in 
1820 to 17,416,303 in 1918. This great in- 
brease has been 'due mainly to immigfration from 
'^^pe itid .CatadA. Ittsb, Germans, French 

Canadians, Italians, Poles and Bohethlans have 
come in large numbers. Meeting with no offi- 
cial opposition, the Church has prospered and 
is regarded even by many non-CathoKcs as a 
strong power for me preservation of the re- 
public from the new social dangers that threaten 
the United States as well as the whole civilized 

The activity of the Church in the mission 
field was almost destroyed by the wholesale 
confiscations of the French Revolution. As 
soon as order had been established in Europe, 
the missions revived, and, especially since Greg- 
ory XVI, have spread to every land of the 
world. Dioceses are maipped out and bishops 
appointed as soon as the circumstances warrant. 
The reorganization of the Congregation De 
■ Propaganda Fide by Pius IX, with separate sec- 
tions for the Latin and the Oriental Churches, 
has been of great advantage. College, institutes 
and special religious congregations have been 
founded in various cities of Europe for work 
in the foreign missions. The Association for 
the Propagation of the Faith is the largest of 
the societies among the laibr for the collection 
of funds. Missions are also conducted with 
success in the Oriental Churches in communion 
with the Holy See, These Churches hold the 
same doctrines^ as the Latin Church, but have 
special rites, discipline and liturgical language. 
There are four chief groups: I. The Greek, 
subdivided into (Jreek proper, Melchite, Slav 
(which is Ruthenian and Bulgarian} and Ru- 
manian. II. The Syrian, subdivided into Syrian 
proper, Syro-Chaldean (which also included the 
Malabar) and Maronite. III. The Coptic, 
which is Egyptian and Abyssinian or Ethiopian. 
IV. The Armenian. Pope Leo XIII was much 
interested in these eastern churches, and had 
the joy of receiving many converts into com- 
mumon. For bibliography see article Catholic 
Church in the United States. 

John J. Wynnb, S.J. 

Growth and Statistics. — To-day lie Catholic 
Church contains within its fold 294,583,000 
souls, or about 48 per cent of the entire 
Christian population of the globe. It is found 
in all continents and among all nations but is 
strongest in southern countries and among the 
Latin and Oltic races in Italy, Spain, France, 
Austria, Ireland and South America. Its his- 
tory during the 19th century discloses the re- 
markable fact that while it lost somewhat on its 
own ground, especially in France and Italy, 
these Tosses have been more than offset by the 
gains throughout the English-speaking worli 
especially in the United Kingdom, the United 
States and Australasia. In England the con- 
version of Newman, Manning and others was 
the be^nning of a movement which brought 
and still brmgs thousands into the (Catholic 

Pope Pius IX took official cognizance 
of the movement by re-establishing the Roman 
Catholic hierarchy in Elngland in 1850. The 
growth of the Church in Holland led to a 
similar re-establishment of the hierarchy there 
in 1853. The Irish emigration to Scotland after 
1847 led to a great increase in the number of 
Catholics in that country, where the_ Oxford 
movemeiit .also exerted considerable influence 

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and in 1878, Leo XIII re-established the Catholic 
hierarchy there. Great and numerous, how- 
ever, as were the gains in the Old World, they 
were greatly overMiadowed by the vast growth 
and spread of the Church in the New and in 
the British dominions overseas. The Irish 
famine of 1846-47 caused millions to emigrate 
from that country to the British colonies and 
to the United States and to these emigrants and 
their descendants are to be ascribed the flourish- 
ing condition of the Church to-day in Australia, 
New Zealand, Canada and South Africa. In 
the United States the Church, in addition to 
the Irish immig^nt, was reinforced also by 
immigration from Catholic Poland, and the 
Kulturkarapf of the seventies in Germany 
caused great numbers of German Catholics to 
seek religious freedom in the Great Republic 
of the West. In later years Moravians, Copts, 
Ruthenians and Greeks nave been added in ever 
increasing number to the Catholic forces in the 
United States. In Canada, the growth of the 
French-Canadian population, Irish immigration 
and the settlement of great numbers of the 
Catholic Gaels of Scotland have placed the 
Church of the Dominion in a flourishing con- 
dition. In Latin-America, the losses incurred 
during the breaking up -of Spain's colonial em- 
pire and the establishment of new autonomies 
have been repaired. The Church is well or- 
ganized in those countries and while it labors 
under annoying restrictions in some of the re- 
publics, it is in the main at libertjr to proceed in 
Its work of evangelization. Millions of aborig- 
ines have come within its fold and as of old 
its missionaries still labor on the outposts of 

We are thus face to face everywhere in the 
modem world with an organization stretching 
in unbroken succession back to the palmy days 
of heathen Rome; an organization which has 
outlived all the governments and dynasties of 
Europe, and is likely to see the end of the 
national groups as at present constituted. Its 
losses in the Old World it has recouped in the 
New; its vitality and energy are evidently un- 
impaired; in general culture and intelligence it 
is the equal, while in eleemosynaiy and reform 
work in our complex modem social life it sur- 

e asses most other Christian denominations. It 
as a rich and remarkable history and still exer- 
cises a greater power over the masses of the 
people than any other body of Christians. The 
294,583,000 Roman Catholics in the world are 
distributed as follows: Europe, 183,760,000; 
Asia, 5,500,000; Africa, 2,500,000; North 
America, 50,000,000; South America, 44,623,000; 
Oceania, 8,200,000. The estimated number in 
the chief countries of Europe in 1918 was: 
Austria, 26,000,000; Hungary, 13,000,000; Bel- 
gium, 7,000,000; Denmark, 9,821; France, 35,- 
000,000; United Kingdom, 6,000,000; Greece, 
35,000; Sweden, 2,378; Italy, 32,983,664; Nether- 
lands, 2,053,021; Norway, 2,046; Portugal, 5,- 
597,985; Russia, 11,467,994; Switzerland, 1,593,- 
538; Spain, 20,325,986- Germany, 24,000,000. 
In Egypt are 706,000 Copts who are in union 
with we See of Rome. 

In 1918 there were 24,922,062 Catholics under 
the United States flag. Of these, 17,416,303 
were in the United States proper, 7,285,458 in 
the Philippines and 1,072/95 in Alaska, the 
Canal Zone, Guam, American Samoa, Hawaii, 
Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. There 

were 19,572 Catholic clergymen in the United 
States, of whom 14,318 were secular clergy 
and 5,254 were members of religious orders. 
There were 10,058 Catholic churthes with resi- 
dent priests, 5,105 mission churches, 85 semi- 
naries with 6,201 students preparing for the 
priesthood, 112 homes for the aged, 210 col- 
leges for boys, 685 academies for girls and 
5,588 parochial schools. In the parochial 
schools were enrolled 1,497,949 children. The 
Catholic orphan asylums number 283, with 
48,089 orphans. See Christian Church, 
Divisions and Statistics of the. 

John B. McDonnell, 
Editorial Staff of The Americana. 

CATHOLIC CHURCH, Social Service in 
the. Definition. — Etymologically^ the phrase 
social service comprises all activities for the 
benefit of social groups. In modern usage, 
however, it is restricted to works on behalf of 
the more needy and weaker sections of the 
population, and to benefits that are mainlv 
physical, although it does include certain intel- 
lectual and moral kinds of betterment. The 
present article will present the social service 
of the Catholic Church under the heads of 
charity and social reform. 

Doctrinal Viewpoint. — A few words con- 
cerning the doctrinal attitude of the Church 
toward social service will help us to understand 
her practice. In the first place, the Church 
does not conceive her mission as primarily that 
of reforming socie^ or improving the temporal 
condition oi the individual. _ Her main and 
specific concern is with the individual's spiritual 
welfare. In old-fashioned terms, her func- 
tion is to save souls by inducing men to avoid 
sin and live virtuous lives. In her eyes the 
temporal condition of the individual, whether 
it be of riches or poverty, of sickness or of 
health, of freedom or of bondage, is in itself 
comparativdy unimportant Even less is she 
concerned with the forms of social organiza- 
tion, with economics, or with politics. She 
knows that men have served God faithfully and 
saved their souls in every kind of individual 
and social condition, and she holds that no tem- 
poral condition has value or importance except 
in so far as it conduces to union with God in 
this life and in the life to come. 

This attitude is based on the words of 
Christ and on the Christian tradition. Through- 
out the Gospels the Founder of Christiani^ 
lays supreme emphasis upon the life of the 
spirit and the transcendent value of eternity. 
He neither attempted to' found nor directed His 
followers to found a new social system. So 
little value did he attach to temporal goods that 
He counseled the seekers after perfection to 
give up their material possessions. "Seek ye 
first the Kingdom of God and His justice.* 
•What doth it profit a man if he ppin the whole 
world and suffer the loss of his soul?" *If 
thou wouldst be perfect, go, sell what thou hast 
and follow me.* All through her history the 
Church has maintained this same attitude and 
held to this comparative estimate of temporal 
and eternal values. 

Nevertheless, the Church has always held 
that social service is among her ordinary func- 
tions. While maintaining that corporal works 
of 'mercy are not her supreme mission, any 
more than they ar* the main business of the 
individual, she never allows either heirself or 

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her children to forget that charitable assistance 
is frequently necessary to enable the individual 
to live righteously.^ In other words, the Church 
values social service not as an end but as a 
means. Since men cannot serve God and pre- 
pare themselves for eternity without a certain 
amount of physical, intellectual and moral 
goods, she does all that is within her power to 
assist them in these respects. It is in this sense 
that she interprets the second of the two Great 
Commandments, that of loving the neighbor as 
the self, as well as all the other injunctions of 
Christ concerning charity toward our fellow- 
men. These commands she imposes upon all 
her children and strives unceasmgly to fulfill 
herself.^ And she believes that when social 
service is performed in this spirit, and from this 
motive, it will be more extensive and more 
efficacious than when it is undertaken on 
grounds of mere humanitarianism. She believes 
that the most effective basis of social service is 
to be found in the eternal values of God and 
the souL 

Charitable Activities.— The superiority of 
social service conceived as active love of the 
neighbor for the sake of God is clearly mani- 
fest in the history of charity in the Church. 
In the words of the rationalist writer, Lecky, 
•Christianity for the first time made charity a 
rudimentary virtue, giving it a leading place in 
the moral type, and in uie exhortation of its 
teachers.* ('History of European MoralSj' 
II, 79). Some of the principal effects of this 
conception upon society may be summarized as 
follows : 

In the most civilized countries of the ancient 
world the prevailing theory of social relations 
was that expressed by the Roman i>oet Lucan, 
'paucis vivit humanum genus* ("the human 
race lives for the few*). A very small minority 
possessed all wealth and power in society, and 
the great mass lived in misery. The individual 
as such was not accorded rights, dignity or 
sacredness; a large proportion of the popula- 
tion were slaves, whose sufferings make the con- 
dition of the negro slaves of the United States 
look like paradise; the lot of the great mass 
of the free persons was little better socially 
and economically than that of the slave popula- 
tion; and if the hunger of the poor was some- 
times relieved by public gifts of com, the 
motive was not pjty nor brotherly love, but 
the fear of revolution. Within a few centuries 
the Christian teaching^ that all men are persons 
and therefore essentially equal, that all are 
brothers in Christ with the same eternal des- 
tiny, and that the possessors of superfluous 
goods are morally bound to distribute them 
among the needy, — led to the mitigation and 
substantial abolition of slavery in Christian 
countries, to the recognition of labor as some- 
thing honorable instead of degrading, and to a 
marvelous variety of organizations and works 
for the relief of distress. 

From the beginning the care of the poor was 
accepted as one of tne primary duties of the 
Church. Every parish had a special organiza- 
tion and special funds for the discharge of this 
function. The possessions of the Church were 
called *the patrimony of the poor,* and one of 
the four divisions of its revenues was definitely 
set aside for poor relief. In the second half 
of the Middle Ages the chief dispensers of all 
kinds of charity were the monasteries. Indeed, 

the main reproach brought against the social 
service of these institutions is that they were 
too generous. Certain religious communities 
owe their foundation to the desire to relieve 
certain special forms of distress. Thus the 
Brotherhood of the Holy Spirit, the Knights of 
Saint John and the Hospitalers devoted their 
energies to the erection and care of hospitals, 
and the order of Saint Lazarus provided houses 
for the care of lepers. The Alexian Brothers 
were mainly concerned with the burial of the 
dead. The Trinitarians ransomed thousands 
upon thousands of captives. The Fratres 
Pontifices built roads and bridges, and in other 
ways strove to make traveling safe. The Fran- 
ciscans preached and practised a wholesome 
poverty and induced the rich to share their 
goods with the distressed. One of the most 
important functions of the craft and merchant 
guilds was to make adequate provision for the 
insurance and relief of their needy members. 

The extent to which hospital building was 
carried may be judged from the fact that as 
early as the 6th century there was one in almost 
every city of the Roman empire; that the 
hospital of the Holy Spirit, founded by Pope 
Innocent III at the beginning of the 13th cen- 
tury, accommodated 1,500 patients; that in the 
later Midde Ages there was hardly an import- 
ant town in Germany that did not have one or 
more of these institutions, while there were 
20,000 of them in France. And it_ must be 
remembered that the medieval hospitals were 
not merely places for the treatment of the 
sick, but for the refugee and care of the home- 
less poor, the aged and orphans and widows. 

One of the chief duties of the bishops has 
always been the care of orphans. They were 
provided for either in separate institutions or 
in connection with hospitals and monasteries. 
Owing in great measure to the zeal of Saint 
Vincent de Paul, orphanages became so general 
that 300 of them were to be found in France 
on the eve of the Revolution. 

In the later Middle Ages institutions known 
as 'montes pietatis* were established by the 
thousand under the direction of the Church in 
Italy, France, Belgium and Germany. Their 
object was to loan money to the poor witl\ no 
other charge except for the cost of administra- 
tion. In an age when borrowers were largely 
at the mercy of rapacious usurers, this was not 
the least important performance of social 

The charitable activity and efficiency of the 
Church in the period of its greatest influence 
may be fairly summarized in the words of 
Prof. S. N. Patten: "It provided food and 
shelter for the workers, charity for the unfor- 
tunate, and relief from disease, plague and 
famine, which were but too common in the 
Middle Ages. When we_ note the number of 
the hospitals and infirmaries, the bounties of the 
monks, and the self-sacrifice of the nuns, we 
cannot doubt that the unfortunate of that time 
were at least as well provided for as they are 
at the present.* ('The Development of Eng- 
lish Thought,' pp. 90, 91). 

At the present time the relief of physical 
distress outside of institutions is carried on 
mainly by the parish churches and by charitable 
societies. In every Catholic church in the 
cities will be found a box near the entrance 
into which the faithful' are requested to drop 

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their offerings for tbe poor. This money and 
all other funds that come into the hands of the 
pastor foi* the same purpose are administered 
tor the benefit of the needy by him individually 
or in co-operation with competent persons and 
associations. Through this method it is easily 
possible to reach every case of distress. While 
the number of such cases is somewhat too gtezt 
for the available resources the parish organ- 
ization of relief is in itself admirably adapted 
to perform its task comprehensively and in 

Amon^ the Catholic associations devoted 
to the relief of the poor, first in importance ia 
the Society of Saint Vincent de Paul. Founded 
in Paris in 1833 by Frederic Ozanam and seven 
companions, it has extended throughout Europe 
and North and South America, and has 
branches ia many parts of Asia, Africa and 
AustralasisL Its main features are the per- 
sonal activity of its members among the needy, 
the enqdiasis that it places upon improving the 
moral and religious as well as the material 
condition of those who are assisted, and the 
exceptionally small cost of administering physi- 
cal relief. _ In proportion to its members and 
resources it is probably the most efficient relief 
society in existence. The Elizabethan associar 
tions of Germany are composed entirely of 
women. They have som$ 550 branches or con- 
ferences and ^ve assistance to between 10^000 
and 12,000 famiUes annually. In one diocese of 
Germany, Cologne, tlKre are 162 charitable 
societies with 3,000 members. A federation of 
all the Catholic dutritable societies of Germany 
was organized in 1897 with a central bureau in 
Freiburg. It holds conferences, makes investi- 
gations, issues publications and co-operates with 
many non-CathoUc and secular charitable 
movements. France has more than 4,000 Cath- 
olic charitable societies. In the United States 
the Queen's Daughters Society has branches in 
many States and cities, and a local women's 
charitable organization exists in probably the 
majority of urban parishes. Frequently the 
latter are federated into a league or guild 
which represents the entire ci^. In ,1910 the 
National Conference of Catholic Charities was 
organized and held its first sessions in Wash- 
ingtoiL It meets biennially. At the meeting in 
September 1916, 500 delegates were registered, 
representing 78 cities and 28 States. The 
papers read at these meetings are generally of 
a hic^ order, and evince a sustained endeavor 
to niow and .utilize all that is best in modem 
methods of charily. 

A few brief indications will here be set 
down of the charitable work of the Church in 
institutions. Nothing like a complete account 
is attempted: only a statement of types. For 
the care and treatment of sick and defectives 
there exists a great variety of hospitals and 
homes. The United States alone has more than 
400 general hospitals under Catholic direction, 
whose patients in 1916 exceeded half a million, 
5 institutions for the blind, 13 for deaf-mutes 
and 3 fpr feeble-minded persons. The prind- 
pal institutions for the care of wayward and 
delinquent girls are conducted by the Sisters 
of th« Goo<f Shepherd, who have more than 250 
establishments in Europe and the United States. 
Reformatories for boys are managed by the 
diocesan clergy and by religious communities. 
As examples of these may be mentioned the 

Catholic Protectory of New York (1,500 in- 
mates). Saint Mary's Industrial School o.f 
Baltimore (1,500 inmates) and Saint Mary's 
Training School of Chicago. Institutions for 
the helpless, such as orphans, infants, found- 
lings and aged person^ are found in the 
majority of dioceses. In 1916 the Catholic 
Church in the United States had 293 orphan 
asylums with more than 45,(X)0 inmates, 106 
homes for the aged, some 35 infant asylums 
and 30 homes for destitute children.. In recent 
years the movement for the establishment of 
day nurseries, homes for workingmen and 
workingwomen and social settlements has 
been considerably accelerated among the Catho- 
lics of this country. Education, secular, re- 
ligious and moral, is an important accompani- 
ment of the physical care given in all Catholic 
institutions for young people. 

Social Reform. — "rhe modem Catholic 
movement for social and industrial reform 
originated with Baron Von Ketteler, bishop 
of Mainz from 1850 until his death in 1877. 
His first important work in this field consisted 
of six sermons, delivered in the cathedral of 
Mainz in 1848 on the Catholic doctrine of 
property and the duties of Christian charity. 
Aside from the thesis that the sociology of 
Saint Thomas Aquinas was sufficient to mei£t 
every social need of the 19th century, the most 
strilang element of these discourses was the 
proposition that social questions were more 
important than itolitical questions. Although 
we, of to-dav recognize this statement as a 
truism it had a strange sound in that year of 
political revolutions, 1848. *If we wish to 
know our age,'" said the speaker, "we must en- 
deavor to fathom the social question. The 
man who understands that knows his age. The 
man who does not understand it finds the pres- 
ent and his future an enigma." In 1864 he 
wrote <The Labor Question and (Christianity,' 
which advocated labor associations and co-op- 
erative societies of production. In 1869 he 
proclaimed the necessity of , increased wages, 
shorter hours and the prohibition of industrial 
labor in the case of women and children. A 
conference of the German bishops at Fulda in 
the same year endorsed his proposals for inter- 
esting the clergy in the condition of the work- 
ing classes. In his last book, 'The, Catholics 
in the German Elmpire,' he emphasized anew 
the duty, of the state to promote the formation 
of workingmen's co-operative associations, to 
protect the workers^ especially women and 
children, against unjust exploitation, and to 
enforce safety and sanitation in work olaces. 
These proposals were afterward embodied in 
the program of the Catholic party (the Cen- 
trum) in the Reichstag. 

Next to Bishop Ketteler, the ablest leader 
of social reform among the German Catholics 
is probably Canon Hitze. He advocated a re- 
organization of industry on the basis of le- 
gally recognized occupational associations, 
which would be, open only to, persons who had 
passed a technical examination, and humane 
regulation of hours, safety and sanitation, 
woman and child labor, and other conditions ot 
employment. As a member of the Reichstag 
he has been an active protagonist of many so- 
cial reform measures. Father Kolping organ- 
ized _ ioumeymen's clubs ((Jesellenverein) to 
provide lodging and other club facilities for 

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their members, and for mutual protection gen- 
erally. When their founder died in 1865 they 
had a membership of 80,000. 

The Catholic associations for co-operative 
production, advocated _ so strongly by Bishop 
Ketteler, never met with much success, owing 
to the difficulty of obtaining capital. Among 
the principal Catholic organizations that have 
become efficient are savings, credit and 
labor-protective associatioiis; societies of 
peasants for promoting^ the interests of their 
members as regards prices of products, seeds, 
fertilizer, loans and co-operative effort gen- 
erally; and organizations of employers to pro- 
vide for the workers' education, improved 
dwellings, lower rents, relief and savings agen- 
cies, limitation of working hours, hygienic con- 
ditions and Sunday rest, and to promote better 
relations between employers and employees. 
Indeed, one of the most remarkable features 
of the German Catholic social movement has 
been the number of wealthy men in its .ranks. 
They provided a very important part of the 
initiative as well as the financial resources. 

The greatest general force in promoting 
Catholic social action in Germany has been 
the popular congresses which have been held 
annually since 1^8. As the years followed one 
another they £^_ve more and more attention to 
the social question. Before long it was found 
that meetings held once a year were not suffi- 
cient, that an organization was needed which 
should be in action continuously. To meet the 
situation the Volksverein was founded in 1892 
by Ludwig Windthorst, the great leader of 
the Centre party in the. Reichstag. It formu- 
lated a constructive social program and set to 
work systematically to educate the German 
people in Catholic social principles. The or- 
ganization contains a director for each state 
or diocese, a manager for each town or col- 
lection of villages and a promoter for every 
20 to 50 Catholic families. The promoters 
number 20,000 and each of them comes into 
frequent personal contact with each of the 
families in his jurisdiction. In 1903 the Volks- 
verein distributed 13,500,000 tracts and pam- 
phlets . and furnished bi-weekly contributions 
on social and economic subjects to 361 Cathplic 
periodicals. It also conducts annual courses of 
study in economic and social subjects, and its 
representatives in the Reichstag have contrib- 
uted effectively to the enactment of workmen's 
insurance and old age pension laws and other 
statutes for the protection of labor in both city 
and country. 

The Austrian Catholic social movement was 
inaugurated by Baron Von Vogelsang and 
Prince Von Lichtenstein. Both were strong in 
their denunciation of unlimited competition. In 
their view the doctrines and practices of eco- 
nomic liberalism were giving to the weaker 
members of society, the wage earners, only the 
freedom to be exploited by the possessors of 
the power of wealth and capital. Hence they 
conceived the first and most urgent reform to 
be measures which would protect the workers 
against this abuse of economic liberty and in- 
dustrial power. And they maintained that 
this protection would have to come from the 

Through the influence of the Catholic party 
a law was passed in 1883 re-establishing the 
corporations or guilds for the protection of 

labor in the smaller industries. Among the 
functions of these organizations .were the 
maintenance of systems of apprenticeship, trade 
education, conciliation and arbitration and mu- 
tual insurance. 

In 1885 the Catholic social reformers as- 
sisted in passing a law limiting the hours of 
labor of women and children and declared in 
favor^ of a legal minimum wage. Thus the 
Austrian Catholics were the first in the world 
to advocate the establishment of minimum 
wages by law. They were among the first to 
realize and proclaim the necessity of protecting 
labor by international agreements. 

The greatest figure in the work of Catholic 
social reform in France is the late Count Albert 
de Mun. In the early seventies he founded 
the "Catholic Woridngmen's Circles* ("Oeuvr« 
des Cercles Catholiques*), which aimed at a 
restoration of the ancient guilds along lines 
suitable to modern conditions and under the 
direct approval and protection of the state. 
Underlying them are the doctrines that the 
policy of unrestricted competition and govem- 
ipental non-intervention have reduced the 
masses to a condition of intolerable insecurity. 
This must be remedied through adequate and 
compulsory woridngmen's associations. In 1884 
the French goyemment enacted a law providing 
for the establishment, of labor syndicates, but 
it did not give them sufficient power to attain 
the objects of the Catholic reformers. About 
the same time de Mun offered, in the Chamber 
of Deputies, a program of labor legislation 
which included Sunday rest, a working week of 
58 hours, abolition of night work for women, 
the gradual suppression of female and child 
labor in industry and insurance against acci- 
dents, sickness, unemployment and old age. A 
little later his group of reformers advocated 
a_ legal minimum wage which would be suffi- 
cient for the decent maintenance of the work- 
ingman and his family. 

A particular experiment in social service 
that has assumed considerable importance in 
France is the establishment of workingmen's 
gardens. These are cultivated by industrial 
workers in the suburbs of cities. In 1905 such 
gardens furnished an important part of the 
livelihood of some 2,300 persons in the city of 
Fourmies alone, and of some 50,000 persons 
throughout France. The originator of the plan 
was the Abbe Gruson of Fourmies. 

Another form of social service strongly ad- 
vocated by the Catholics of France is that 
limited measure of industrial democracy which 
finds its best illustration in the factory of Leon 
Harmel. For more than 25 years a "board of 
control,* composed of representative male and 
female employees, has met regularly with 
the employer to discuss their common 

The Catholic social reformers of Belgium 
have been, as a body, less advanced than those 
of Germany, Austria or France. SeveMl of 
them have been rather fearful of the inter- 
vention of the state in this field. Among the 
leading names identified with the movement 
are Bishop Doutclonx of Liige, the Abbi Pot- 
tier, M. Perin and M. Brants. Before the war 
the Belgian Catholics had a powerful labor 
federation, co-operative societies and associa- 
tions of employers. Among the principles of 
the 'Belgian Democratic League* are the 

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inviolability of private property; a consider- 
able modification of present property rights; 
the organization of guilds or trade corponr- 
tionSj with power to fix wages, hours and other 
conditions of employment, and fo provide social 
insurance and old age' pensions; co-operative 
{rarchasing and credit associations both in uri>an 
industries and in ag^culture; and mixed asso* 
dations of employees and employers. 

The Catholic representatives m the Parlia- 
ment of Holland took an important part in 
the establishment of boards composed of mas- 
ters and workers which act as advisory bodies 
to the public authorities on matters affecting 
labor and which inctnde agencies for the 
settlement of industrial disputes. In 1893 the 
*Catholic Democratic League* demanded tiie 
abolition of industrial woric for married 
women, a family living wage for men, the pro- 
hibition of child labor, a weekly day of rest 
and insurance against acddents, sickness and 
old age. In 1897 the Catholic r^resentatives 
in the national legislature drew up a program 
which, in addition to the foregoing acnands, 
contained the following: laws for the regula- 
tion of apprenticeship, for laborers' dwelTingt 
and a shorter workday for meti, women and 

The founder of the Catholic social reform 
movement in Switzerland was Cardinal Mer- 
millod, bishop of Hebron. In a sermon, de- 
livered in 1868, he condemned the gross in- 
equality of possessions that characterized the 
afS^ and pleaded for an infusion of the prin- 
cities of Qiristianity into the social and indus- 
trial situation. The most active and effective 
worker in the movement was Gasi»rd Deciir- 
tius. As member of the Swiss Parliament, one 
of his first acts was to oppose successfully the 
attempt to abolish the privilege of grazing on 
the common lands, which had been enjoyed 
for centuries by the poor peasants. Soon after- 
ward he brought about the enactment of a law 
providing foi* the compensation of injured 
workmen. On this occasion he presented a re- 
port in which he advocates the legal establish- 
ment of a minimum wage whidi should be suffi- 
ciently high to provide not only for _ decent 
living, but protect the worker against sickness, 
accidents and all other unfavorable contingen- 
cies of life. He was also one of the originators 
of the movement for international labor legis- 
lation, which finally developed into the Inter- 
national League for Labor Legislation. In 
1887 the Swiss bishops unanimously resolved 
that the clergy should be instructed to take an 
active part in the formation of labor associa- 
tions. One of the most remarkable and effect- 
ive elements in the policy of these associations 
has been their co-operation with non-Catholic 
agencies for protective labor legislation. 

In Italy the Catholic social reform move- 
ment began somewhat later than in the coun- 
tries discussed in the foregoing pages. The 
principal names connected with it are Padre 
Curci, Bishop Bonomelli, Cardinal Capecelatro 
and Signor Toniolo. Among the reforms de- 
manded by the Catholic Congress in Rome in 
1894 are the increase of small property 
owners, the exemption of small holdings from 
liability to seizure for debt, a living wage, profit 
sharing and copartnership, better credit facili- 
ties for small business men, the regression of 
speculation and usury, the r'e-establishinent of 

workingmen's guilds or corporations and a 
moderate degree of intervention tqr the state. 
In recent years a considerable number of prac- 
tical works have been inaugurated by Catholics 
in more than one section of Italy. For ex- 
ample, Bergamo has 45 societies for mutual 
insurance, a diocesan labor union, co-operative 
bakeries, mills and other industries, a co- 
operative building association, a people's bank 
and a wide distribution of social literature. 
The Federation of Catholic Rural Credit Banks 
embraces about 1,800 financial institutions of 
this type. 

Social reform among the Catholics of Spain 
has likewise been somewhat belated. In some 
parts of the country unions of agricultural 
laborers and co-operative savings banks and 
pawnshops have existed for many years, but it 
is only smce the beginning of the present cen- 
tury that the social movement became general. 
The statements of two bishops may be taken as 
t^rpical of the present trend. In 1907 the 
bishop of Badajoz declared tiiat the clergy 
'must ascertain the actual condition of society, 
study its necessities, and labor unceasingly not 
onljr with the poor but with the rich in Chris- 
tianizing everybody and everything. . . . and 
undertalce a vigorous campaign of Catholic so- 
cial action.* On the same occasion the bishop 
of Madrid said that the priests 'must go to 
the people, and strive to introduce social and 
economic reforms.' Many of the bishops point 
out the particular social works with which the 
clergy ought to co-operate, such as rural banks 
and labor associations. 

The earliest and the greatest name in the 
Oitholic social movement of England is Car- 
dinal Manning. In his famous lecture on the 
^Rights and Dignity of Labor,' in 1874, he de- 
nounced the policy of laisses faire and pro- 
claimed the duty of the state to protect the 
ri^ts of labor and to provide such industrial 
conditions as would assure the working classes 
decent family life. A few years later he de- 
clared in favor of an eight-hour day in the 
mining industry, Sunday rest, the limitation of 
profits and a legal minimum wage. His article 
m the Dublin Review, July 1891, discussing and 
interpreting Pope Leo's encycUcal 'On the Con- 
dition of Labor,' is one of the best and most 
sympathetic expositions of that great document 
and did much to popularize it throughout the 
English-speaking world. Indeed, it is generally 
tmderstood that the cardinal's views were 
sought and utilized in the preparation of the 
encyclical. The greatest single act of Cardinal 
Manning was his sympathetic and successful 
mediation in the famous dockers' strike in 
London in 1887. It is safe to say that no other 
Englishman of the 19th century was so generally 
revered and loved. Bishop Bagshawc of Not- 
tingham and Mr. C. S. Devas were also, im- 
portant figures in the Catholic movement. The 
former took even a more advanced stand than 
Cardinal Manning in favor of the rights of 
labor, while the latter was an able author of 
works on political economy which were pioneers 
in their insistence upop ethical discussion as a 
necessary element in economic treatises. 

For the last 10 years an organization known 
as the Catholic Social Guild has been engaged 
in founding study clubs and producing and 
circulating books and pamphlets that have ex- 
ercised a very wide influence. The theories 

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and the legislative proposals set forth by the 
Guild are well thoi^t out, pertinent and pro- 

The agitation for the reformation of the 
land tenure system of Ireland which was par- 
ticularly active during the last quarter of the 
19th century was to a g^at extent led and 
supported by the bishops and. priests. The 
names of Archbishops Walsh and Croke, Bishop 
Nult}^ and many others will be readily recalled 
in this connection. If the peasant farmers of 
the Green Isle have obtained a tolerably satis- 
factory settlement of the land question they 
owe it at least as much to these spiritual lead- 
ers as to any other agency. 

What work has been done for Catholic 
social reform in the United States has been 
carried on mainly by individuals. The rela- 
tively, favorable condition of the laboring 
classes in this country and the preoccupation 
of Catholics both clerical and lay with the 
enormous task of building churches and 
schools have done much to postpone the organ- 
ization of a social movement Without doubt 
the most significant and far-reaching action of 
any individual Catholic in this field was per- 
formed by Cardinal Gibbons in 1888, when he 
obtained a revocation of the condemnation 
pronounced at Rome upon the Knights of 
Labor. In the memorial which he presented 
to the Roman authorities on this occasion he 
declared that labor organizations were neces- 
sary to protect the workers against the tyranny 
of an omnipotent capitalism and that the 
Church ought to take the side of humanity and 
of justice for the toiling masses. 

A few years ago the American Federation 
of Catholic Societies established a Social Serv- 
ice Commission for the study of social ques- 
tions andthe promotion of social reform. This 
or^nization has endorsed the principle of a 
livmg wage and progressive labor legislation 
generally. The Central Verein, which is a fed- 
eration of the German Catholic societies of the 
country, is doing important work through its 
publications, its annual courses of social study 
and its efforts on behalf of social and labor 

The supremely important event in Catholic 
social reform was the publication of the en- 
cyclical <0n the Condition of Labor' ('Rerum 
Novarum>) by Pope Leo XIII, IS May 1891. 
In this document the Pope restated the tradi- 
tional Catholic principles on social and indus- 
trial questions^ and applied them specifically 
and authoritatively to the conditions of the 
present time. The opening paragraphs em- 
phasize the gravity of the social question and 
the urgent necessity oi finding a solution, and 
include the statement that "a. small number of 
rich men have been able to lay upon the teem- 
ing masses of the laboring poor a yoke little 
bett'er than slavery.^ The principal declara- 
tion and proposals of the encyclical may be 
thus summarized: Socialism is unjust because 
it would prove injurious to all classes, espe- 
cially the workingmen; employees should ren- 
der an honest day's work; employers should 
treat their workers not as chattels but as 
human beings, should give them opportunity 
for religious and moral life, not taxing them 
with labor beyond their strength or unsuited 
to sex and age; the possessor of wealUi may 
not use it as he pleases, but is morally bound 

to administer it for the benefit of the needy; 
the state is obliged to promote the welfare of 
all classes, but especially that of the wage 
earners, on account of their relative weakness, 
and should intervene whenever the general in- 
terest or any t>articular class *is threatened 
with mischief which can in no other way be 
met or prevented;" hence the state should en- 
force Sunday rest; limit the hours of labor 
and restrict the employment of women and 
children in conformity with their physical and 
moral welfare; the laborer has a natural ri^t 
to a decent livelihood, and he is made the victim 
of force and injustice when he is compelled to 
accept a wage that is insufficient for reasonable 
and f nigal_ comfort ; the state should also pro- 
mote a wide distribution of property among 
the laboring masses and foster labor luions, 
employers' associations and organizations em- 
bracing both employers and employees. Finally, 
the Holy Father exhorts every minister of re- 
ligion to brii% to bear upon the social question 
*ttie full eneri^ of his mind, and all his power 
of endurance.* 

Twelve years later Pope Pius X reaCBrmed 
and supplemented the princiirfes of the great 
encyclical of his predecessor in an 'Apostolic 
Letter to the Bishops of Italy.' 

Inasmuch as the encyclical of Pope Leo was 
addressed to all the peoples of the world, its 
propositions and proposals were necessarily 
stated in general terms. Nevertheless, they 
were sufficiently specific to meet the needs of 
every modern society and country. Werw they 
honestly and thoroughly put into practice, they 
would remove all the senous social and indus- 
trial evils of the time. 

Bibliography.— Ratzinger, <Geschichte der 
kirchlichen Armenpflege> (Freiburg 1884) ; 
Lallemand, 'Histoire de la charite' (Paris 
1902); Uhlhom, 'Charity in the Ancient 
Church> (New York 1883) ; Henderson, 'Mod- 
em Methods of Charity> (ib. 1904) ; Nitti, 
'CathoKc Socialism' (London 1895) ; Turman, 
<Activit6s sociales> (Paris 1907), and <Lc 
Catholicisme sociale depuis I'encyclique Rerum 
Novarum* (ib. 1900) ; Plater, 'Catholic Social 
Work in Germany' (London 1909) ; Crawford, 
'Switzerland To-Day' (London). 

John A. Ryan, 
Professor of Moral Theology and Itufustrial 
Ethics, Catholic University. 

The. The development of the history of 
science iii recent years has completely revolu- 
tionized our knowledge of the cultivation of 
science in the older time and with it many long 
accepted notions as regards the relation of the 
Church and science. Little was known about 
the history of science a generation or so ago 
even by scientists themselves and it was assumed 
that there was very Uttle cultivation of science 
in the centuries preceding our own. It was 
felt that there must have been some _ active 
factor to account for the absence of scientific 
curiosity which is so natural to man that it 
would surely manifest itself unless definitely 
suppressed. The Church came to be looked upon 
as that factor and certain incidents in history 
were pointed out as indicating that her constant 
and consistent policy had been to hamper 
science lest it should disturb faith. Many re- 
fused to consider- this a stigma on the Church, 

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because it was feh that some such attitude 
was absohitely necessary for the perpetuation 
of her sway over rt»e minds of men. Science 
and faith being as they conceived incompatible, 
Hie Church had to take this determined stand 
of opposition, permitting only such scientific 
study as could not possibly be suppressed and 
encouraging only wifatever could be directed 
into safe (^annels. 

The recent development of the history of 
science has compelled another point of view 
entirely. The realization has been forced upon 
us that men have at all times been interested in 
science and concerned with its development. 
They have often followed it from different 
standpoints from those which now prevail,_ but 
they have seldom failed to be attracted by itor 
to make advance in it. The story of the mediae- 
val universities is particularly striking in this 
regard. It has been the custom to say that 
there was no scientific interest in the Middle 
A^es, but as a matter of fact the mediaeval 
universities were quite literally scientific. The 
Seven Liberal Arts as they were called, the 
trivium and quadrivium of the curriculum, 
astronomy, music and mathematics, logic, gram- 
mar, rhetoric, metaphysics, were all studied 
from the scientific standpoint. Huxlpy (■In- 
augural Address,* Aberdeen) said that the 
work of these old institutions of learning "how- 
ever imperfect and faulty judged by modem 
lights it may have been, brought them face to 
face with all the leading aspects of the many 
sided mind of man." He even went so far as 
to .add "I doubt if the curriculum of any modem 
university shows so clear and generous a com- 
prehension of what is meant by culture as this 
old trivium and quadrivium does.' 

Geography^ — This was the first of the 
sciences to develop and owes very iai|:e con- 
tributions to the early Christian missionaries 
who wandered far afield and wrote accoimts 
of their travels. The Acts of the Apostles and 
Saint Paul's Epistles are valuable geo^phical 
documents. Saint Brendan's wanderings de- 
scribed by Dicuil the Irish geographer are 
further examples. Gerald the Welshman's 
writings are of ffeographic si^ificance. A 
whole series of missionary writings down the 
centuries are now considered geographically 
very valuable. The stories of Friar John of 
Carpini and Friar William of Rubrtflc (Ru- 
bruquis) doing their missionary work in the 
Far East in the 13th century and of the Jesuits 
and Franciscans in the East and in America 
during subsequent centuries supplied immense 
amounts of geographic knowledge. The Jesuit 
•Relations" recently republished in some 70 
volumes are a typical example of such store- 
houses of scientific data. Other missionary 
letters particularly those of the Recollects are 
of similar value. The work of Abbi Hue and 
of P^re Armand David in the 19th century 
show that this good work still goes on. AbM 
Hue succeeded in finding his way through 
Tibet and into Lhasa, two generations ago, 
while Pire David wandered far beyond the 
territories familiar to Europeans in China and 
sent home accounts and even specimens of 
literally hundreds of species of animals hitherto 
unknown. Such sdentific activity on the part 
of missionaries instead of being discouraged 
by the Church authorities was constantly en- 
couraged. The typical demonstration of this 

is the favor enjoyed by Father Kircher, S.J., 
who coming to Rome just at the time of Galileo, 
continued for the next 30 years to be active 
in the accumulation of scientific information 
of all kinds so that he published under the 
patronage of the popes a long series of well- 
known volumes which have now becottae bibli- 
o^phic treasures. Above ail he founded the 
Klrcherianum, as it came to be called, a 
museum containing many scientific materials 
which had been sent him by the missionaries 
of his own order, the Jesuits, or having been 
presented to the popes by other missionary 
orders were transferred here for safe keeping. 
Father Kircher was the personal friend of a 
number of popes who encouraged in every way 
his scientific work and particularly the growth 
of his museum. 

Astronomy,— The great foundation stone 
of modem astronomy was laid hyr Copernicus. 
He was a Pole, wbo studied in Italy for 
some 10 jrears and then spent the rest of 
his life quietly as the canon of the Cathedral 
of Frauenberg, where, after making careful 
observations, he worked out his theory of the 
universe.- He had already begun to think about 
it while he was in Italy and the Copemican 
theory was publicly taught in Rome lone before 
Cbpemicus' great book was published. This 
work was dedicated with permission to Pope 
Paul III. Copernicus continued to be until the 
end of his life a staunch supporter of his friend 
and patron. Bishop Maurice Ferber of Ermland, 
who kept his see loyal to Rome at a time when 
the secularization of the Teutonic Order and 
the falling away of many bishops all round him 
made his position as a faithful son of the 
Church noteworthy in the history of that time 
and place. When Galileo insisted on stating 
Copemicanism as an absolute scientific doctrine 
instead of a theory, Copernicus' tx>ok was 
placed on the index (though not unconditionally, 
for its author is spoken of as "a noble as^ 
trologer* when the word astrologer meant as- 
tronomer) but only until certain passages in 
which theories were stated as facts should be 
modified so as to make their theoretic signifi- 
cance clear. 

Before Copernicus a number of distinguishefd 
clergymen had attracted attention by their 
astronomical teaching. Bishop Vergilius, the 
Irish missionary astronomer of the 8tn century, 
taught that the earth was round and freed him- 
self from the charge that his teaching was con- 
trary to scriptures. _ Albertus Magnus insisted 
that there were antipodes, taught the rotundity 
of the earth and other supposedly modem 
astronomical doctrines yet was always in 
high favor, was made a bishop, and after his 
death canonized as a saint. In the 15th century 
Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa tau^t that "the 
earth is a star as the other stars in the heaven." 
and that it had a movement of its own and 
could not be the centre of the universe. Though 
deeply interested in science and teaching many 
new and startling doctrines for his time he 
was made Bishop of Brixen, then Papal Legate 
to (Germany for the reform of abuses, and 
finally a Cardinal, being a close friend of sev- 
eral popes. The first epoch-making astronomer 
of modem times was Regiomontanus, who 
established a regular observatory at Nurem- 
berg. He was summoned to Rome to direct 
the calculations for the correction of the 

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calendar. His invitation to Rome for this pur- 
pose was within 10 years of the time when 
Pope Calixtus III is said to have issued a 
Bull against Halley's comet. The su^osed 
Bull has never been found. Toscanelli who 
influenced Columbus so deeply was an intimate 
friend of Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa as well 
as of Regiomontanus and also of the famous 
Antoninus, Archbishop of Florence. Antoninus 
taught very emphatically that comets are celes- 
tial bodies like others m the heavens and had 
no effect on the physical or moral conditions of 
the world. Regiomontanus who was also a 
priest was a close friend of Toscanelli's. The 
relations between the ecclesiastical authorities 
and Toscanelli are illustrated by the gnomon 
which he arranged in the dome of the cadiedral 
at Florence, by the shadow of which it is said 
that he could determine midday within half a 
second. Cardinal Ximenes of Spain improved 
this accuracy of determining noon b^ similar 
means so that the cordial ecclesiastical rela- 
tions with science were not confined to Italy. 

Toward the end of the 16th century Pope 
Gregory XIII, intent on the correction of the 
calendar, had an observatory erected in the 
Vatican Gardens for astronomical purposesi 
and here the meetings of the mathematicians 
and astronomers for the reform of the calen- 
dar were held. After this there was always a 
Roman Observatory directly under the patron- 
age of the popes, either in the Vatican or the 
Roman College in charge of the Jesuits. When 
the Jesuits were suppressed or expelled by the 
Italian government the Vatican observatoi^ 
was resumed as at the present time when it is 
under the charge of Father Hagan, S.J., who 
was for a time at the observatory at George- 
town University, D. C The Jesuit astronom- 
ers, though the order was directly under the 
control oi the Pope, taking a special vow of 
obedience to him, hav« done some excellent 
original work in astronomy. Nearly every 
important Jesuit College in the 17th and 18th 
centuries had an observatory, and secular 
students of astronomy, made it a point to keep 
in. touch with them. Professor Foster in The 
Quarterly Journal of the German Astronomi- 
cal Society (1890, page 60) said, "Among 
the members of the Society of Jesus in the past 
and in the present we find so many excellent 
astronomers and in general so many investi- 
gators of ipurest scientific devotion that it is of 
important interest to their colleagues in science 
to notice them.* The great names among them 
in astronomy are Father Clavius, to whom the 
Gregorian reform of the _ calendar is due ; 
Father Scheiner, the authority on the sun and 
particularly on sun spots; Father Grimaldi, an 
authority on the moon, and Father Riccioli, 
who introduced the lunar nomenclature in use 
to-day. Three Jesuits, Fontaney, Noel and 
Richaud, are mentioned by Humboldt in his 
'Kosmos' as early observers of double stars. 
In the modem time Father Sccchi has been of 
deep influence on present day astronomy, and 
Fathers Perry, De Vico and Sidgreaves have 
done excellent work on government astronomi- 
cal commissions. 

The Church is supposed by many to have 
hampered the progress of astronomy, but that 
is all due to a misunderstanding of_ the Galileo 
case. Cardinal Newman once said that the 
Galileo case is the exception that proves the 

fule of beneficent patronage of science uni- 
formly practised by the Church authorities. 
It is *'the one stock argument to the contrary." 
Prof. Augustus de Morgan,, in his article on 
«The Motion of the Earth» in the ' English Ea- 
cyclopedia,' an authority not likely to be sus- 
pected of Catholic sympathies, h&s expressed 
exactly this same conclusion. 'The Papal 
power," he says, *must upon the whole have 
been moderately used in matters of philosophy, 
if we may judge by the great stress laid on this 
one case of Galileo. It is the standing proof 
that an authority which has lasted a thousand 
years was all the time occupied in checking the 
progress of thought! There are certainly one 
or two other instances, btit those who make 
most of the outcry do not know them." Pro- 
fessor Huxley, writing to St George Mivart, 
12 Nov. 1885, says that, after locJdng into the 
Galileo case whUe he was on the ground in 
Italy, he had arrived at the conclusion that "the 
Pope and the College o£ Cardinals had rather 
the best of it." In our own time M. Bertrand, 
the perpetual secretary of the French Academy 
of Sciences, declared that "the great lesson for 
those who would wish to oppose reason with 
violence was clearly to be read in Galileo's 
story, and the scandal of his condemnation 
was broiight about without any profound sor- 
row to Galileo himself; and his long life, 
considered as a whole, must be looked upon as 
the most serene and enviable in the history of 
science." • 

As Father Secchi, S.J., pointed out: "None 
of the real proofs for the earth's rotation upon 
its axis were known at the time of GaUleo, 
nor were there direct conclusive arguments for 
tbe_ earth's moving aroimd the sun." Even 
Galileo himself confessed that he had no strict 
demonstration of his views. Lord Bacon re- 
fused to accept Copemicanism in Galileo's 
time and science w&s so far from determining 
the question of the truth or falsity of either 
the Ptolemaic or the Copemican system, that 
shortly before 1633, the year of Galileo's con- 
demnation, a number of savants such as Fro- 
mond in Louvain, Morin in Paris, Berigario 
in Pisa, Bartolmns in Copenhagen and 
Scheiner in Rome wrote against Copemicanism. 
It was imder these circumstances that Galileo 
was condemned for contumaciousness in teach- 
ing as positive science what was only theory, 
though he had given a solemn promise that he 
would not until further information was ac- 
quired. His punishment consisted in being 
placed in the custody of a Cardinal friend. 
He was never an hour in prison. His next 
custodian was another dear friend in Florence 
and then eventuallv as a matter of form his 
son. The principal part of Galileo's punish- 
ment consisted m me recital of the Seven 
Penitential Psalms every day for three years. 
The expression i pur se muove "and yet it 
moves" was never uttered by him. It appears in 
history first a century after his deatii. The 
corresponding expression "the earth is a star 
like the other stars and moves in the heavens as 
they do* was used by Cardinal Nicholas of 
Cusa nearly two centuries before, but Cardinal 
Nicholas advanced the expression as a theory 
to be discussed and studied and not to be im- 
posed as scientific, and so he continued to be 
looked up to as one of the great pillars of the 

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Anatomy. — Anatomy after astronomy is 
the science oftenest said to have been hampered 
in its development by the Church because of 
the prohibition of dissection. As with regard 
to astronomy this is entirely a misunderstand- 
ing. The papal document which is not a bull, 
tlioupch often quoted as such, declared to 
forbid the cuttmg up of human bodies for 
anatomical purposes, only forbade their being 
cut up and boiled for transportation to long 
distances for burial This was an abuse that 
had cr^t in during the Crusades. The reoords 
of public dissection in Italy begin just after the 
issuance of that pajtal decree. Dissection waa 
done at Rome at all times and a number of 
papal physicians are famous for discoveries 
made as the result of dissection. Bealdo 
Colombo, the discoverer of the circulation of 
the blood in the lungs, Qesalpinus the first to 
describe the circulation of the olood in the body, 
Eustachius after whom the tube is named, 
Varolius of the Pons Varolii in die brain, 
Malpig^ after whom more structures in the 
human body are named than any other and 
deservedly because he was their discoverer, and 
Lancisi, the ^eat anatomical teacher, were all 
papal physicians. Bodies were supplied freely 
for dissecting purposes in Italy during the 
later Middle Ages and the Renaissance, directly 
under the influence of the Church. All the 
great artists of the Renaissance period made 
many dissections. Whenever anyone anywhere 
in Europe before the 19th century wanted to 
have special opportunities for anatomical study 
he went down to Italy. The case of Vesalius 
the Belgian who, unable to secure dissecting 
material in the early 16th century at Lonvain 
or Paris, went down to Italy, where he 
wrote his great textbook of anatomy illus- 
trated by dissections, which is still a classic 
exemplifies this very welL Stensen the Dane 
after having studied for a while in the Nether- 
lands also went down to ItaW to complete his 
studies and there became a Catholic and later 
a priest and even a bishop. In the meantime^ 
however, he had been a professor of anatomy 
at Copenhai^en. The. prejudice against dissec- 
tion is Puntanic and modem and reached its 
height in the late 18th century. In nearhr 
every city in the United States, in the early 19tn 
century, mobs attacked dissecting rooms, 
destroyed property and even put the lives of 
physicians and medical students in serious 
danger. It is only by recent legislation that 
En^ish and American physicians have suc- 
ceeded in securing the privilege of dissection 
and the material for that purpose as freely as 
they had it in Italy in the later Middle Agesj 

Sorgery. — President White suggested that 
the reason why surgery was neglected in the 
Middle Ages and the ignorant barber surgeon 
the only resource of afflicted humanity suffer- 
ing from surgical disease was that the Church 
had forbidden clergymen to practise surgery 
because it was not proper for them to shed 
blood, and as the only educated people of the 
time were clerics, hence surgery fell into the 
unworthy hands of the barber surgeons. Re- 
cent developments in the history of surgery 
contradict this idea completely. Really great 
surgery began to develop at the University of 
Salerno before the end of the 12th century. 
The surgical textbooks of Roger and 'Roland 
and of the Four Masters were written down 

there and then surgial development continued 
in North Italy. These wonderful Italian sur- 
geons of the later Middle Ages anticipated 
most of our modem surgery. We have their 
textbooks, which were fortunately printed in 
the Renaissance time and have now been re- 
printed in modem editions. Th^ were operat- 
ing on the skull for tumor and tor abscess, on 
the thorax for pus and other fluids and_ on the 
abdomen for many conditions. They insisted 
on sewing up intestines when wounded or the 
patient would surely die. They used various 
devices, tubes of metal, of bon& and the 
trachea of animals to help them in these intes- 
tinal anastomosis operations and seem to have 
gotten very good results. They could not have 
done such extensive operations without 
anaesthesia, but we know now that for two 
centuries all important operations were done 
under an anaesthetic and we know the mode 
and means by which they produced anaesthesia. 
Their death rate would have been very hig^ 
without antisepsis, but they employed strong 
wine as a dressing, insisted on utter cleanliness 
and sfot union by first intention, — the very ex- 
pression is mediaeval Latin — and were proud 
of their *pretty linear cicatrices.* 

So far from there being any Church opposi- 
tion to the development of surgery one of the 
greatest of these surgeons of the 13th century, 
Theodoric, who left an important textbook 
which has attracted a great deal of attention in 
our time, was actually a bishop. He depre- 
cated strongly the idea that the development of 
pus was necessary in the healing of wounds; 
he discusses fracture of the skull and of the 
vertebrae quite thoroughly, gives rather elabo- 
rate directions for intestinal anastomosis over 
a metal tube; insisted that abdominal wounds 
should be closed and not left open and depre- 
cated the use of the probe and of manipulations 
in fractures of the skull, in compound fractures 
or in wounds of the abdomen. Theodoric was 
made a special confessor (penitentiarius) by 
Pope Innocent IV arid later was made a canon 
and then a bishop. He had a lucrative practice 
in surgery but left the money he made for 
charity. So far from surg[ery being neglected 
in the Mid^e Ages this is one of the most im- 
portant periods in its history. Amoi»: the 
great Italian surgeons are William of Salicet 
and Lanfranc, who afterward taught at Paris, 
and Guy de Chauliac who is usually spoken of 
as the Father of French surgery. " Chauliac 
studied in Italy and became the papal physician 
of the popes at Avignon, where he wrote his 
<Chirurgia Magna,' a great textbook in which 
many supposedly modem developments of 
surgery are anticipated Chauliac was a cleric^ 
proSauy a priest, a great personal friend of 
the Avignon popes, one of the most respected 
men of his own time and high in the estima- 
tion of modem historians of surgery. He de- 
clared that a surgeon who did not know 
anatomy was l^e a blind carpenter sawing 
wood Chauliac told of his own studies in 
anatomy in Italy and his expressions demon- 
strate that there was not the slightest opposi- 
tion to dissection or anatomical study by the 
ecclesiastics. The great Italian and French 
surgeons of the later Middle Ages worked out 
the laws for the proper administration of 
mercury, which is one of the greatest triumphs 
in the history of therapeutics. 

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Chemistry.— Some historians have sug* 
gested that a Papal bull of the later Middle 
Ages forbade alchemy and therefore hampered 
the development of chemistry just as the sim- 
ilarly quoted Papal bull, which -we have seen 
had no such import, forbade dissection and 
therefore prevented the proper evolution of 
anatomy. The bull as to chemistry referred 
to is one issued by Pope John XXII, and its text, 
as also the text of the corresponding decree 
■with regard to the cutting up of bodies, may 
be found in 'The Popes and Science* (Walsh, 
New York 1915). "Ilie «alchemies» that were 
forbidden under this technical term were op- 
erations for the supposed manufacture of gold 
and silver out of base metals. As pointed out 
by the Pope these were bringing about debase- 
ment of the coinage and so were very prop- 
erly prohibited. The popes of the time issued 
bulls for the chartering of universities and 
the regulation of education generally and this 
being an international matter very naturally 
came within their purview. There is not_ the 
slightest evidence for any Church opposition 
to chemistry at this time or subsequently. 
There had been a good deal of interest m 
chemistry during the 13th century and Albertus 
Magnus and Roger Bacon made distinct con- 
tributions to the science under the name of 
alchemy, Raymond Lullv wrote on it some 16 
treatises, Arnold of Villanova gave special at- 
tention to it and the Hollanduses, father and 
son, continued it in the 14th century;. Al- 
bertus Magnus was highly honored in his own 
time, was made a bishop and subsequently was 
canonized. That is his life was held up as a 
model of what a Christian should be. Roger 
Bacon is sometimes said to have been perse- 
cuted for his work in science and particularly 
in chemistry, but not by those who know his 
life. Bacon was placed under custody — there 
is no evidence for imprisonment — because of 
the violation of disciplinary regulations within 
his own order, the Franciscans, but it was due 
to the request of a pope that his great works 
on science were written and Roger Bacon him- 
self never withdrew from the Franciscans, but 
continued to be a member of the order until 
his death, well past 80 years of a^e. 

There was abundant interest m chemistry 
in the 16th century, and it is curious how many 
of the men connected with it were ecclesiastics. 
Basil Valentine, the German Benedictine Monk, 
may be only a name for a group of men, but 
the writers were surely Benedictines. Para- 
celsus, the great chemical investigator for 
medical purposes of the 16th century, mentions 
that he was helped in his chemical studies by 
the Abbot Trithemius of Spanheim: by Bishop 
Scheit of Stettbach; by Bishop Erhardt of 
Lavanthol; by Bishop Nicholas of Hippon; 
and by Bishop Matthew Schacht. In more 
modern times there has been no question of 
any opposition to chemistry, and pharmaceuti- 
cal chemistry at least has had some magnifi- 
cent contributions made to it by the drugs 
obtained from the Indians by missionaries. 
These include cinchona, which was for so long 
known as 'Jesuits' bark* ; cascara sagrada, se- 
cured by the Franciscans from the American 
Indians; a number of valuable laxatives from 
the same source, grindelia robusta and other 

Medicine.— It has been suggested that the 

Church was so much interested in cures by 
relics, prayers, masses, pilgrimages to holy 
places, and the like, that naturally her policy 
was to discourage the development of medi- 
cal science.. The historical contradiction of 
this sura^estion is to be foimd in the list of 
papal physicians. The popes summoned to 
Rome to be their personal medical attendants 
and as a rule at the same time to teach in the 
Papal Medical School at Rome some of the 
most distinguished scientific physicians of 
medical history. No list of physicians con- ' 
nected by any bond in the history of medicine, 
not even that of the faculties of the older med- 
ical schools, can compare in personal prestige 
and scientific achievements with the roll, of 
papal physicians. In the section of this article 
on anatomy a few of them are named, but 
there are literally dozens of others who have 
an enduring place in the history of medicine. 
Among them are Guy of Montpellier, a great 
reotiganizer of hospitals ; Richard, the &iglish- 
man, famous throughout Europe in his time; 
Taddeo Alderotti and Simon of Genoa, both 
well known in medical history; WilKam of 
Brescia; Gentilis; John Philip de Lignamine, 
bibliophile and hygienist; Bartholomew of 
Pisa- Paulus Tovius; Brasavola; AJfonso 
Fern, the authority on gun-shot wounds; 
Manovelli; John of Aquila, referred to by his 
contemporaries as "a second jEsculapius* ; 
Frigimelica, famous for his study of baths; 
Maggi, who made the study of gun-shot 
wounds so clear; Cananus, the well-known 
dissector; Simon Pasqua, who wrote on the 
gout; Gymnasius, who was summoned on con- 
sultation to many of the princes of Italy; Mal- 
pighi; Cssalpinus; Jacobus Bonaventura; the 
brothers Castellani; uncle and nephew Syl- 
vester and Taddeus CoUicola; Zacchias who 
wrote on medico-legal problems, and so on 
throupih many other names that have a place in 
the history of medicine. 

The Oiurch's attitude toward medicine is 
veiy well illustrated by the regulations for the 
maintenance of hig^ standards in medical edu- 
cation which were enforced by papal bulls. 
According to these there had to be three years 
Of preliminary study at the university, then 
four years at medicine and a year of practice 
with a physician before personal practice could 
be taken up. We have climbed back in many 
schools, but by no means in all, to this stand- 
ard in the 20th century. In the mid-19th cen- 
tury we required only two terms of four 
montiis_ each, ungraded lectures, for the degree 
in medicine, and that was a license to practise 
in any State in the Unioa 

The Church's greatest contribution to 
medicine was the hospitals. Medieval hos- 
pitals were beautiful buildings, well planned, 
roomy, airy, with an abundance of water and 
well-organized nursing. Virchow has told the 
stoty of these old hospitals and their foun^- 
tion. The main factor was 'the papal en- 
thusiasm." He adds: "Though hospitals had 
existed in the East it was reserved for the 
Roman Catholic Church ... to establish 
institutions for the care of those suffering 
from disease.* Miss Nutting and Miss Dock 
in their 'History of Nursing* have emphasized 
the contrast between the sordid municipal and 
State iristitutions of the modem time with the 
*beautiful gardens, roomy halls and springs of 

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water of the old cloister hospitals of the 
Middle Ag^es with the comforts of their friendly 
interiors.* It was these finely org^anized hos- 
pitals and the good nursing that made tiie 
astounding surgety of the later Middle Ages 

possible. The three things go together, — gw)'^ 
surgery, good, nursing, gooid hospitals. The 
mediseval hospitals were very numerous. Vir- 

chow points out that in Germany every city of 
5,000 mhabitants had its hospitals. They were 
at least as ntmierous in the Latin countries. 

An old proverb ran "where there are three 
physicians there are two atheists.* This is not 
true so far as Catholic physicians are con- 
cerned and especially not as regards great 
scientific physicians. The illustrations will 
serve to show at the same time the relations of 
the. Church and medicine in the last two cen- 
turies. Morganig 'the father of modern pathol- 
ogy* (Virchow), was a devout Catholic, one of 
Whose sons became a Jesuit and all of his 
eig^t daughters nuns, with their father's full 
approbation. Laennec, the greatest of clinical 
physicians, was a devout Breton Catholic 
whose favorite devotion was the Rosary. 
Auenbrugger, the inventor of auscultation, 
Corrigan, of Corrigan's disease, Schwann, the 
founder of the cell doctrine, Johannes Muller, 
the father of modem German medicine, Claude 
Bernard and Pasteur, were not merely nominal, 
but thoroughly , practical. Catholics. The same 
thing can be said of such men here in America 
as Sir William Kingston of Montreal, Prof. 
Thomas Dwight, Parkman professor of anat- 
omy at Harvard for 25 years, Thomas Addis 
Emmet, pioneer in American gynaecology, Hora- 
tio Storer, a leader in the organization of hospi- 
tal nursing and the reform of hospitals, John B. 
Murphy, our greatest surgeon in this genera- 
tion, and many others who might be mentioned. 

Biology. — The biological sciences are 
usually supposed to have been the focus of the 
danger area for faith in modem times, and 
es^cially since the theory of evolution has 
gained ground the Church presumedly had to 
take an attitude of opposition. As a matter of 
fact many of the epoch-making workers mi 
biology have been devout ecclesiastics. E:q>eri- 
mental and observational biology begins with 
Abbe Spallanzani (1729-99), whose work 
< Regeneration > (1770) opened our era. The 
discoverer of the cell theory was Theodor 
Schwann, a Catholic from the Rhinelan^ who 
refused flattering offers of professorships in 
(^rman universities because he wished to remain 
among his Catholic students in Belgium. Jo- 
hannes Miiller, the ^reat German physiologist, 
to whom modem biology owes more than to 
any others, was a devout Catholic. So was 
Pasteur, the father of modem bacteriology. 
Claude Bernard, like many Frenchmen, neg- 
lected religion in mid-life, but for some years 
before his death was a faithful Catholic. Men- 
del, the revolutionizer of modern biology in 
all that relates to heredity, was an Aug^stinian 
monk, who, in the midst of his scientific work 
was elected the. abbot of his monastery and 
died, in the odor of sanctity. Father Armand 
David, the missionary in China, probably de- 
scribed more hitherto unknown species of ani- 
mals and plants dian any other in the last 
generation. • 

One of the greatest of modem entomologists 
Is Father Wasmann, S.J. In archaeology 

Catholic churchmen have rendered brilliant 
service: Abb* Breuil and Father Obermaier 
are the greatest living authorities on the cave 
man. The greatest name in Babylonian arche- 
ology is PAre Scheil, the Dominican, who so 
promptly translated the Code of Hammureabi 
and, has done so much else to put archaeology 
in his debt.. Far from the Qiurch discouraging 
such scientific work by priests they are given 
opportunities for it, can readily command the 
aid of other ecclesiastics and, above all, are 
free from solicitude as to worldlv cares while 
carrying it on. The hierarchy and the religious 
orders to which they belong take pains to show 
them how proud they are of their achievements, 
and they themselves, far from having their 
faith disturbed by meir science, are usually 
known for their devotion to tneir religious 
duties. As it is now it has always been. At 
times, there have been unfortunate misunder- 
standing. These occur also at the present 
time. They are entirely personal. They do 
not represent the policy of the Church. Occa- 
sionally it seems as though a scientist is being 
hampered in his work ^ religious superiors, 
but thorough knowledge of the case always 
shows other factors at work. 

Physical Science— The policy of the 
Qiurch as to the physical sciences, apart from 
those mentioned, is clear from history. Many 
of the distingui^ed names in the scientific de- 
velopment of electricity from Father Diwisch, 
Franklin's rival in bringing lightning from the 
clouds, and Father Beccaria, who, through 
Priestley's influence, was elected Fellow of the 
Royal Society of England, and Abbe Nollet, 
famous for his series of experiments on the 
effects of electricity on animals and plants, 
were Catholic priests. A great many of the 
distinguished pioneers in electricity were faith- 
ful Catholics. To take only the names of the 
men after whom, units in etectridty are named 
we have Galvani, who asked to be buried in 
the Third Order of Saint Francis, to which he 
belonged; Volta and Ampere, both of them 
well known for their devout faith and practice ; 
Coulomb, a good French Catholic, and Ohm, 
who was teaching at a Jesuit school when he 
made his great discovery of the law of resist- 
ance. Meteorology, in the older time as well 
as now, and seistnology in recent years, owe 
much of their development to the saentific sta- 
tions established by the reli^ous orders, espe- 
cially the Jesuits in connection with their col- 
leges in various parts of the world. These 
brought precious information from which laws 
were deduced. The Jesuits solved the secret 
of the severe storms of the Philippines and the 
United States government recognized their 

Bibliograpli7< — Bacon, 'Commemoration 
Essays* (Oxford University Press 1915) ; 
Bertholet, <Histoire de la diimie au moyen 
agc> (Paris 1893) ; Buck, <The Growth of 
Medicine' (Yale University Press 1917) ; Gar- 
rison, 'History of Medicine' (Philadelphia 
1913) ; Gurlt, <(ieschichte der (3iimrgie> (Ber- 
lin 1898) ; Humboldt, 'Kosmos' ; Meyer, 'His- 
tory of C3iemistr)r> (trans., London 1898) ; 
Neuberger, '(Seschichte der Medizin> (Stutt- 
gart 1906-11); Nutting and Dock, 'History of 
Nursing' (New York 1907); Potamian and 
Walsh, 'Makers of Electricihr' (New York 
1909) ; Walsh, 'The Popes and Science' (New 

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York 1915) ; <01d-Time Makers of Medidne> 
(New York 1911); <Makers of Modern Medi- 
cine' (New York 1915) ; <Catholic Churchmen 
in Sdence> (3 vols., Philadelphia 1906, 1909, 
1917) ; Whewell, 'History of the Inductive 
Sciences' ; Virchow, '(Jcsammelte Abhandlun- 
gen> (Berlin 1879). 

James J. Wai-sh, 
Author of '^The Catholic Churchmen in Sd- 
ence* ; "-The Popes and Sciences? etc. 

UNITED STATES, The. Recent historical 
developments as to the Norsemen on the Amer- 
ican Continent show that there was a bishop in 
Greenland and missions on the mainland before 
the end of the Middle Ages. Whether any of 
these were in territory now the United States is 
not sure, but the traditions of Nonunbe^ 
(q.v.) favor it. The first definite date in 
United States Catholic History is that of the 
celebration of mass on Manhattan Island for 
the expedition of Verazzano, who led French 
ships here in 1524. The Spanish settlement 
(1565) of Saint Augustine, Fla., was the 
first Catholic foundation in the country. The 
French settlement of Louisiana ted to a dis- 
tinct development of Catholicity in that region 
in the 17th century. The Indian missionaries, 
who in the same century came down from 
Canada into what is now Maine, New York, 
Michigan and Illinois, represented further de- 
veloptnents of early Catholicity here. The 
Spanish missionaries on the Pacific Cx)ast in 
the 18th century showed how much could be 
accomplished by such efforts among the Indians 
when unhampered by the exploitation of the 
whites. As the result of the Franciscan mis- 
sions the Californian Indians, some of the 
lowest in the country, were in the course of a 
single generation lifted to a comparatively hi^h 
level of civilization, living peacefully in their 
mission towns, occupying themselves with agri- 
culture and domestic manufactures, but above 
all developing what amounted almost to genius 
in the arts and crafts and leaving monuments 
of architecture that are standing witnesses, now 
fortunately being carefully preserved, of the 
success of their Christian teachers to bring out 
all that was best in Indian nature. 

As a rule, in the 13 original colonies, 
Catholics were proscribed.- Even in Marjrland, 
founded by a Catholic and whose proprietor. 
Lord Baltimore, had at its_ foundation pro- 
claimed for the first time in history the practice 
of religious freedom, proscriptive laws were 
passed after a time and Catholics were deprived 
of most of the rights of citizens. In New York 
under King Tames II a Catholic governor of 
the colony, Thomas Dongan, granted a charter 
(1683) far more liberal than that enjoyed by 
any American colony up to that time, above all 
securing for everyone absolute freedom of 
worship; but after the fall of the Stuarts, 
Catholics in New York came under rather 
severe laws once more, so that as late as the 
middle of the 18th century John Ury, convicted 
of being a Catholic priest, though he was not, 
was put to death. 

Pennsylvania was the only one of the 
colonies that tolerated freedom of worship for 
Catholics before the Revolution, for even Mary- 
land, founded by Catholics on the principle of 
reli^ous tolerance, had so turned against that 
original liberal policy that when there was 

onestion of building a Catholic church in Phila- 
delphia the project was for a time put off until 
there was, a definite settlement of the dispute 
then pending, as to whether the land on which 
Philadelphia was built belonged to Maryland 
or Pennsylvania. 

In spite of this intolerance of the colonists 
a great many of the Catholics fought bravely 
for the colonies in the Revolution, so that 
Washington particularly came to respect them 
thoroughly. Some, like General Moylan, be- 
came close friends, while the ardent patriotism 
of men like Commodore Barry heartened the 
Father of his Country, at some of the darkest 
hours of the Revolution. (Catholic toleration 
in Pennsylvania had its manifest good effect, 
a large proportion of the famous fighting Penn- 
^Ivania Lme, — "the Line of Ireland,* as (gen- 
eral Lee called it, — were Catholics. When Guy 
Fawkes' Day was to be celebrated in Boston 
with the burning of an effigy of the Pope, 
Washington wrote a letter, still extant, suggest- 
ing how unsuitable was such a celebration when 
Catholics were taking their parts whole heart- 
edly with the colonists. One of the important 
signers of the Declaration of Independence was 
Charles Carroll, a Catholic, who, when someone 
remarked that there were so many Carrolls 
that the British would not know exactly which 
one it was, designated himself beyond all doubt 
by adding "of Carrollton.* Even John Jay's 
bigotry, though, it alienated Canada, did not 
lessen the patriotism of Catholics in the col- 
onies. The alliance with His Most Catholic 
Majesty of France did much to break down 
intolerance toward Clatholics and the further 
alliance with Catholic Spain helped the same 
good cause. Members of Congress from all 
over the country came to be on terms of in- 
timacy with the French and Spanidi Ministers 
who had , Catholic chaplains with them and 
formal religious celebrations of successes in the 
Revolution were held in Saint Joseph's CHiurch, 
Philadelphia, and attended by many prominent 
in the government of the country. All this 
helped to break down bigotry. The Oievalier 
de la Luzerne, the French Minister, who pledged 
his private fortune to the help of the colonists, 
was a further important factor in the lessening 
of prejudice. He won the respect and friend- 
ship particularly of New England members of 
the Continental Congress and became a close 
personal friend of Governor Trumbull of Con- 
necticut, the "Brother Jonathan," whose name 
became the popular svmbol of our people until 
replaced by «Uncle Sam.* Benedict Arnold's 
treason plot proposed besides the surrender of 
West Point a scheme to capture the French 
Minister on one of his visits to Cx>nnecticut. 
Amonp; the excuses alleged by Arnold in ex- 
tenuation of his treason was that the Quebec 
Act had granted freedom of worship to Cath- 
olics in Canada and the toleration of Cathol- 
icity which he saw growing in the Oilonies 
endim^ered the Protestant religion. It has 
sometimes, been said that the securing of tolera- 
tion in this, country was more of an accident 
than a definite purpose. Anglican and Puritan 
could not trust each other, so Catholics slipped 
in under the general religious liberty which had 
to be voted. As a matter of fact it seems clear 
now that the. first amendment to the constitu- 
tion, guaranteeing religious liberty, was not a 
little due to Washington's influence and was 

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carried because he wanted to safeguard the 
rights of the Catholics, whom he had learned 
to value hig[h]y for their heroic efforts for the 
country during the Revolution. In spite of this 
amendment, however, the laws of many States 
continued to bar Catholic citizens from their 
rights. Pennsylvania and_ Delaware were the 
only States whose laws did not need expung- 
ing in order to secure to Catholics the right 
to vote and be voted for. In 1784 Rhode Island 
removed from its constitution the clause dis- 
qualifying Roman Catholics from office. Thjs 
was before the adoption of the Federal Consti- 
tution, but other States were slow to fc^ow 
this example. In 1806 New York did so, but 
Massachusetts waited until 1821, Virginia until 
1830, North Carolina until 183(5, New Jersey 
did not remove all disqualifications from Roman 
Catholics until 1844, while in 1876, fully 100 
years after the adoption of the First Amend- 
ment to the Federal Constitution, New Hamp- 
shire still retained disqualifying laws, only re- 
pealed the following year. Shortly after the 
Revolution the Churdi was organized inde- 
pendently of all foreign influence with John 
Carroll, a relative of the signer, as Prefect 
Apostolic appointed 26 Nov. 1784. Until the 
Revolution the Catholics in the colonies .had 
been undter the jurisdiction of Bishop Chal- 
loner, the Vicar Apostolic of London. His 
successor refused to exercise any jurisdiction. 
It was proposed at iirst that the Church should 
be under French ecclesiastical jurisdiction and 
Franklin as our Minister to France favored 
this for a time, but was brought to realize the 
danger there would be in such foreign influ- 
ence. Rev. Dr. John Carroll's appointment fol- 
lowed his recognition of this. 

In his letter of acceptance Rev. Dr. Carroll 
states that there were at this time in Manrland 
15,800 Catholics; in Pennsylvania 7,000; in 
Virginia 200; in New York 1^00; a few in New 
England and some scattered along the Missis- 
sippi, formerly under the jurisdiction of the 
bishop of Quebec. Altogether there were less 
than 30,000 Catholics in the whole country. 
The infant Church had some serious troubles, 
many of them due to what is known as the 
trustee system. Laymen in control of the funds 
thought to control also sacerdotal and even 
episcopal action. The spirit of independence 
in the new country readily tempted to abuses 
in this matter and the &:st half century of 
Catholic history has many such disputes, which 
led to the loss by the Church of a number of 
Catholics, e$pecially of the older familieSw In 
1789, the year of the organization of the gov- 
ernment, Dr. Carroll was made bishop, so that 
the State and the Catholic Church run parallel 
in their formal history. Bishop Carroll at once 
took m the project of a college, already dis- 
cussed in 1786, and Georgetown College m the 
District of Columbia was founded in 1789. 
Bishop Carroll visited Boston and notes with 
pleasure how the spirit of tolerance is growing. 
*It is wonderful to tell what great civilities 
have been done to me in this town where a 
few years ago the popish priest was thought to 
be the greatest monster in creation.* Previous 
intolerance can be best understood from the 
fewness of the Catholic population in New 
England, for in 1798 the whole number of 
Catholics was estimated at only 750, this figure 
including some 500 Catholic Indians in Maine. 

In 1800 Rev. Dr. Matignon erected the firtt 
building for Catholic services in Boston wortl^ 
of the name of a church, "John Adams, Presi- 
dent of the United States, and other Protestant 
gentlemen being generous contributors.' In 
1803 the Louisiana Purchase brought New Or- 
leans into the United States, in whidi there 
had been a bishop since 1793, and with a large 
increase in Catholic population. The religious 
liberty assured in the country soon brougjit 
large numbers of Catholics and led a great 
many back to the faith which either they or 
their fathers had abandoned because of re- 
ligious intolerance and the diiBculty of prac- 
tising their religion. _ At Bishop QarroU's 
suggestion new bishoprics were created in 1806 
in Boston, Philadelpnia and Bardstown. He 
recommended that New York be left under 
the jurisdiction of Boston, but the Irish bishops 
succeeded in securing the appointment of 
Father Luke Concanen as bishop of New York. 
Bishop Concanen died before reaching this 
country. Dr. Egan was chosen bishop of Phila- 
delphia, Dr. De Cheverus bishop of Boston and 
Dr. Flaget of Bardstown. Baltimore then be- 
came^ an archbishopric. Archbishop Carroll 
died in December 1815 and was succeeded by 
Archbishop Neale, who established the Visita- 
tion Convent at Georgetown, D. C, and restored 
the Society of Jesus, suppressed by the Pope 
in 1773, but now permitted to revive. Prince 
Gallitzin of Russia, who had become a prie$t, 
did splendid missionary work in western renn- 
^Ivania in the early part of the 19th centuiy, 
founding in 1799 the town of Loretto, still 
famous as a Catholic centre. 

The American Church was particularly for- 
tunate in the bishops who occupied these first 
sees. Archbishop Carroll was a valued and 
respected friend of the patriots who made the 
country. Bishop Louis de Cheverus, the first 
bishop of Boston, had been doing heroic mis- 
sionary work throughout New England for 
more than a quarter of a century before he 
was made bishop. He was often consulted t^ 
the legislature of Massachusetts and accepted 
many invitations tb explain Catholic doctrine, 
makmg use for this purpose even of Protestant 
churches. Speaking of him, William Ellery 
Channing said : "How can we shut our hearts 
against this proof of the Catholic religion to 
form good and great men?" Bishop' Flaget, 
another Frenchman, the_ first bishop of Bards- 
town, was indefatigable in his missionary labors 
in the immense territory under his jurisdiction, 
now divided into 28 dioceses, five of them 
archdioceses. He won the respect and rever- 
ence of all who came in contact with- him. 
The Bardstown bishopric was subsequently 
transferred to Louisvilfe (1841). Bishop Ro- 
sati, an Italian, the first bishop of Saint Louis, 
was another one of these marvelous pioneer 
bishops whose missionary spirit could not be 
satisfied. In one year his converts numbered 
300. Bishop Loras became the first bishop of 
Dubuque in 1837 with but one priest to help 
him, and yet he succeeded in accomplishing 
immense good and stamping his personality on 
all the future history of Dubuque. Another 
very successful French bishop was Joseph Cretin, 
the first bishop of Saint Paul. Some of the 
problems he had to meet will be understood 
from the fact that within a period of six years 
his flock grew from 1,000 to 60,000. Like 

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Bishop Loras of Dubuque he was very success- 
ful in promotinK Catholic inunignration and la:^- 
ing deep foundations for the future of lus 
diocese. The bishops were of all nationalities 
and Frederick Baraga, a Slovenian from the 
west of Austria, was appointed the first bishop 
of Marquette in 1853 after having labored for 
22 years as a missionary among tne Indians of 
Michigan. His writings are still recognized 
as of _ high authority on the languages of the 
American Indians. 

The Church continued to grow rapidly, par- 
ticularly in the South and West, and two new 
bishoprics were created in 1820 in Richmond 
and Qiarleston. Rev. John EJigland of Irish 
birth, destined to be a great power in the Ameri- 
can Church, was made bishop of Charleston. 
His writings are still a storehouse of informa- 
tion on Catholic subjects. The bishoprics of 
Cincinnati and Saint Louis were erected in 
1821 and 1826. It was felt that the growth of 
the Church now demanded that the bishops and 
prominent ecclesiastics of the country should 
take council of each other for the benefit of 
Catholicity in America, and the first Provincial 
Council of Baltimore was held in 1829. The 
records show that at this time Catholics had in- 
creased more than- 12 times in numbers in this 
country and that there was in 1830 a Catholic 
population here of nearly 400,000. 

New bishoprics continued to be founded in 
the West and sees were erected at Dubuque in 
1837, Chicago and Milwaukee in 1843, Oregon 
Gty 1846, Saint Paul and Santa Fi 1850 and 
San Francisco in 1853. Before the acquisition 
of California San Francisco had been part of 
the Mexican diocese of the two Califomias 
erected in 1840. During the decade after 1840 
Catholicity increased very rapidly in the United 
States because of European immigration. The 
famine in Ireland and political troubles of 
various kinds in other countries caused a great 
many immigrants to seek the protection of die 
United States and the Church had to make pro- 
vision for a very large increase in its member- 
ship. To deal with the new problem thus 
created the First Plenary Council of Baltimore 
assembled in 1852. At this time the Catholic 
population ntmibered about 2,000,000; there were 
30 episcopal sees including the six archdioceses 
ot Baltimore, New Orleans, New York, Cin- 
cinnati,' Saint Louis and Oregon City. In New 
York and Boston particularly Catholics in- 
creased rapidly in numbers. At the end of the 
first quarter of the lS>th century there were 
some 15,000 Catholics in the diocese of Boston, 
about half of whom were in the city, but they 
were beginning to crowd into all the growing 
towns of New England, Lowell, Newport, Fall 
River, Taunton, Providence, Hartford. New 
York grew even faster. At the end of the first 
decade of the 19th century Father Kohlman, S. 
J., found the parish of Saint Peter's in New 
York city to contain 14,000 Catholics. He pur- 
chased a site for a second church between 
Broadway and Bowery road, then on the out- 
skirts, and with the coming of a bishop to New 
York this became the cathedral. Father Kohl- 
man who opened a school and was prominent in 
the intellectual life of the city was once sum- 
moned as a witness against prisoners accused 
of thievery and asked to tell what he had heard 
from them in confession. This he refused to do 
in a most solemn way in court and the presiding 

justice, De Witt Clinton, supported him, thus 
settling for America the question of the status 
of information obtained in confession as 
privileged. The second Inshop of New York 
was John Connolly, consecrated in 1814. He 
was succeeded by John Dubois in 1826. At his 
arrival he estimated the Catholics in the city at 
25,000 and throughout the diocese 150,000. To 
serve the spiritual needs of this immense num- 
ber New York city had but six priests and there 
were but four in the rest of the State. Albany, 
Rochester and Buffalo thou^ each containing 
hundreds of Catholics had no resident priests. 
Brooklyn had but one small chapel, a mission 
from New York, visited occasionally by a 
priest Newark, Paterson and New Bruns- 
wick, all of them then in the New York diocese, 
were only building their small churches. Al- 
most necessarily under such difficult conditions 
a great many Catholics lost their faith because 
of lack of opportunities to practise their religion 
and bring up their children in it Some of the 
Western dioceses were of course in even worse 
straits. Bardstown included besides Kentucky 
and Tennessee all the country lonown as the 
Northwest Territory, embracing what is now the 
States of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin 
and Ohio. There were small scattered Catholic 
communities of French at Kaskaskia, Kahokia, 
Prairie du Rocher in Illinois: Vincennes, Ind., 
along the Raisin River ana in Detroit and 
Mackinaw, Mich., at Sandusky, Ohio, and 
Green Bay, Wis., though there were only three 
priests to tend to them all. Bishop Flaget 
within 10 years was able to report that he had 
in Kentucky alone 19 churches, 10 priests and 
10,000 Catholics. 

Some of the pioneer priests were remarkable 
men. One of these was Father Gabriel Richard, 
a Sulpician who did so much for Detroit and 
the neighbotfcood at the beginning of the 19th 
century. The Sulpicians, exiled from Paris by 
the Revolution, were of great help to infant 
Catholicity in America. They founded Saint 
Mary's Seminary in Baltimore (1791) which, 
after a very trying time at first, proved a 
wonderful nursery of priests for the American 
Church. In 1831 they founded Saint Charles 
College for clerical students though it was 

Sractically not opened until 1848. Father 
Richard was assigned to the missions in Illinois 
about 1795, transferred to Detroit in 1798. He 
opened a young ladies' academy in 1804 and a 
. seminary for young men the same year. The 
girls were taught spinning and weaving as well 
as purely intellectual subjects. With Rev. John 
Monteith, pastor of the Protestant church of 
Detroit as president and Father Richard as 
vice-president, the 'Catholcpistemiad or Uni- 
versity of Michigan* was founded in 1817. 
In 1821 when the University of Michigan was 
incorporated Father Richard was made a trus- 
tee. He published the first Catholic paper in 
this countrj% The Michigan Essay or Impartial 
Observer. Before he was able to get the print- 
ing press over the mountains he had a public 
cner who as a 'spoken newspaper* gave the 
news and certain advertisements at the church 
door on Sundays. In 1823 he was sent to 
Washington as territorial delegate, the only in- 
stance of a priest having a seat in Congress. 
When cholera visited Detroit in 1832 he tell a 
victim to the (Usease in his zeal for the sick. 
Judge Cooley declared *he would have been a 

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man of mark in almost any community and at 
any time.* 

One of the greatest of the Catholic prel- 
ates of the United States was John Hughes 
(1797-1864) who became tusbop of New York 
in 1838 and the first archbishop of that see in 
1850. A self-made man who worked his way 
through Mount Saint Mary's College, Emmitts- 
buK, Md, as a gardener, he demonstrated a 
hi^ quality of intellect in his controversy 
with Rev. John Breckenridge which made the 
American people realize for the first time how 
strong was the intellectual position of the 
Catholic Church. He showed his firm char- 
acter during the troublous times of trusteeism 
in Philadelphia and then was made tnshop of 
New York. He at once took up the correction 
of abuses that had crept into New York life to 
the detriment of the Church. It was due to 
bis efforts that the Public School Society, a 
private corporation which cMitrolled the funds 
and managed the common schools of New 
York, was dissolved, to the lasting benefit of 
popular education. Bishop Hughes then inau- 
gurated a system of parochial schools which 
has developed into the magnificent Catholic 
school system of New York. His controversy 
with 'Kirwan* (Rev. Nicholas Murray) in 1850 
probably did more than anything else to make 
Americans understand how utterly one-sided 
were the commonly accepted views of the 
Church in this counter. The firm stand that 
Bishoj} Hughes took m New York prevented 
the noting, destruction and bloodshed, which 
occurred as a consequence of Native Ameri- 
canism in 1844 in Philadelphia, and of Know 
Nothingism 10 years later, in many parts of Uie 
country, from coming to a head in his diocese. 

He was well known for his thorough-going 
devotion to the best interests of his adoptea 
country, and was a personal friend of Presi- 
dent Polk and of many men prominent in the 
political history of the time. During the Civil 
War he was appealed to by President Lincoln 
and Secretary of State Seward and was en- 
trusted with a dijdomatic mission of an infor- 
mal character to Europe and particularly to 
France in order to neutralize the growing sen- 
timent in favor of European intervention on 
the side pi the South. In spite of failing 
health which bad compelled him to ask for a co- 
adjutor he accepted this mission at the personal 
solicitation of President Lincoln, had an inter- 
view with the Emperor Napoleon in December 
1861 and then proceeded to Rome, where, dur- 
ing many monuis, he met prelates from Euro- 
pean countries and corrected many false im- 
pressions with regard to the war between the 
States.^ The government at Washington felt 
that his visit to Europe had been of great im- 
portance in making the cause of the North bet- 
ter understood and an official intimation of 
this was conveyed to the Holy See direct from 
President Lincoln, suggesting that the Arch- 
bishop could only be properly rewarded by 
Rome, but his failing health put that out of 
the question. President Lincoln wrote a let- 
ter commending Archbishop Hughes' patriot- 
ism. The last public function that he under- 
took was a public address delivered shortly 
before his death to the Catholics of New York 
with regard to participation in the "draft riots," 
which caused so much disturbance to the city 
and country in July 1863. His address to the 

crowd had to be made sitting down because of 
his weakness and his voice could not be heard 
far, but his published words made it clear be- 
yond all doubt that the Catholic Church com- 
mended to its members their duties as citizens 
to fight for the conservation of the Union to 
which they owed so much. 

Just before and after the middle of the 19th 
century the Catholic Church received ^eat ad- 
ditions to its members by the immigration from 
Ireland, consequent upon the famine and intol- 
erable conditions there, and from Germany be- 
cause of political disturbances in connection 
with the revolutions of 1848. Undoubtedly the 
strongest American influence exerted over 
these newly-arrived Americans was that of the 
Church, and its effect was seen in the large 
numbers of Catholics of Irish and German de- 
scent who fought splendidly and so many of 
whom hed their blood in defense of the 
Union during the Civil War. There had been 
organized intolerance under the name of the 
Native American partVj which led to the burn- 
ing: of the Ursulme C^onvent at Charlestown, 
Mass., in 1834, and of two Catholic churches 
in Philadelphia (1844) as the result of riots 
in which a number ot people were killed. In 
the fifties the Know Nothings, so called be- 
cause of their answer to all questions about the 
organization as directed by its rules was *I 
know nothinf;,* led to serious disturbances, in- 
cluding the killmg of Catholics, the burning of 
churches and other outrages in some 10 States. 
The answer to this campaign of bigotry by the 
patriotism displayed in the Gvil War was com- 

About the same time the Church began to 
make large gains bv conversion from among 
the educated people of the country. There 
Mras an ."Oxford Movement' in America as 
well as in England and many distinguished 
converts were made. Among these the best 
known was Orestes Brownson, well known as 
a writer on serious subjects, and Isaac Hec- 
ker ^of Brook Farm), who gathered round 
him the gn;oup of men who founded the Paulist 
Congregation, New York, for the conversion 
of non-Catholics. There were a number of 
converts from among the Protestant clerey, 
the most distinguished of them being Rev. l5r. 
Levi Silliman Ives, the Protestant Episcopal 
bishop of North Carolina, Rev. Dr. Preston of 
New York, Rev. James Roosevelt Bayley of 
New Jersey, Rev. George Herbert Doane. the 
son and brother of Protestant Episcopal bish- 
ops of New Jersey and Albany, and somewhat 
later, Rev. Kent Stone, president of Kenyon 
and Hobart colleges, who afterward became 
Father Fidelis of the Passionists. 

The best proof of the recognition by Church 
authorities that the Church in the United States 
should be absolutely American in character and 
in sympathy with the republican aims of this 
country is to be found in the fact that a number 
of these converts were advanced to the hi^est 
posts in the hierarchy. James Roosevelt Bay- 
ley became bishop of Newark and later arch- 
bishop of Baltimore and is said to have been 
offered the cardinalate which he declined in 
favor of Archbishop McCloskey of New York. 
Other converts who became bishops were Tyler 
of Hartfordj Wadhams of Ogdensburg and 
Wood of Philadelphia, who later became arch- 
bishop. Father Doane became vicar-general 

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and chancellor of the diocese of Newark 
and Father Preston became vicar-general of 
New York and both were made domestic 
prelates of the Pope. Dr. Silliman Ives 
was founder and the first president of the 
"Catholic Protectory for Wayward Girls and 
Boys of New York' and was given as a lay- 
man distinguished opportunities for the accom- 
plishment of great good. Many other distin- 
fished converts were made, among them Dr. 
V. Huntington, brother of Daniel Hunting- 
ton, the artist, who wrote a series of Catholic 
novels; George Parsons Lathrop and Charles 
Warren Stoddard, poets; Edward Lee Greene, 
the botanist, Rev. Daniel Hudson of the Ave 
Maria, Molly Elliott Seawell and Frank' Spear- 
man, novelists; Rose Hawthorne, the daughter 
of Nathaniel, who afterward became Mother 
Alphonsa of the Cancer Home;_ Mr. and Mrs. 
Bellamy Storer and such distinguished phy- 
sicians as Drs. Van Buren, one of the leaders 
of the profession of New York city, Horner, 
professor of anatomy at the University of 
Pennsylvania, Dwight, Parkman professor of 
anatomy at Harvard University for 25 years, 
Thomas Addis Emmet, of international fame in 
his specialty of women's diseases, Horatio 
Storer, vice-president of the American Medical 
Association and well known for his contribu- 
tions to American medical literature. The 
number of conversions grew each year after the 
middle of the 19th centuryj increasing par- 
ticularly in recent years, until it is calculated that 
about 25,000 converts are received annually into 
the Church at the present time. Perhaps the 
best evidence that the Church appeals to thor- 
oughly practical men as well as to those of 
spiritual and intellectual tendencies is to be 
found in the fact that_ altogether of men who 
reached the rank of brigadier or major-general 
in the Civil War, 46 became converts before 
their deaths. 

The Catholic population of the United States 
had been growing very rapidly during the dec- 
ades just before the war between the States. 
The newly made citizens faced their duty to 
their adopted country bravely and with few 
exceptions whole heartedly. Archbishop Hughes 
more than any other grave the keynote to patriot- 
ism for his fellow countrymen at the North. 
The archbishop of New York had long con- 
sidered that slavery was a blot on this country 
and as a young man at college in lyrical mood 
had invoked Columbia to "chase foul bondage 
from her Southern plain." In his controversy 
with Breckenridge he had pointed out the 
absurdity of paying a compliment to our 
"memorable Declaration of Independence,* 
coupled with an allusion to slavery. He had 
taken firm ground against the radical abolition- 
ists, however, pointing out that they had com- 
mitted the very crime of attempting to over- 
throw the Constitution and government of the 
United States which they charged against the 
Southern Confederacy and urging moderation 
and conciliation on both sides. Once war was 
declared, however, there was no half-hearted- 
ness about his support of the Union. 

Another of the distinguished prelates of the , 
second half of the 19th centuiy was Archbishop 
Martin John Spalding (1810-/2), a descendant 
of a family that had been in this country for 
many generations. He became bishop of Louis- 
ville in 1850 and archbishop of Baltimore in 

1864. The growth of the Church, and above 
all the number of conversions had attracted 
public attention more than ever to Catholicity 
and the patriotism of Catholics during the Civil 
War had moderated much of the intolerance 
felt toward the Church, and Americans were 
now more willing to listen to expositions of 
Catholic doctrine. Archbishop Spalding re- 
sponded to a deeply felt want by his lectures 
in many parts of the country and by the breadth 
of his scholarly erudition succeeded in placing 
the Church's position properly before the minds 
of fair-minded Americans. He was the first to 
suggest the establishment of a Catholic Univer- 
sity and to insist that intensive development of 
the intellectual life would iadd greatly to the 
Church's position. He came to be held in high 
esteem by prominent men of all classes and 
sects in the United States. When the Second 
Plenary Council of the Church in the United 
States met at Baltimore in 1866 under the pri- 
max:y of Archbishop Spalding the Catholic pop- 
ulation had doubled to nearly 4,000,000, and 
though the increase was very largely due to Irish 
and German immigration, the feeling was grow- 
ing throughout the country that oar new citi- 
zens were being trained to genuine Americanism 
under the influence of the Church whose hier- 
archy was deeply patriotic in its policies. 

Two distinguished prelates who have been 
called "Fathers of the American Church* were 
the Kenricks — Irish by birth but thoroughly 
American in their influence on the Church. 
Francis Patrick Kenrick was for a time bishop 
of Philadelphia (1830), and was transferred to 
the archbishopric of Baltimore in 1851. He 
was honored by his fellow citizens of Phila- 
delphia for his courageous zeal during an awful 
epidemic of cholera and for his tact during the 
native American riots when 40 persons were 
killed in the city. His brother, Peter Richard 
Kenrick, became archbishop of Saint Louis in 
1847 and lived to celebrate the golden jubilee 
of his consecration. His firm stand with regard 
to the Drake Test Law led to a decision by the 
United States Supreme Court which prevented 
threatened infringement of the constitutional 
guarantee of religions liberty. 

In 1884 when the Third Plenary Council was 
held,_ under the primacy of Archbishop (now 
Cardinal) Gibbons, the Catholic population had 
actually doubled once more to 8,000,000. The 
new primate, Cardinal Gibbons, was destined to 
occupy a place of particular affection in the 
hearts of the American people and to be looked 
upon as a typical representative of all that was 
conservative in American life. His published 
opinions came to be looked upon as almost 
national messages, always read with attention 
and considered with reverence. The Church 
continued to grow rapidly under the favoring 
influence of religious liberty and doubled once 
more in numbers by the beginning of the new 

Religious education came very early to be 
recognized as an extremely important factor 
for the Church's growth in the United States 
and for the conservation of the spirit of Chris- 
tianity. The Catholic hierarchy was firmly per- 
suaded, to use Herbert Spencer's word, that "it 
works grave mischief whenever intcllectualiza- 
tion precedes moralization.* The first Catholic 
college, that of Georgetown, was established in 
1789, the very year of the organization of the 

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Union. Other colleges followed until now there 
are 22 universities, more than a dozen of -them 
with over 1,000 students in attendance, some 
2iD0 colleges for boys with over 50,000 students 
in attendance, not including 102 ecclesiastical 
seminaries with some 7,000 students. Catholic 
higher education for women began with the 
establishment of the Visitation Academy, 
Georgetown, D. C, in 1799. Mrs. Seton's 
organization of the Sisters of Charity and the 
foundation of Saint Joseph's Academy, Em- 
mittsburg, followed in 180?. The first institu- 
tion for giving anything more than education 
in the ordinary branches to girls in New Eng- 
land was the Ursuline Academy in Charlestown, 
Afass., opened in 1834 and though mainly at- 
tended by the children of Protestant parents, 
burned down that year by a mob from Boston at 
the risk of the lives of some of the |>upils. There 
are now some 700 Sisters' academies with over 
100,000 pupils in attendance. In keeping with 
the times these have developed 39 colleges for 
women, some of them ofltering graduate as 
well as undergraduate instruction. The Sisters 
teach in the parochial schools, over 50^000 of 
them being devoted to this work, teaching more 
than 1,500,000 pupils. 

After education the Church has considered 
its most important work the organization of 
charity. The oldest hos^tal founded by pri- 
vate t>eneficence still in existence in what is now 
the United States is the Charity (Sisters) Hos- 
pital at New Orleans dating from 1720. In 
lffi9 four Sisters of Charity went to Saint 
Louis from Emmittsburg to open the Mullanphy 
Hospital, which had been endowed by Mr. 
John Mullanphy. In 1832 when an outbreak of 
cholera in Blockley Hospital, Philadelphia, 
utterly disorganized that hospital, six sisters, 
by request of Bishop Kenrick, started from 
Emmittsburg within two hours after the sum- 
mons and took charge, restoring order there 
and giving the institution "its one short inter- 
regnum of peace in the distressing reign of 
violence, neglect and cruelty.* (Nutting and 
E)ock^ 'History of Nursing*). In 1847 Mercy 
Hospital, Pittsburgh, was founded, to be fol- 
lowed by a chain of hospitals under the care of 
the Sisters of Mercy throughout the country. 
In 1849 Saint Vincent's Hospital, New York 
was established by the Sisters of Charity, ana 
since then the same sisters have opened 11 
other hospitals in the greater city. Carney 
Hospital, Boston, was_ founded in 1868, and 
since then Sisters' hospitals have come to occupy 
a prominent place in American life, there being 
now some 530 Catholic hospitals in the country, 
caring for 1,000,000 patients a year. Besides 
they have charge of the orphans, of the found- 
lings and of a number of institutions for the old 
as well as for the insane and the tuberculous. 
Mother Cabrini founded a series of hospitals, 
thinning with Columbus Hospital, New York, 
1892, orphan asylums and schools m this coun- 
try for the Italians, which have helped very 
much in solving the social problems connected 
with this large group of new citizens. 

Very early in our history missionaries among 
the Indians continued some of the good work 
that had been done in Colonial days in chris- 
tianizing and civilizing the Indians. The "black 
robe* of the Jesuits became a power among 
them. Father Peter de Smet, S.J., the "Apostle 
of the Rocky Motmtains,* served the Indians of 

the Middle West for fully 50 years (1821-71) 
and was often called upon to use his influence 
with hostile tribes. Of the 300,000 Indians in the' 
United States 60,000 are Cadiolics, ministered 
to by 160 priests. There are about 100 Catholic 
schools for Indian children containing some 
5,000 pupils. Missionary effort among the 
negroes has been even more active. More than 
100,000 of our colored' population are Catholics, 
served by 170 priests. Nine religious communi- 
ties of men and 23 of women are represented 
in the negro work. Mother Drexel's founda- 
tions for the Indians and negroes have accom- 
plished magnificent results. There are now ISO 
Catholic, schools for neg^roes' with an attendance 
of about 15.000 children. 

Toward the end. of the 19th and the be- 
ginning of the 20th century the Church in the 
United States received large additions to its 
number through the immigrants from the Slav 
countries. At the present time the Slav Cath- 
olics are calculated to number nearly 5,000,000 
in the United States. Three millions of these 
are Poles, 1,000,000 are Bohemians and Slo- 
vaks, 250,000 Croatians, 125,000 Slovenians and 
500,000 Ruthenians. Practically all the Poles in 
the United States are Catholics and very faith- 
ful to their relipon. They have 750 priests, 
more than 500 churches and 20 Catholic news- 
papers in their own language. The Bohemians 
have 250 priests and 100 churches. The Ruthen- 
ians, the term being applied to those who come 
from Austria, have become important in our 
population in Pennsylvania, New York, New 
Jersey and Ohio. They are practically all 
Uniats, that is, in union with Rome but not 
using the Latin rite. They have some hand- 
some_ churches and 150 priests, some 64 being 
married. It has been decreed that there should 
be no addition to the married clergy in this 
country either by immigration or ordination. 
The preek Catholic Union among the Ruthen- 
ians is a powerful organization with a member- 
ship of nearly 50,000. There is an order of 
Ruthenian Sisters of the Order of Saint Basil 
who take charge of parochial schools. The 
Church demonstrates the validity of her name 
of Catholic by ^thering into the fold here all 
the forei^ nationalities — Rumanians, Alban- 
ians, Syrians and Armenians. All of these 
have priests of their own and follow their own 
rites, to which they were accustomed at home. 
New York as the port of entry for immigration 
caught numbers^ of all these peoples so that 
mass is now said. in New York in seven dif- 
ferent languages, according to a series of rites. 
All these peoples, except the Ruthenian Greeks, 
who are organized in one diocese, under a 
Ruthenian _ prelate, are under the jurisdiction 
of the ordinaiy ecclesiastical authorities in this 
country and of course of the Pope. 

This large foreign immigration to America 
has introduced a series of newproblems and ele- 
ments into our political life. They are not very 
different from those which occurred as a conse- 
quence of German and Irish immigration at the 
middle of the 19th century. The (3iurch was an 
important factor in the transformation of these 
European stocks into American citizens of ster- 
ling patriotism. Her ministrations under the di- 
rection of a hierarchy that has shown itself thor- 
oughly American and free from any political 
bias that might hamper our free development, is 
accomplishing a sitqitar transformation for the 

Digitized by 




Slavs and the Italians. President McKinlqr 
declared the influence of the Catholic Church 
in this matter as extremely precious for the 
future welfare of the country. The decided 
stand taken by the Church against all the forces 
of anarchy has meant much for preserving the 
balance of conservatism among these newly 
arrived peoples, so liable in the first flush of 
their enjoyment of liberty to go too far in what 
they expect of it. 

Catholic societies organized to foster social 
aims, provide fraternal insurance and or- 
ganize public opinion a^nst abuses and im- 
moralities of various kinds have become in- 
creasingly prominent in American life. The 
Holy Name Society, organized to discourage 
blasphemy, but domg social work of many 
kinds, counts a membership of a million. The 
temperance societies of the Church represent 
another million. The American Federation of 
Catholic Societies, organized to oppose immoral 
tendencies and intolerant legislation, has nearly 
5,000,000 members affiliated. The Knights of 
Columbus, who came into public prommence 
in connection with the war in their organization 
of social life for the soldiers in the canton- 
ments here and behind the line in France, have 
a membership of 400,000 men definitely engaged 
by their fraternal pledges to patriotism and 
work for social purposes. Some 350 Catholic 
periodicals, most of them weeklies, are pub- 
lished in the United States. They include 46 
German, 18 French^ IS Polish, 7 Bohemian, 5 
Italian, two each Slovene, Dutch and Magyar 
and one each Spanish, Croatian and Indian pub-, 

In 1918 the Catholic population in the con- 
tinental United States was estimated to be 
nearlv 18,000,000, with the hierarchy consisting 
of three cardinals, 16 archbishops and 100 
bishops. There are 20,000 priests, about 5,000 
of whom are members of religious orders — 
Jesuits 1,200, Benedictine 750, Franciscans 700^ 
Kedemptorists 500, Vincentians 300, Dominicans 
250 and many smaller orders. There are some 
85,000 women in religious communities. The 
American occupation of the Philippines added 
a Catholic population of 7,000,000 with one 
archbishop, 11 oishops and 1,250 priests; Porto 
Rico another 1,000,000, with a bishop and 150 
priests; Hawaii, 40,000, with a bishop and 50 
priests; Guam, 14,000, with a bishop and 10 
priests- Samoa, 1,000, with 4 priests, and the 
Canal Zone about 4,000, with 4 priests. 

Bibliography. — Shea,_ J. Gilmary, 'History 
of the Cathohc Church in the United States' 
(1890); id., <Life and Times of Archbishop 
CarrolP (New York 1888) ; id., <The Catholic 
Church in Colonial Days' (ib. 1886) ; De Roo, 
'America Before Columbus' (Philadelphia 
1908): Jesuit, 'Relations' (Cleveland 1898); 
Campbell, 'Pioneer Priests in America' (3 
vols., New York 1903-11); Parkman, 'The 
Jesuits in North America' (Boston 1890) ; 
Hughes, S. J., 'The History of the Society of 
Jesus in North America' (Cleveland 1907-10) : 
Johnson, 'Religious Liberty in Maryland and 
Rhode Island' (New York 1903) ; Griffin, Mar- 
tin I. J., 'Catholics in the American Revolu- 
tion' (3 vols., Philadelphia 1907-09); O'Gor- 
man, 'History of the Roman Catholic Church 
in the United States' (in 'American Church 
History Series,' Vol. IX, New York 1895); 
Wedewer-McSorley, <A Short History of the 

Catholic Church' (Saint Louis 1916); Finotti, 
'Bibliographia Catholica Americana' (New 
York 1&^) ; Clarke, 'Lives of the Bishops of 
the United States' (New York 1872) ; Hughes, 
Most Rev. John, 'A Catholic Chapter in the 
History of the United States' (ib. 1852) ; Ha»- 
sard, 'Life of Archbishop Hughes' (ib. 1866) ; 
Shea, 'The Two Kenricks' (Philadelphia 1904) ; 
Richards, 'A Loyal Life — The Catholic Move- 
ment in the United States' (Saint. Louis 1913) ; 
Curtis, 'Some Roads to Rome in America' 
(Saint Louis 1909) ; 'Catholic Encyclopedia' 
(New York 1909^14); 'Catholic Directory' 
•(annually) ; files of the Ameriam Catholic 
Quarterly (Philadelphia) ; Catholic Historical 
Magasine (Washington, D. C.) ; Catholic World 
(New York) ; Griffin's Catholic Researches 
(Philadelphia) ; Records of American Catholic 
Historical Association (Philadelphia) \ publi- 
cations of United States Catholic Historical 
Society (New York). 

James J. Walsh, 
Author of ^Catholic Churchmen in Science,' 
'■The Popes in Science,' etc. 
American. (1) The Pontifical College of the 
United States at Rome, Italy; address: Via 
della Umilta, 30. TUs institution was founded 
by Pius IX and was formally opened by him 
8 Dec. 1859. In 1884 Leo XIII ranked it 
among pontifical colleges, with the privileges 
thereto appertaining. Ecclesiastical students 
only are admitted ;_ _ students pursuing the 
courses in the humanities, philosophy and theol- 
ogy at the Urban College of the Propaganda. 
In 1916 the number of students was reported 
as 158. (2) The American College at Louvain, 
Belgium. This was founded in 1857 by several 
American bishops. The rules and constitutions 
were confirmed by Leo XIII in 1895. The 
objects of the institution are to educate for 
the priesthood American students sent by their 
bishops to Louvain, and to prepare students 
from Belgium and adjacent countries for im- 
portant missions in dioceses of America. Only 
those students are admitted who have finished 
a complete course in philosophy at a Catholic 
college. There is a three years'_ course in 
theology at the University of Louvsdn, followed 
by higher studies leading to the various degrees 
in theology, and canon law. Its activities were 
suspended in 1914 when, early in the European 
War, the city of Louvain was burned by the 

CATHOLIC COPTS, those native Egyp- 
tian (Christians, about 5,()00 in number, who 
acknowledge the authority of the Pope. The 
word Copt is an adaptation of the Arabic 
"Qibt* or «Qubt» (a corruption of AiyfcirTof). 
See Copts. 

law, a creditor whose debt is secured by a lien 
or charge on more than one subject belonging 
to the debtor. 

UNITED STATES. Historical^ The first 
schools within the present limits of the United 
States were those founded by the Franciscans 
in Florida and New Mexico. Saint Augustine 
Fla., had a classical school as early as 1606, and 
there were a number of schools in existence 
for the natives of New Mexico in the year 
1629. Schools for the natives were likewise 

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established in Texas and California, with the 
foundation of the missions in those regions. 
Ursttline nuns from Fiance established a rar- 
ish school and academy in New Orleans in 1727, 
a few years after the foundation of the city. 
French schools, for both white and native chil- 
dren, were also opened at Saint Louis, Detroit 
and other settlements to the north. In general, 
it may be said that Catholic school work usu- 
ally began in a place, whether it was a white 
or an liidian settlement, as soon as there was 
a sufficient Catholic population and organiza- 
tion to funiisfa support for the school. In the 
East, the Jesuits in Maryland had opened 
schools by. the year 1650, and a college or 
'school for htnnanities,» was established there 
in 1677. Later on, a boarding school was 
opened at Bohemia, on the eastern shore of 
Maryland; among the famous pupils at this 
institution were John Carroll and Leonard 
Neale, who subsequently became archbishM>s 
of Baltimore, and Charles Carroll of Carroll- 
ton, one of the su;ners of the Declaration of 
Independence. Georgetown College was 
founded in the year 1789. A more favorable 
opportunity for_ educational work was offered 
to the Jesuits in Pennsylvania, owing to the 
tolerant attitude of the Quakers, and, with the 
or^nization of the first Catholic parish in 
Philadelphia in 1730, the foundation of schools 
as a re^ar and permanent feature of parish 
work may be said to have begun. Philadel- 
pliia had a larger Catholic population than any 
other town in the country, and the system of 
schools that was gradually established there 
and throughout Pennsylvania as new parishes 
were orgaiuzed became a model _ to Catholics 
elsewhere: A new impulse was given to Cath- 
olic education by tbe American Revolution. 
Catholic immigrants came in increasing num- 
bers, and learned priests, exiled by the French 
Revolution, arrived opportunely to take up the 
work of orranizing parishes, schools and col- 
leges. In 1791 the Sulpicians founded Saint 
Mary's Seminary at Baltimore: Foremost in 
Catholic educational work west of the Alle- 
dbenies were Fathers Stephen T. Badin and 
Charles Nerinckx in KentuclQr, Father Ga- 
briel Richard in Detroit and Michigan and 
Fadier Eldward Fenwick, a Dominican, first 
bishop of Cincinnati, in Ohio. What was ac- 
complished in these three States had a very 
important influence in the development of 
Catholic education throuje^out the whole Mid- 
dle West later on. During the period 1800-40 
the progress of Catholic education, while slow, 
was steady and solid, and corresponded with 
the growth of the Church. Catholic text- 
books began to, appear, and, more important 
still, religious sisterhoods were organued to 
carry on the work of teaching in the schools. 
The first teaching sisters in the English-speak- 
ing States were the Poor Clares, who opened a 
school at Georgetown in 1S)1. This orcier soon 
discontinued educational work; but in 1812 an 
American branch of the Visitation Order was 
founded at the same place bv Bishop Neale. 
Mrs. Elizabeth A Seton, under the direction 
of Father Dubourg, organized the Sisters of 
'Giarity at Emmittsburg in 1809; this commu- 
nity erfw rapidlj; and furnished teachers to 
Catholic schools in all parts of the country. 
Shortly afterward, three teaching communities 
were founded in Kentucky — the Sisters of 

Loretto, the Sisters of Cbarit}^ of Nazareth 
and die Sisters of Saint Dominic. These five 
teaching communities rendered it possible for 
Catholics to carry on their schools and acad- 
emies without aid from the state, and to ex- 
tend the educational system to new centres of 
Catholic life as fast as these became organ- 
ized. Among the religious orders of men, the 
work of the Lazarists and Jesuits during this 
period deserves particular mention, the latter 
having laid the foundations of Saint Lotiis 
University in 1828. Another great forward 
movement in Catholic education originated in 
the tide of immigration that set in about the 
year 1840. Hundreds of thousands of Catholic 
Irish and Germans made their way to the Mid- 
dle Western _ States and beyond. Zealous 
priests and bishops of the newly-created dio- 
ceses labored to erect everywhere not only 
churches but schools. After the failure of 
Bishop John Hughes of New York to secure 
for the Catholic schools of that citv a share 
of the public educational funds, although his 
efforts were warmly seconded at Albany by 
Governor Seward, it was more keenly realized 
by Catholics that it had become a matter of re- 
It^ous necessity for them to erect and main- 
tam their own schools, and that, as Bishop 
Hughes declared, *'In this age and countnr the 
school is more necessary than the church." At 
the instance of the bishops many new teaching 
communities came from Europe, and their 
membership was rapidly augmented under the 
favorable conditions offered for religious and 
educational work. The result was that, while 
in the year 1840 there were onIy_ about 200 par- 
ish schools in the cotmtry, this number was 
multiplied several times over during the en- 
suing decade. Academies for girls were estab- 
lished by the Ladies of the Sacred Heart and 
other sisterhoods while the Christian Brothers 
took the lead in the field of secondarjr educa- 
tion for boys. Colleges and seminaries also 
sprang up. The Jesuits carried their work of 
higher education into every section of the 
country by founding colleges and preparatory 
schools. A later phase of the immigration 
movement resulted in the establishment of 
schools, for French-Cana<Uans,, Poles, Italians, 
Bohemians and other nationalities. Of these, 
the Polish schools are the most numerous. 

School Organization. — In accordance with 
the Church's organization, Catholic elementary 
education is framed along diocesan lines. Each 
diocese has its school system, with the bishop 
at its head. Bishops, however, are bound by 
the legislation of the Third Plenanr Council 
of Baltimore, which prescribed a definite form 
of school organization for all the dioceses. 
General legislation has thus operated to give a 
certain measure of unity to parish-school work 
the country over, while local needs and inter- 
ests are left to be provided for by the dioc- 
esan authorities Diocesan control over the 
schools is usually exercised through the dio- 
cesan school board, presided over by the 
bishop. The members are selected from the 
clergy of the diocese; in some places the laity 
are included. In the prevailing type of school 
organization the school board includes, as its 
executive officer, a diocesan superintendent of 
schools. The priest who is selected for this 
office is specially trained for his work; he de- 
votes his time to the inspection of schools and 

Digitized by 




to the study of the problems involved in their 
improvement, and his recommendations are 
embodied in an annual report submitted to the 
school board. As assistants to the superin- 
tendent there are in many dioceses community 
inspectors of schools. As a rule, there _ are 
many teaching orders engaged in any giyen 
diocese, and when each community appoints 
one of its members to inspect and study the 
work that is being done in its own schools in 
the diocese, the result is to give the superin- 
tendent a corps of zealous and efficient assist- 
ants through whose co-operation his recom- 
mendations may the more easily be given prac- 
tical effect. In the case of the individual par- 
ish school, the pastor is, of course, by rig^t its 
head: but generally speaking beyoncl supervis- 
ing the religious instruction and financial mat- 
ters, he leaves the direction and control of the 
school to the superior of the Sisters or Brothers 
in charge. The actual principal of the school 
is therefore the immediate religious su- 
perior. The teachers usually live in or near 
the school building, which is in close proximity 
to the parish church. About nine-tenths of the 
teachers in the parish schools are religious. 
Male teachers are less than one-fifteenth of 
the total number. Nearly 300 distinct com- 
munities are engaged in the work, including 
single independent nouses as well as congrega- 
tions. Of these, 11 are teaching brotherhoods. 
The curriculum of the parish school does not, 
as a rule, show any substantial difference from 
the curriculum of the neighboring public schools, 
except in the matter of religious instruction. 

The training course for reli^ous teachers 
embraces the postulate, the novitiate and the 
normal school. In the postulate are comprised 
the elements of a good common-school educa- 
tion and some high school work; during the 
novitiate — generally of one year — studjr is 
continued, but the chief aim is the religious 
formation of the candidate; in the normal 
school, proximate preparation is made for the 
work of teaching, through suitable pedagogical 
studies, while more advanced academic courses, 
sometimes leading to the college degree, are 
also taken up. Such is the trainmg course that 
obtains in the more progressive communities; 
in many instances. However, this ideal pro- 
gram is not strictly adhered to in practice, 
owing to the detnand for teachers. But the 
tendency is steadily toward higher standards. 
Much has been accomplished in this direction 
through the work of summer institutes and 
summer schools conducted especially for teach- 
ers by colleges _ and universities. _ Worthy of 
special mention in this connection is the Sisters' 
College, at the Catholic University of America, 
Washington, D. C. Many sisterhoods are 
now sending picked young^ teachers to this 
institution for college and university courses as 
well as normal-school training. Money for the 
support of the schools is obtained from three 
sources, tuition fees, the parish treasury and 
endowments. The amount derived from the 
last-mentioned source is practically a negligible 
quantity, except in the case of a few favored 
schools. The tuition fee — the fee ranging 
from 50 cents to a dollar a month — was long 
the prevailing source of school revenue, but 
of late years it_ has been replaced to a gjeat 
extent by the simpler and more direct means 
of support, the parish treasury, especially in 

the cities and larger towns. Schools thus sup- 
ported are called *'free schools.* In many 
places, in accordance with the practice in putl- 
lic schools^, textbooks are also supplied free. 
The salaries of sisters engaged in parish- 
school work probably average $25 per month, 
or $250 per year. Brothers who teach in the 
parish schools generally receive from $900 to 
$400 a year. Teachers m Catholic schools thus 
receive less than one-half the salary of public- 
school teachers of the same class, and in many 
parts of the country they receive barely one- 
third as much. Yet out of their slender sal- 
aries the religious teachers hav« not only to 
maintain themselves, but also to save some- 
thing as a contribution to the support of the 
mother-house and its various establishments, 
such as the training schools, the infirmary, etc. 
Only by the practice of the strictest economy, 
joined to the most devoted personal self-sac- 
rifice, are the members of religious communi- 
ties enabled to accomplish these objects success- 
fully. As might be inferred from the above 
data elementary education in Catholic schools 
costs less than one-half as much as elementary 
education in public schools. The actual cost 
per capita of Catholic elementary schooling 
throughout the country averages only from 
eight to nine dollars a year. 

Alongside the parish-school system there 
have been developed secondary schools or high 
schools. These belong to several distinct types : 
the college preparatory school ; the parish high 
school — an adjunct of a particular parish 
school- the diocesan high school, under the 
control of the bishop; and the independent 
high school, conducted by a religious order and 
more or less independent of diocesan control. 
There is a strong movement toward the more 
general establishment of diocesan high schools, 
since these form an integ^ral part of the dioc- 
esan school system and thus contribute more 
effectively to the unification of Catholic edu- 
cational work. Notable among institutions of 
this class, for their tj^ical character and in- 
fluence, are the Boys' Central High School and 
the Girls' High School in Philadelphia. 

An important agency in the changjes that 
have been brought about in Catholic education 
in the direction of more perfect organization has 
been the Catholic Educational Association, which 
was organized in 1904, and includes three main 
departments — schools, colleges and seminaries. 

School Enrolment.— In the year 1918 there 
were 5,488 Catholic elementary schools in the 
United States with an enrolment of 1,456,206 
pupils, and with about 36,000 teachers. Ele- 
mentary pupils in high schools and academies 
would make an addition of about 100,000 to 
this number. Investigation has shown that the 
total actual enrolment in Catholic schools is 
not quite one-half that which the Catholic popu- 
lation of the country should normally su^ly, 
the proportion being as 893 to l,94iB. This 
means that about the same number of Catholic 
children go to the public schools as go to the 
parish schools. There are over 100 Catholic 
industrial schools; many girls' schools furnish 
instruction in the upper grades, in practical . 
household subjects. 

Included in the total school enrolment just 
given are 137 schools for colored children, with 
an enrolment of 13,885, about one-fourth of 
these being in the archdiocese of New Or- 

Digitized by 




leans. A number of teaching communities de- 
vote themselves especially to this work, sev- 
eral of these heine composed of colored Sis- 
ters. These schools as a rule derive their s_ui>- 
port from general church collections and gifts 
from generous individuals. There were also 
72 schools for the education of Indians, with 
5,674 pupils. Orphanages — not included in the 
above total — number 293, with 45,059 children. 
There are about a doren Catholic schools for 
the deaf and dumb, with an enrolment of ap- 
proximately 1,000. 

Colleges. — Catholic male colleges and uni- 
versities in the year 1916 numbered 84, with 
an enrolment of 14346 students of collegiate 
g^de; of these 6,177 were pursuinjg profes- 
sional courses, wmle 974 were registered in 
engineering courses. Colleges for girls had at 
least 1,000 collegiate students. The enrol- 
ment in Catholic colleges is increasing rap- 
idly, the ratio of collenate students in such 
institutions to every 1,000,000 persons of the 
Catholic population having increased from 511 
in the year 1907 to 896 in the year 1916. The 
movement toward the development of uni- 
versities, which has bden characteristic of the 
progress of American higher education, has 
affected many of the larger Catholic colleges. 
Thirty-nine institutions now have at least one 

grofessional department, while quite a. number 
ave several professional departments, in ad- 
dition to post-graduate courses of study. Pre- 
eminent among Catholic institutions of higher 
education in the United States is the Catholic 
University of America, which is tmder the di- 
rection of the bishops, and which has a large 
post-gniduate attendance and many a£51iated 

The college department of the Catholic 
Educational Association demands a require- 
ment of 16 units for entrance to college and 
128 hours as a minimum for graduation. Other 
requirements relating to the work and equip- 
ment of the college nave been adopted, and at 
the Buffalo meeting of the Association, in 1917, 
a committee was appointed by the colleges to 
carry out the work of standardization and 
classification. Seventy-six institutions are con- 
ducted by the reli^ous orders. Catholic col- 
leges and universities are as a rule self-sup- 
porting; only a few are even partially en- 
dawtd, with the exception of the Catholic Uni- 
versity. Religious professors receive no salary, 
the services they render being entirely gratui- 
tous; hence the college, being free to a ^eat 
extent from the heavy financial burden of pro- 
fessors' salaries, is able to devote the revenue 
derived from student fees to its general ex- 
penses. Lay professors are not excluded, but 
their number is relatively small, except in a 
few instances. There is, however, a tendency 
to increase the numl er of lay professors ; many 
of the colleges are endeavoring to raise en- 
dowment funds, largely with this end in view, 
and considerable success has attended these 
efforts. At any of the large Catholic colleges, 
if salaried laymen were to replace the religious 
teachers and officials, the change would in- 
volve an expense ranging from $50,000 to $100,- 
000 a year — which would represent a capital 
between one and two million dollars. The 
gratuitously rendered services of the reli^ous 
professors at the Catholic college or univer- 
sity are therefore equivalent to an endowment 

fund, and in many instances its amount will 
compare favorably with the endowment of the 
better equipped non-Catholic institutions. 

Seminaries. — Catholic seminaries in the 
United States are either diocesan or religious, 
the former being destined for the training of 
the secular or diocesan clergy, and the latter 
for the training of the clergy of the religious 
orders. Diocesan seminaries are usually con- 
ducted by secular priests under the direction 
of the Ordinary, while religious seminaries are 
in charge of members of the respective reli- 
gious orders. The diocesan seminaries, although 
not nearly so numerous as the religious semi- 
naries, have in the aggregate almost twice as 
many students as the latter; in the year 1915 
there were 21 of the former with an enrol- 
ment of 2,282, and '16 of the latter with an 
enrolment of only 1,394. Of preparatory sem- 
inaries — these schools cover the ground of the 
ckissical c9urse — there were the same year 1.1 
diocesan institutions with an enrolment of 
1,727 and 23 belonging to the religious orders 
with an enrolment of 1,734. Saint Mary's 
Seminarpr, Baltimore, in charge of the Sul- 
picians, is the oldest of the diocesan seminaries, 
and has over 300 students.^ The oldest religious 
seminary is the Jesuit institution at Woodstock, 
Md., with nearly 200 students. The specific 
aim of the seminary discipline is the thorough 
spiritual formation of the candidate for the 
priesthood. The entrance requirements for ad- 
mission to the seminary, whether diocesan or 
religious, involve the completion of the classi- 
cal course. The length of the curriculum of 
the diocesan seminary was fixed by the Third 
Plenary Council of Baltimore at six years, two 
to be devoted to the study of philosophy and 
four to the study of theology. Practically the 
same length of time was prescribed for the 
curriculum of religious seminaries by recent 
legislation at Rome. Lecture courses on peda- 
gogy and social and political science have 
lately been introduced into a number of the 
semmaries. On the material . side, great 
changes have been made in recent dfecades. 
The new Kenrick Seminary at Saint Louis and 
the seminaries at New York, Boston, Philadel- 
phia, Saint Paul and San Francisco, as well 
as the new religious establishments at the 
Catholic University, Washington, are models 
in the way of modem seminary buildings and 
equipment In many other instances, where 
there has not been a complete reconstruction 
of the seminary plant, notable changes have 
been effected, including the erection of new 
buildings or the extension of old ones, im- 
proyed sanitary and cuisine arrangements and 
additions to the library and its equipment. 
Similar improvements have been made in the 
case of the preparatory seminaries. As a rule, 
diocesan seminaries are dependent upon the 
parish collections for their support. See also 
Parish Schools. 

Statistical Summary (1918) 

Catholio population of the United States 17,416,303 

Parish (choolt 5,488 

Parish school entofanent. 1,497,949 

High schools 1,2m 

High school eztrolment 74,538 

Colleges and universities (1916) 84 

ColleeiBte enrolment 14,846 

Seminaries 85 

Seminary euolment. 6,201 

Digitized by 




Bibliogrmphy. — Bums, J. A., 'Origin and 
Establishment of the Catholic School System* 
(1908) ; id, 'Growth and Development of the 
Catholic School System> (1912); id., 'Cath- 
olic Education — A Study of Conditions' 
(1917) ; Annual Retorts of the Superintend- 
ents of Parish Schools; Catholic Directory 
(Annual) ; Annual Reports and Bulletins of 
the Catholic Educational Association; Annual 
Reports and Bulletins of the Commissioner of 

James A. Bukns, CS.C, 
Professor of Moral Theology, Holy Cross 
College, Brookland, D. C, 


an act of the British Parliament passed in the 
10th year of the reign of George IV. 13 April 
1829, bv which the Catholics of Ireland were 
relieved of civil disabilities still persisting there 
after the more odious and oppressive provisions 
of the penal laws enacted in 1691, in violation 
of the stipulations of the Treaty of Limerick, 
had been gradually done away. For 50 years 
after 1691 those laws were enforced vigorously; 
from that time to the era of emancipation 
there was a -gradual relaxation. The^ design of 
those penal laws was the extermination of the 
Catholic religion in the island and the adminis- 
tration of the government purely for the be- 
hoof of the 'Protestant interest* and the 'Eng- 
lish interest.* A Catholic was not permitted 
to be a landowner, nor even to hold land on 
lease, save for a brief term; the son of a 
Catholic could, by making profession of the 
Protestant religion, come into possession of his 
father's property, allowing to his parent an 
annui^; if a Catholic owned a horse, what- 
ever its value, any Protestant might legally 
seize it on paying to the owner $25 ; no Catholic 

friest could lawfully exercise his ministry in 
reland save under severe restrictions, and 
monks and friars were regarded as felons and 
punished as such; no Catholic could be a bar- 
rister, nor a schoolmaster; Catholics were 
ineligible to the Parliament of Ireland, or even 
as electors; they were not permitted to be 
freemen of boroughs. When the act of union 
of the kingdom of Ireland with that of Great 
Britain was passed William Pitt gave solemn 
assurance to the Catholics of Ireland that the 
last of their disabilities would be forthwith 
removed, and bills to that effect were brought 
into Parliament; but Pitt, giving way before 
the insane bigotry of King George III, did not 
press the measure and went out of office. The 
Catholics continued to demand their enfran- 
chisement and emancipation, and their appeals 
were heard in the British Parliament ; but it was 
seen that the hope of redress of grievances was 
vain unless a show of force was made, or a 
popular agitation set on foot. Daniel O'Con- 
nell, already a highly successful counsellor-at- 
law; though not a barrister, owing to his dis- 
ability as a Catholic, took the leadership of the 
Catholics of Ireland, and from 1824 till the 
act of emancipation was passed, Ireland was 
the scene of an unprecedented popular agita- 
tion, never equalled in any country^ till the 
agitation for the repeal of the union with Great 
Britain was set on foot immediately after the 
grant of Catholic emancipation. The British 
Cabinet was_ alarmed by the outburst of popular 
enthusiasm in Ireland, and the House of Com- 
mons in 1825 passed a relief bill for Ireland, but 

the Lords rejected it. A second relief bill, two 
years later, failed in the House of Commons. 
But the following year, 1828,, the House, al- 
though the Cabinet (Wellington's) was adverse, 
passed that second bilL This made the Cabinet 
and even the King (George IV) pause, and it 
was confessed that really something might or 
must be done ; ' but _ the agitation must cease. 
The repW of uie Irish Catholics was to nom- 
inate O'Connell, despite his legal disability, for 
membership in the Parliament and to elect him 
triumphantly. He was a member of Parlia- 
ment-elect, but he would not take the oath 
whereb^r he must accept the King's supremacy 
in religion. It was the King and the Cabinet 
that had to retreat now. The bill for Catholic 
emancipation was brought into the House of 
Commons on 5 March 1829, and passed the first 
reading by a majority of 188 in a House of 508 
members; on the second reading the majority 
was 180, and on the final vote it was 178 in a 
House of 462. Even in the Lords the measure 
was passed by a good majority, and the bill 
received the Kins^s assent. 'The rights and 
privileges accorded to the Catholics ol Ireland 
by this act were: That they were not to be 
required to take the oath of supremacy; that 
they became admissible to all offices in corpora- 
tions and to enjoyment of all municipal ridits. 
But no Catholic could be regent or lord chan- 
cellor, either of Great Britain or of Ireland; 
and tney were incapable of holding offices con- 
nected ,with the Established Church or the 
universities. In all other respects the Catholics 
were to stand on an equal footing with Prot- 
estants. In 1871 the Roman Catholic oath and 
the declaration concerning transubstantiation 
were abolished. 

seven letters in the New Testament which are 
addressed b^ apostles to the faithful in general, 
not to particular churches, as is that to the 
Philippians, that to the Ephesians, etc.; nor 
to individuals, as are the roistles of Paul to 
Timothy, Titus, etc. The (JathoHc or general 
epistles are those of James, 1 and 2 Peter, 1, 
2 and 3 John, and the epistle of Jude. These 
same epistles are also styled Canonical, signify- 
ing, according to Calmet, that they contain 
excellent rules {canones) of faith and morals. 
Consult Gloag, 'Introduction to the Catholic 
Epistles> (Edinburgh 1887) ; Sanday, W., 'Bib- 
lical Inspiration* (London 1896) ; and Bigg; 
C A., 'Commentary on Saint Peter and Saint 
Jude* (Edinburgh 1902). 

reau of, an organization of the Roman Catholic 
Church, established in 1874 by the archbishop 
of Baltimore in behalf of the Catholic prelates 
having Indian missions within their respective 
dioceses, in order to represent before the gov- 
ernment the interests of these prelates in all 
matters appertaining to Indian affairs. B^ 
decree of the Third Plenary Council_ of Balti- 
more it was recognized as an institution of the 
Church and placed under the charge of a com- 
mittee of seven prelates. This committee was 
dissolved in 1894; and the bureau as then con- 
stituted^ was superseded by a new corporation. 
The chief work of the bureau is the establish- 
ment of schools among the Indian tribes and 
obtaining funds for their maintenance. The 
bureau publishes each year a report of the 

Digitized by 




director, and its past publications include 
'Annals of Catholic Indian Missions in Anjer 
ica> (1877-81) and <The Bureau of Catholic 
Indian Missions 1874-95.* From time to time 
it circulates statistics concerning its work. See 
Indian, Catholic Education of the. 

THE UNITED STATES (referring exclu- 
sively to actual missionary effort made within 
the present boundaries of the United States). 

Early Period.— Although priests had vis- 
ited the present territory of the United States 
previous to the advent into New Mexico of the 
Franciscan Friar Mark of Nice (1539), Catho- 
lic mission work properly dates from the expe- 
dition of Coronado the year following. Fran- 
ciscan friars were the pioneers; it was chiefly 
they who evangelized the tribes of Florida, 
Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and Upper Cali- 
fornia. Their exceedingly long roll of mission- 
aries, many of them martyrs, contains such 
illustrious names as John of Padilla, the proto- 
martyr of the United States missions (New 
Mexico 1542), Francis Pareja (Florida 1612), 
who published several treatises in Timuquanan, 
his 'Doctrina Christiana* being the first work 
in any Indian language of this country to issue 
from the press; Ven. Anthonv Margil of Jesus 
(Texas 1716); Juniper© Serra (California 
1769^). The Dominicans gave to Florida 
Luis Cancer, the martyr (1549), Dominic of 
the Annunciation, Salazar and others (1559). 
The Jesuits were pre-eminently the apostles of 
the North, their missions extending from Maine 
to the Mississippi River. They also announced 
the Gospel in many other portionsof the coun- 
try. Among their best-known missionaries were 
Martinez (Florida 1566) ; Rogel f South Caro- 
lina 1569) ; Kuhn (Arizona 1687) ; the illus- 
trious martyr Jogues (New York 1646) ; 
Chaumont and Dablon (New York 1654) ; Le 
Moyne (New York 1661); AUouez (Wiscon- 
sin 1670) J Marquette (discoverer of the up- 
per Mississippi 1673) ; Rale (Maine 1724) ; 
Dupoisson (Natchez 1729). Bendes Francis- 
cans and Jesuits, other priests engaged in the 
work, and diristianity was preached to the 
natives throughout the leng^th and breadth of 
the land. 

Results. — In many instances the missions 
flourished exceedingly; the Indians received a 
rudimentary education and were brought to a 
high state of civilization. In 1630 there were in 
New Mexico about 35,000 Christian Indians, 
living in 90 pueblos, each pueblo having its 
diurch, attended from 25 mission residences. 
In 1634 there were in Florida 35 Franciscans 
maintaining 44 missions, while the Christian 
Indians numbered between 2S,0(X) and 30,000. 
In (^lifomia the results were equally satisfac- 
tory. The fruits of the labors of the early mis- 
sionaries may still be seen among the Indians 
of New Mexico, Arizona, California, Minne- 
sota, Wisconsin, Michigan and Maine. The 
missionaries not only evangelized the Indians, 
but they have placed the whole world in their 
debt by their work of exploring and colonizing, 
and by their contributions to. science. They 
wrote exhaustively on many topics, and, more- 
over, preserved to postenty the Indian lan- 
guages by means of numerous lexicons, gram- 
mars and books of devotion and instruction. 

The Misaioas Revived— In the last cen- 

tury the tribes of the great Northwest were 
evangelized principally by the modern apostle 
of me Indians, Peter John De Smet, S.J. 
(1838-73) and his Jesuit colaborers. The 
Jesuits, moreover, established missions among 
the tribes of Alaska. Other noted missionaries 
of the period were the Benedictine monks, who 
have met with marked success, especially in 
Minnesota and the Dakotas ; and Bishop Baraga 
(Michigan 1830-68) ; Archbishop Blanchet (Or- 
egon 18*8-80) ; Bishop Marty, O.S.B. (Dakota 

One of the results of President Grant's 
"Peace Policy" was the establishing, in 1874, at 
Washington, D. C, of the Bureau of Catholic 
Indian Missions to represent Catholic Indian 
interests at the seat of government, to super- 
intend Catholic agencies and to obtain other 
agencies falling by the terms of the peace 
policy to the Catholic Church. Upon the modi- 
fication of the peace policJ^ the bureau turned 
its attention to the establisning of schools and 
the aiding of missions, and since the with- 
drawal of government aid from Indian mis- 
sion schools, it provides financial support for 
such Catholic institutions. The history of the 
bureau since its inception is intimately bound 
up with that of the missions. It has established 
over 50 schools, which represent an investment 
of more than $1,(XXX000. The name most prom- 
inent in Catholic Indian mission work of the 
Present day is that of Mother M. Katharine 
irexel, foundress of the Sisters of the Blessed 
Sacrament for Indians and Colored People, 
who has devoted her life and a very large for- 
tune to mission work among the Indians and 

Present Status. — The tribes wholly or par- 
tially Catholic are: Arickaree, Assinaboine, 
Abenaki, Blackfeet, Coeur d'Alene, Chippewa, 
Crow, Colville, Digger, Flathead, C»ros Ventre, 
Huron, Kalapuya, Mohawk, Mandan, Menomi- 
nee, Mission, Nez Perci, Osage, Ottawa, Pot- 
tawatomie,. Piegan, Passamaquoddy, Pueblo, Pa- 
pagD, Pima, Quapaw, Sioux, Saint Regis, Tin- 
neh, Tulalip, Umatilla, Winnebago, Wenatchi 
and Yakima. Catholics are also to be found 
among the Arapahos, Choctaw^ Cherokees, 
Chickasaws, Creacs, Comanches, Cayugas, Mi- 
amis, Northern C^eyennes, Otos, Oneidas, Pon- 
cas, Peorias, Stockbridges^ Sauk and Foxes and 
Yumas. Most of these tribes axe provided with 
missions, while a number of others live in the 
vicinity of missions and fall under Catholic 
influence. Consequently Catholic Indian_ mis- 
sion work is carried on in Alaska, Arizona, 
California, Idaho, Kansas, Minnesota, Michigan, 
Maine, Montana, Mississippi, New Mexico, Ne- 
braska, New York, North Dakota, Oregon, Okla- 
homa, South Dakota, Washington, Wisconsin, 
Wyoming. Elsewhere small remains of tribes are 
cared for by the parochial clergy. More than 
150 priests, both secular and regular, aided by 
catechists (Indian and white), labor on the 
Indian missions. The total number of priests, 
teaching brothers, lay brothers, scholastics, 
sisters and secular teachers engaged in Indian 
educational work is about 650. There are 
about 100 schools (boarding and day), with 
over 6,000 pupils; about 200 churches and 
chapels; and the value of church and school 
buildings is not less than $1,500,(X)0. The 
mission records show annually about. 3,500 
baptisms, 600 Christian marriages, 1,200 Chris- 

Digitized by 



tian burials. Of a total Indian population of 
291,014 about 100,000 are Catholics. 

Consult Shea, *The Catholic Church in 
Colonial Days' (1886); and 'History of the 
Catholic Church in the United States — 1844 to 
1866' (New York 1892) ;' O'Gorman, <A His- 
tory of the Roman Catholic . Church in the 
United States' (ib. 1895); Reports of Bureau 
of Catholic Indian Missions from 1874; Re- 
ports of Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 

Rev. Wm. H. Ketcham, 
Director of the Bureau of Catholic Indian Mii- 
sions, IVashington, D. C. 


a fraternal organization, founded in Nashville, 
Tcnn., in 1877 and chartered under the laws oi 
KentucW in 1880. Its object primarily was 
mutual life insurance, but its scope was even- 
tually extended to include the endeavor to unite 
fraternally all acceptable Roman Catholics of 
every profession, business and occupation; to 
give all possible moral and material aid in its 
power to members of the organization, by hold- 
ing instructive and scientific lectures, t^ encour- 
aging each other in business, and by assisting 
each other to obtain employment, and to estab- 
lish and maintain a benefit fund for the benefit 
of the families of the members. The benefit 
fund is distributed according to well-established 
insurance rules. The age limits for admission 
are from 18 to 45. At first men only could ber 
come members; but since about 1901, women 
have been allowed admission on the same con- 
ditions as men, except the age limits for women 
are from 18 to 40. The executive power is 
vested in the Supreme Council (National) with 
headquarters in Saint Louis, Mo., the State 
councils and the officers of the local branches. 
In 1913 there were 560 branches in the United 
States, with a membership of 18,300 with a total 
insurance of $20,610,171. The organization had 
total assets of $1,168,541, including the reserve 
fund of $828,000. The claims paid in 1913 
amounted to $546^662. Since its organization 
there has been paid to beneficiaries nearly 
$15,000,000; but the material aid has been 
slight compared with the spiritual, moral and 
intellectual benefit the organization has effected. 
This is the ipioneer Roman Catholic fraternal 
organization in the United States. 

CATHOLIC MAJESTY, a title given by 
Pope Alexander VI to the kings of Spain, in 
memory of the complete expulsion of the 
Moors from Spain in 1491 by Ferdinand of 
Aragon. But even before that time several 
Spanish kings are said to have borne this title. 

The, an organization of the Roman Catholic 
Church established ''to procure the services of 
clergymen and laymen of the Roman Catholic 
Church to teach and preach as missionaries of 
their faith in the United States and in further- 
ance of religious opinion"; "to lease, take, hold 
and purchase places, buildings and lands for 
such teaching and preaching* ; to provide for 
the maintenance of the workers; to publish and 
distribute books, pamphlets and other reading 
matter in connection with these efforts, and to 
aid archbishops, bishops and other Church au- 
thorities in the United States to establish and 
conduct missions within their respective juris- 
dictions. Its practical activity takes the form 
of the collection of funds to enable bishops of 

the various dioceses to reserve diocesan priests 
for missions _ to non-Catholics within their 
various jurisdictions and to maintain such mis- 
sionaries in their work. The Apostolic Mission 
House, on the grounds of the Catholic Uni- 
versity, Washington, D. C, is the training- 
school for diocesan missionaries. 

SOCIATION, The. This Association was 
organized in Niagara Falls, N. Y., July 1876 
ana was incorporated- by the legislature of the 
State of New York in 1879. _ It does a fraternal 
life insurance business, furnishing protection to 
its members in amounts of $500 to $2,000. It 
has 64,000 members ; 800 local branches through- 
out United States and Canada; has $£2,000,000 
insurance in force; and has disbursed over 
$31,00(^(XX) to families of deceased members, 
over $1,500,000 being disbursed annually: Its 
assets amount to about $2,000,000. The qualifi- 
cations for_ membership are that a man shall 
be a practical Catholic, physically sound, of 
the full age of 16 years and under the age of 
50 years. The Corporation is known as the 
Supreme Council of the Catholic Mutual Bene- 
fit Association, and is composed of representa- 
tives from each Grand or State Council in addi- 
tion to its own officers and holds its conven- 
tions triennially. Grand councils are com- 
posed of their own regular officers and one 
representative from each branch in their juris- 
diction and meets triennially also. The re- 
serve fund is surrounded by the safest and 
most reliable safeguards for its protection. 
The Association was one of the first to estab- 
lish a reserve fund. It has adequate rates, and 
has complied with the laws of the State of 
New York, in which it is incorporated, and 
also with the laws of other States requiring 
solvency from an actuarial standpoint. 


The formative period of Catholic iotimalism 
was an era full of struggles and anxieties 
when unreasonable attacks were made upon 
the liberties of Catholics; for at that time the 
tenets of the Roman Oitholic Church were 
very poorlv understood and oftentimes mis- 
representea by those who were ignorant of her 
beliefs or who mistrusted her sincerity. The 
forerunners of the Catholic newspaper were 
the Irish journals. Although these papers were 
not distinctly Catholic in purpose, their sym- 
pathetic tone toward those of the ancient 
faith merits for them a place in any descrip- 
tion of Otholic journalism. In fact, more than 
a decade of American history had passed be- 
fore any Catholic periodical, property so called, 
was established. Hence, during this time the 
principal champions of Catholic doctrines and 
practices were these Irish papers. As citizens 
of the United States, the Irish editors fre- 
quently were forced to defend with vigor their 
civil and religious liberties against their ene- 
mies, through the kingly power of the press. 
For years they had fought against British ty- 
rannies in Ireland. In this struggle for free- 
dom they engaged some of the brightest and 
most intelligent. of Erin's sons, many of whom 
afterward came to America. The soul of this 
movement was the Society of the United Irish- 
men, founded in 1791. The purpose of this 
celebrated organization was to unite Catholics 
and Protestants into one body devoted to the 

Digitized by 




jarliainentary reform of Ireland. The con- 
tributions of Emmet, Sampson, MacNevin and 
others to the leading newspaper of their na- 
tive land attracted universal attention. Mat- 
thew Carey, William Duane and others in 
America assisted the efforts of the parent so- 
ciety by their fearless advocacy of the doc- 
trines of the United Irishmen, and that in the 
face of a Federalist opposition which was be- 
ginning to manifest itsielf at that time. The 
Federalist press used every species of attack 
against these Irish associations. The neutral- 
ization of existing prejudices and the creation 
of_ a more favorable public opinion were the 
chief causes which prompted the establishment 
of Irish journals in which the affairs of that 
nation mi^t be truthfully stated. This need 
was met by_ the Irish Catholic weeklies pub- 
lished principally in the two great centres of 
population. New York and Philadelphia. With 
one or two exceptions the Irish newspapers, 
down to the year 1840, had an ephemeral and 
rather precarious existence. The Shamrock, 
or Hibernian Chronicle, was first issued on 15 
Dec. 1810. It suspended publication four times 
before it was finally discontinued. One of the 
most eventful years of this paper's career oc- 
curred when Rufus King, formerly Ambassador 
to England, was running for governor of New 
York. Thomas A. Emmet, on that occasion, 
came out openly in the press and attacked 
King with the overwhelming force of his clear 
and brilliant mind. In March 1816 a systematic 
exposition to King, headed by Ejnmet, swept 
through New Yonc. As these exiles of Enn 
smote this C»sar with their trenchant quills 
they sealed the political fate of one who had 
been an enemy in their fight for civil and re- 
ligious liber^. The power of Rufus King, the 
cunning aiid crafty adversary of the United 
Irishmen, was broken. It is true that he con- 
tinued in public life until 1826, but he was no 
longer "the first man in the country.' His at- 
titude toward the Irish while at the Court of 
Saint Tames was exposed by speeches, letters 
and e<btorials. Even his own corre^ndence 
was used against him with telling effect. He 
was defeated for the governorship of New 
York and in 1816 gave up the cherished am- 
otion of his Kfe, the hope of being the chief 
ruler of the nation. After the checkered ca- 
reer of the Shamrock, other papers began to 
appear in the great centres of population. The 
Globe and Emerald began publication in 1824 
in New York and Philadelphia respectively. 
Then came the Truth Teller with its long and 
interesting history (1825-53). In 1828 the Irish 
Shield and Monthly Milesian made a bid for 
patronage. Its editor entered tq>on a suicidal 
policy of i^rsistent attack on a paper already 
well established and accomplishing much good 
in Catholic circles. George Pepper be^me 
involved in a libel suit and left New York with- 
out a friend. He settled in Philadelphia, where 
he began the Irish Shield and Literary Pano- 
rama. This was followed in 1832 by the Patriot 
and Shield, and finally the same year there 
appeared the Republican Shield and Literary 
Observer. In 1831 another rival of the Truth 
Teller, called the Irish Advocate, was started. 
In its. race for favor the new paper claimed not 
to enter as an antagonist, but as a fair and 
honorable competitor. Yet in the course of 
events it soon became sppa,ivat that its jealous 

editor betrayed at times in his conduct the same 
picaroon instincts for _ detraction which had 
characterized the aspersions of the enfant terri- 
ble, the Irish Shield. Another ei^emeral jour- 
nal whose history is shrouded in obscurity was 
published in Charleston, S. C, in 1829. It 
was first known as the Irishman and Charleston 
Weekly Register, but it soon changed its name 
to the Irishman and Southern Democrat. The 
last Irish paper of this era, the Green Banner, 
started 3 Oct 1835, was a creature of 
circumstance, and in 1837 . on account of 
certain ecclesiastical di£ficulties its editor, 
Fadier Levins, was obliged to discontinue this 
otherwise ably-conducted journal. Certain 
other periodicals, national in their tendencies, 
were published during this period. Among 
these we must record the Michigan Essay and 
Impartial Observer, printed in 1809. This was 
the earliest effort in Catholic pioneer journal- 
ism. The little paper owes its origin to Father 
Gabriel Richard. This illustrious American 
missionary journeyed to Baltimore in 1808 and 
on that occasion purchased a printing press and 
a font of tjrpe. These he brought overland to 
Detroit, setting up his press at Spring Wells in 
the house of Jacques LaSalle. Many persons 
have claimed for this press the honor of being 
the first to be set up in the Northwest, but it is 
to be questioned whether it was the first in 
operation in Detroit itself, for there were 
proclamations issued to the people of this 
vicinity by Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton as 
early as the year 1777. The documents were 
dated at Detroit, showing presumably that they 
had been printed there. Strange to say, these 
were the only printed papers tMt-were, over a 
long stretch of years, credited to Detroit as the 
place of issue. Some have concluded that the 
lieutenant-governor's proclamations were 
dated from Detroit but printed elsewhere. 
Attother press was owned by Alexander and 
William Macomb, who received it from Eng- 
land in 1785, but there is no evidence that it 
was ever put in operation. The Michigan 
Essay was not, however, the first newspaper 
printed in the Northwest Various papers were 
already being printed in the territory before the 
year 1800. Cincinnati and Chtllicothe can boast 
of this means of enlightenment before 1809. In 
1824 a Spanish periodical appeared in Philadel- 
^ia under the strange appellation. El Habanero. 
This magazine was not professedly Catholic, 
but since it contained articles on ecclesiastical 
subjects and was conducted by a Catholic priest, 
the Very Rev. Padre Don Felix Varela, 
the journal may with propriety be classed 
among the contributions to early Catholic peri- 
odicaT literature. Father Varela figured con- 
spicuously for many years as a newspaper 
editor and controversialist In 1829 he wrote 
also for a magazine called El Mesmgero 
Semanal, conducted by Sefior Saco, in Philadel- 
phia. Tlie first strictly religious journal estab- 
'lished in this country in defense of Catholic 
doctrines was the United States Catholic Mis- 
cellany. It began on 5 June 1822. One may 
easily understand the need there was for this 
paper when one considers that Catholics in the 
newly founded diocese of Charleston were very 
few, and were scattered over the tcrritoiy 
which now embraces the three States of North 
Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.- At the 
period of the A.merican Revolution hardly a 

Digilteed by 




single Catholic lived in the whole extent of that 
country, and the people who inhabited this part 
of the South were wofully ignorant of Catholic 
doctrines and practices. Bishop England, the 
first editor of the Miscellany, was quidc to 
recognize the needs of Catholics in America. 
Among other things, he saw the secular press 
so filled with absurdities and misrepresentations 
concerning Catholicism that he felt himself 
obliged to take up the pen to answer some of 
these attacks against his religion. The prelate 
was certain that .if he could disarm the honest 
prejudices of the landed aristocracy in the 
CaroUnas he could soon find his way mto their 
esteem. Once the more independent classes of 
society were won over, he felt that little effort 
would be required to influence their less wealthy 
neighbors. Among the papers located in differ- 
ent parts of the United States which helped to 
defend the faith in these stormy times one 
might mention the Catholic Press, of Hartford 
(1829), the Jesuit and Catholic Sentinel and its 
successors in Boston in 1829, the New York 
Register and Catholic Diary (1832), the Shep- 
herd of the Valley, of Saint Louis (1832), the 
Catholic Herald of Philadelphia (1833), the 
Catholic Journal of Washington, D. C. (1833), 
the Catholic Advocate of Bardstown (1836), 
with its immediate precursor, the Minerva, and 
the Netu York Catholic Register (1839). 
Besides these there were four journals 
which were _ fortunate enough to survive the 
trials and vicissitudes of this exciting period, 
the Catholic Telegraph of Cincinnati (1831), 
Der IVahrheitsfreund (1837), the New York 
Freeman's Journal (1840), and the Ptiot of 
Boston (1837). 

In drawing this brief outline of the pioneer 
efforts of Catholic journalists we must not fail 
to notice the deleterious influence exercised by 
journals relying in a great measure on Catho- 
lic patronage, but whose editors made religion 
the medium through which much harm was 
done to the Catholic cause in America. During 
the year 1822, when the Hogan schism was at its 
height, the journals of Philadelphia vied with 
one another in catering to tUs unpleasant strife. 
The following papers were frequently em- 
ployed as organs by the schismatic Hoganites: 
the Democratic Press, the Aurora, the Afo- 
tional Gasette, the American Sentinel and Mer- 
cantile Advertiser and the Columbian Observer. 
Besides the virulent attacks on Catholics con- 
tained in the daily press, there were two weekly 
papers conducted by the Hoganites, which 
defended the position of that party with all the 
ability of which they were capable. These 
journals were called the CathoUc Herald and 
Weekly Register and the Erin. Of the former 
we know little, as there are but a few copies 
extant It was the chief or^gn of the schismat- 
ics and vras conducted by E. F. Crozet. The 
witches' cauldron in Macbeth was not filled with 
worse ingredients than might be found in the 
CathoUc Herald. So blasphemous was its tone 
tone toward Catholic matters generally that 
it must have even shocked the sltimbering 
consciences of the stubborn Hoganites. _ The 
Erin has been described in Finotti's ^Biblio- 
grraphia' as <'an angel's name with the devil's 
tong^ue.* Like every other Irish journal which 
appeared before or after it, this paper claimed 
to be a defender of the liberties of Irishmen 
against persecution. Combating this formidable 

array of discordant and biased journals, the 
(Catholics possessed one lone journal in Philadel- 

?ihia which battled gallantly, whUe it lasted, 
or truth and justice. It appeared for the first 
time on Saturday, 22 Feb. 1823, but after a few 
issues ceased publication. The whole disposi- 
tion of Catholic journalism during the first 
half of the 19th century seems to have been to 
promote the harmony of society by removing 
from the pathway of non-Catholics the ground^ 
less prejudices and prepossessions which had 
grown up into social barriers, due chiefly to 
the circulation of misrepresentations and calum- 
nies by the enemies of Catholicism in 
Europe and America, and the supineness of the 
Catholic body at large in the face of these 
fabrications. Until the year 1840 the genend 
policy of Catholic journaJisra was a defense of 
Catholicism by_ vigorous appeals to reason and 
dogmatic principles. The period was above all 
one of spirited controversy. Catholic doc- 
trines during the epoch were very imperfectly 
understood by those outside of the Church. 
There was a predisposition on the part of all 
sectarian and secular journals to misrepresent 
her doctrines in every conceivable way. After 
the year 1840 there began among the non- 
Catholics of the Istnd a formulation of better 
and clearer judgments, which result had been 
brought about largely by the successful con- 
flicts carried on ay Catholic journalists. The 
newspapers of this period give a contemporary 
view of the life and spirit of C^tholiasm in 
America. It will be impossible; within our 
space, to give any detailed information regard- 
ing the newspapers and magazines that have 
been founded since these pioneer days. At the 
present time there are being published 128 
newspapers, 128 magazines, 30 quarterlies, 2 
bi-weeldies, 9 bi-monthlies and 16 annuals. 
The State of New York leads in number of 
Catholic newspapers. The checkered careers of 
these papers only give us an idea of the trials 
and vicissitudes of editors elsewhere. In 1848 
Thomas D'Arcy McGee started The Nation but 
the editor soon precipitated a controversy with 
Archbishop Hughes who withdrew his sup- 
port from the paper and The Nation ceased 
after two years' existence. McGee's next ven- 
ture, the American Celt, had a rather unsettled 
career. It was published first in Boston, then 
in Buffalo and finally in New York. It was 
here purchased by D. and J. Sadlier who gave 
it the name of The Tablet. Quite a galaxy of 
famous editors at one time or other enlivened 
the columns of this journal. Dr. J. V. Hunt- 
ington, Bernard Doran Killian, Wm. Denman, 
Dr. O. A. Brownson, Dr. Henry J. Anderson, 
Lawrence Keoug^ and D. P. Oinyngfaam gave 
some of their best years in journalism to build 
up the prestige of this paper. During the 
course of the year 1859 the New York Free- 
man's Journal, conducted by James McMaster, 
gave Archbishop Hughes considerable trouble 
on account of the idiosyncracies of its editor. 
This necessitated the establishment of the 
MHropoUtan Record which continued tmtil 
1873. In the dying days of the Metropolitan 
Record there appeared in New York a pro- 

Sessive and practical journalist, Patrick V. 
ickey, who edited the Catholic Review until 
his death in 1889. At that time Dr. John 
Talbot Smith took up the work and gave to the 
journal those rare talents which have always 

Digitized by 


CATffOUC PIKB88 aif AltttlklCA 


distinguished his writings. In ISB6 the Cathotie 
News was founded by Hertnann Ridder. Dur- 
ing the first year of this paper's existence Dr. 
Jwin Gilmary Shea, the great Catholic his- 
torian, became its editor. Here in the ecfitorial 
sanctum of the News office. Dr. Shea closed a 
brilliant career and laid the foundations for 
that efficiency in editorial and business manage- 
ment which has characterized the efforts of his 
successors on this paper. The News is now 
under the editorial direction of Michael J. 
Madigan. Hie neighboring city of Brooklyn 
made several attempts in CatfaoHc journalism, 
most of which have been short lived. In 1883 
the CtMtolic Examiner was begun: This was 
followed t^ the Leader in tSM. Of more 
recent origin is The Tablet which is now the 
diocesan organ. The Catholic Union and Timet 
published in Buffalo has always been' under 
strong editorial management. The C<ttholie 
Union was started in 187^ by Rev. Louis A. 
Lambert, a man of vi^rous yet well-disciplined 
mind. The editorship later passed to Rev. 
Patrick Cronin who was a leader among the 
journalists of his day. CathcJic newspapers 
have also been established in other cities of 
New York State, principally in Albany and 
Syracuse. In Albany die earliest was the 
CathoKe Pioneer in 1853. All succeetKng ven- 
tures proved unsuccessful owing to a lade of 
support. In Syracuse during the second half 
of the 19th century, several attempts to main- 
tain Catholic weeklies ended in failure. The 
Catholic Reflector, the CothoKc Vindicator 
and the Catholic Sentinel, each had a feeble 
existence and ceased pnbKcation. At present 
the Catholic Snn is published there. In Phila-* 
delphia the need of a Catholic newspaper was 
felt more urgently than elsewhere on account 
of the canker-worm of trusteeisffi. This led to 
the establishment of the Catholic Herald in 
1833. Moreover the number of reli{[ious 
periodicals increased with such startling rapidity 
about the middle of the tMrd decade of the 
!9th century that very few denominations were 
without a weekly journal in which the^ could 
advance and defend their respective views of 
doctrine and church govemment. Needless to 
say, controversies arose on all sides' which 
became more bitter as time went on and tbese 
finally terminated in 1844 in bloodshed, arson, 
desecration and destruction of church property. 
In 1856 the Herald was consolidated with the 
Visitor, under the management of Tames 
McDonald, Charles S. Greene and Charles A. 
Repplier. It ceased publication about the end 
of the Civil War. Another Catholic .Herald 
was started in 1872 but did not long endure. 
In 1866 the Catholic Standard was first pub- 
lished. After a series of trials, such as was 
the lot of all newspapers of this period, this 
paper was amalgamated with a rival The Times', 
started by Rev. Louis A. Lambert in 1892. The 
new combination kno-wn as the Standard and 
Times, was brought about in 1895. To-day 
this is one of the most authoritative organs of 
Cadiolic opinion in America. The only other 
city in Pennsylvania which has contributed 
notably to Catholic journalism is Pittsburgh, 
The Pitttburgh Catholic was begun in 1844 by 
Bishop O'Connor. It has always been ably 
conducted' and it is one of the few early 
ioumals to brave the storms of adversity and 
Bas grown strong in the defense of Catbolidsm 

VOL. 6— 7 

suid its ideals. The snmmary of early New 
En^and journalism is but a panorama of the 
revivals of religious intolerance. Looking back 
upon the centuries of Puritan ascendency in- 
America, the desttendants of the Pilgrim 
Fathers had little to be proud of in their treat- 
ment of Catholics. As time went on, a little 
more toleration was practised but Roman Cath- 
olics wet« long regarded as the objects of 
Puritan (fistrust and their religion considered 
*8ubversive of sodetjr.* With the War of Inde- 
pendency the condition of Catholics began to 
improve but in Boston the admonition of Gen- 
eral Washington was required to calm the pas- 
sions and the prejucKces of its populace. For 
years there lingered within the confines of the 
Puritan- heart mistrust and apprehension of the 
Catholic religion. After the framing of the 
constitution they threw all their prestige into 
the Federalist party and succeeded in electing 
John Adams. Hardly had he gained power 
than, listening to their promptings, the Congress 
Mssed the celebrated Alien and Sedition laws. 
These imprudent measures caused the hordes 
of immigrants that flocked to .America to sedc 
refuge in the ranks of their opponents, the 
Jeffersonian or Republican party. To crown 
dieir perfidy as a political organization, the 
FtederaK&ts in 1814, through die Hartford Con- 
vention, called a protest against the War of 
1812 and recommended that, "naturalized 
foreip^ners should be debarred from member- 
sldp in Congress and from all civil offices under 
the United States.* Such in brief, forms, as it 
were, the historic backeround of Catholic jour- 
nalism in New England. 

Boston, being the diief metropolis of New 
England, presented a fair field for the Catholic 
journalist As early ' as the year 1829 the 
fesirit or Catholic Sentinel was established. 
This lasted under various names until 1836. 
During the course of seven vears this journal 
had the foHo'win^ titles: The Catholic Intel- 
ligencer, die Jesutt, die Irish and Catholic Senti- 
nel, Literary and Catholic Sentinel and the 
Boston Pilot In 1837 it suspended publication 
and after some months Patnck Donahue sum- 
moned up sufficient courage to give Catholic 
J'oumafism in New Enprland anodier trial. The 
't/o/ 'was the name grven to the new journal 
It was at first a national, rather than a religious 
paper. ^ The- Irish of New England read it be- 
cause it containel news from Ireland. They 
helped to build up the circulation of die Pilot. 
In 1842 Thomas D'Arcy McGee, whose brilliant 
talents were but in their dawn, became the 
editor. Another editor of some note was Rev. 
Father Finnotti, who assumed charge in 1852, 
but his diary states that he had no great love 
for Patrick Donahue, the publisher. In 1870 
the Pilot w»s fortunate in obtaining the serv- 
ices of one who has done more to elevate 
Catholic journalism from mediocrity than ai^ 
one preceding him, John Boyle O'Reilly. His 
genius as a writer was recognized both by the 
religious and secular press and the influence, 
therefore, of the Pilot became nation-wide. 
Two editors that maintained the high standard 
set by O'Reilly were James J. Roche and 
Katherine CoU'way. Among the numerous other 
papers that soon foUoweif the Pilot, w6 may 
mention the Catholic Observer (1847), edited 
tnr Orestes A. Brownson, the Republic in 1881, 
Saered Heart Retiew (1888), ConntetictU 

Digitized by 




Catholic in 1876 which afterward became the 
djiocesan organ with the name of the Catholit 
Transcript. Another well'edited New Elngland 
.p^per is the Providence Visitor. Scattered 
throu^out. the South various newspapers have 
from time to time been published, most of 
them being forced to suspend publication after 
a few yeap of precanous existence.. The 
Catholic Mxrr or of Baltimore, started in 1849, 
had considerable influence before the Civil War. 
but after that time its prestige waned 
altho^^ the paper was issued until 1908. 
The Catholic Guardian, of Louisville, began in 
1858 but lasted only four years. _ The, Catholic 
Advocate of earlier days was revived in Louis- 
ville under the name of the Central Catholic 
Advocate. In 1896 it consolidated with the 
Midland Review but despite the combined cir- 
culation and the services of the versatile editor, 
Charles J. O'Malley, it died after four years. 
In New Orleans the Morning Star was cdn*- 
ducted by Rev. Abram Ryan and Tallies R. 
Randall, two poets of considerable ability. In 
Memphis the Southern Catholic (1874) sus- 
pended and gave place to the Catholic Journ(U. 
At Saint Louis the IVestem WatchmtM (.186S) 
has survived mainly through the personalty of 
Rev. D. S. Phelan, who, like McMaster of the 
Freemcm's Journal, was a free lance in Cathr 
olic journalism. In Ohio, the Catholic Universe 
established in 1874, and the Catholic Columbian 
(1875), as well as the Catholic Record of 
-Toledo (1905), are still doing excellent serv- 
ice for Catholicism. The earliest venture of 
Catholic journalism in Illinois occurred in 1852 
when the Western Tablet was started in Chi- 
cago. Several feeble efforts were without suc- 
cess until the New World was established in 
1892, -with Charles J. O'Malley as editor, reach* 
ing^ the acme of its greatness under his super- 
vision. In 1_895 the Western Catholic was 
started at Quincy, III., and is still being pubr 
lished. In recent years Indiana bas established 
two newspapers, the Indiana Catholic, under 
the able editorship of J. P. O'Mahony, and 
Our Sunday Visitor, published by Rev, Dr. 
NolL This latter journal has done much in 
allaying persecution and in, counteracting the 
influence of anti-Catholic journals. Its cir« 
culation at the present time is by far the 
largest of any Catholic journal in the United 
States. Our Sunday Visitor has a circulation 
of close to 2,000,000. The interesU of the arch- 
diocese of Detroit are looked after chiefly by 
the Michigan Catholic. 

. Within the last quarter of a century many 
journals have appeared in several States beyond 
the Mississippi. There are onlv two that ante- 
date that period that are still oein^ published; 
The San Francisco Monitor begun in 1852, and 
the Catholic Sentinel of Portland (1870). The 
following is a list of the journals that are~ still 
being published: The Intermountain Catholit 
(1899), Catholic Tribune of Dubuque (1899), 
True Voice (1903), Catholic Register of Kansas 
City (1899), San Francisco Leader (1892), 
Catholic Herald of Sacramento (1908), Tidings, 
of Los Angeles (1895). 

, The early efforts in magazine editing met 
with the same discouragements that the news- 
pai>er men experienced. The first quarterly 
review .of any kind to be started in the United 
States (The American Review of History and 
Politics) — was edited by Robert Walsh. .« 

Catholic duriag the year 1811-12. In 1819 a 
magazine was begun, known as the Globe. This 
was the outgrowth of the Shamrock or Hiber- 
nian Chronicle. It is doubtful whether there 
are voy numbers of it extant. The Metro- 
politan started in- 1830 and was the first Cath- 
olic magazine, strictly so called. It was filled 
with bright gems ■■ oi Catholic scholarship and 
had all the claims to immortality but one — 
patronage. . . Consequently the monthly was 
allowed to perish after a brief existence o{ 
only one year. Another magazine by the same 
name was started in 1853 but shared tho 
same fate. A juvenile magazine was 
founded in 1835 . in New York city, 
known as . the Children's Catholic Maga- 
tiite. Only, one similar venture had pre- 
ceded it, a weekly called the Exposiulator pub- 
lished in 1830 under the same auspices as The 
Jesuit in Boston, In the establishtnent pf the 
ChHdr*n's Catholic Magaeine, the editor was 
but following the example of other denomina- 
tions. It vas observed that these jonmals had 
increased nearly tenfold in a decade and that 
these periodicals were being liberally patronised 
and most extensively circulated. Even the most 
tnediocre could claim 5,000 patrons while some 
of the better class of children's magazines had 
more than 30/)00. The Children's Catholic 
Maffogine had 13,000 subscribers. Due to poor 
management it lasted only two years and then 
suspended publication and was later revived 
under _ the name of the Young Catholic/ 
Moffasine. In 1842 another monthly magazine 
was started in Baltimore called the Religious 
Cabinet. At the end of one year its name was 
changed to the , United States Catholic Maga- 
gine. This , review was discontinued in 1^7, 
It had as hs contributors some of the best 
Catholic thinkers of that time, both lay and 
clerical. Brownson's Quarterly Review was 
published in 1844, suspended in 1864, revived in 
1873 and finally ceased in 1875. Dr. Orestes A 
Brownson was a man of great erudition and a 
scholar of national reputation. He attracted 
many readers to his review. Catholics and non- 
Catholics alike regarded him as the best philo- 
sophical thinker of his time in America The 
Catholic World, a monthly magazine, was 
started in 1865 by Father Hecker, founder of 
the Paulist Fathers. This review is sow re- 
garded as one of the most conservative and 
authoritative Catholic ioumals in the United 
States. Its pr^tige nas grown to such, a 
degree, that it u consulted by all religious 
denominations. Another weekly periodical, thf 
Ave Maria, started just one year later, being 
founded by Father Serin of the Congregation 
of the Holy Cross, Notre Dame, Ind. This 
magazine enjoys a very high literary, reputation 
and has perhaps the widest circulation of aiiy 
Catholic mappazine in the United States, ft 
has readers in every part of Christendom. Its 
staff of contributors are some of the best and 
most representative Catholic writers in Europe 
and America. In this same year The Messen* 
■ger of the Sacred Heart was founded by the 
Jesuits. This was supplemented by another 
magazine more literary in character called The 
Metsenger. In 1910 it was replaced by 
America, a progressive wedcly journal that 
immediately bei^me a leader in Catholic 
opinion and now enjoys a national reputation. 
Tbti American Catholic Quarterly Revieit 

Digitized by 




begatn in 1876 and is another bigh class periodi- 
cal occupying a place similar to Broumsan's 
Quarterly, during the middle of the 19tfi cen- 
tury. It afiords a medium whereby Catholk 
erudition and scholarship finds expresaioft. The 
following reviews are of more recent origin: 
Rosary Magaaine (1891), Beuaiger's Magaem* 
(1896),, Exteruian Magaaine (1907), CatkoKc 
Fortnightly Rtvierv, Saint Vincent de Patd 
Quarterly, and Saint John's Quarterly. In the 
rast 50 years many magazines with a more 
limited scope have been founded. Some havt 
succeeded, others have failed. The Ecclesiasiicol 
Review vaA the Homiletic Monthly are two 
professioBal mag^a^ines for the clergy^ Sincft 
1911 the Catholic Educational Revievu has done 
excellent service in its particular field. Another 
publication thkt looks after' the interests of 
primary and secondary education is the Catl^- 
olic School Journal. CatheUc history his beea 
preserved through the eflForts of contributors 
to the Amerioait Catholic Historical Researches, 
Records of the Atnerican Cathoke Historical 
Society of Philadelphia, Records and Studies 
of the United States CathoHe Historical So^- 
ctety and retently there iUa& added another 
quarttrly called, the Catholic Historical Review, 
ptrf>lished at the CatboUc UniversHy of America 
Another product of the sciK^arship of the 
same university is a new mooilily periodical, 
the Catholic Charities Review. Among those 
that failed we may emitnerate the D« La Salle 
Monthly (1867), later changed tp the Man- 
hattan Monthly, the Young Crusader (1868), 
the Catholic Record of Philadelldiia (1871), 
Central Magaaine of Saint Louid (1672), Dona- 
hue's Maqdtine (1878), Catholic Reading Circle 
Review, iiosher's Magaeine, The Dolphin, the 
New York Review (1905), aod the Globe Re- 
view^. ■ ■ 

As we take a retrospect of the whole history 
of (Catholic joumaUtm we are confronted wiut 
the eveivrecurring failures, doe in large meas- 
ure to a lack of patronage; From this observa- 
tion we are led to inquire why Catholics haye 
not more generously supported the Catholic 
newwaper. The reason is not far to seek, for 
the Catholic laity in the past has not been a 
reading people. There are two elements neces- 
sary for the cultivation of enlightened expres- 
sion on problems of the day. First, we must 
have a thinking people to create sound opinion. 
Secondly, we must have a means of dissemi- 
nating it among others. There are leaders in 
all communities who must be moulders. of the 
best thought. There are also master minds 
who must analyze it and separate the gold from 
the dross. With no man thinking or leading, 
generations creep their course and die. One of 
the ideals, therefore, of Catholic journalism 
b to, develop the Catholic mind along correct 
principles. The Catholic press is needed to 
defend the right, to advance the truth, to main- 
tain order, morality, intelligence and culture 
'among the, adherents of the Church. There is 
no reason in the world why this high moral and 
intellectual tonecatmot be developed to its full- 
est in Catholic journalism. The production of 
genuine Catholic taste and genius is- even more 
posable now than it ever was in the past. 
Spiritual indolence, mental inertia and indiffer- 
ence are the only obstacles to its success. - It 
was the journalistic genius of John Boyle 
O'Reilly that made the Boston Pilot in his day 

the greeitest Catholic newspaper in Ainerica. It 
was the classic style and polished diction of 
Bishop England that perplexed his most clever 
antagonists and compelled them at the end of 
their controversies with him to admire his can- 
dor, his matchless courage, his firmness and 
gentleness of character. It was the persuasive- 
ness and mental acuteness in the writings o| 
Archbishop Hu£[hes that vanquished the yellow 
journalists of his time and covered them with 
shame and confusion. It was the keen and 
analytic mind of Orestes A. Brownsoq, the 
philosopher, that commanded the spontaneous 
respect of the, intellectual leaders of his age. 
But the Catholic press, through the prestige of 
such thinkers as tnes^ has even a broader aim- 
It would hare its ethical influence extended to 
and absorbed by American journalism in gen- 
eral. History has taught that public morality 
i» a condition to any national life. When a 
nation ceases to esteem and practise the virtues 
of truthfulness, honesty, integrity and justice, 
it does not deserve to live. Our government 
requires a higher plane of public morality than 
does despotism or moharchy. It is' within our 
mean's to make a success of popular govern- 
ment by formulating principles which regen- 
erate and strengthen the body of ethical, truth, 
by the development of correct sentiments in the 
■press. In, this effort the thinking people of 
the Catholic Church, the most powerful numeri- 
cally m the United States, can exercise a tre- 
mendous influence fhrougn the service of the 
Catholic newspaper as a directing force. Very 
many people get firm convictions hy habitually 
reading a certain journal. Great then is tlie 
moral Influence of the press for good or evil. 
Our nijodern lif« mirrors the journal more 
effectively than news columns reflect life. This 
IS no place for an indictment of the daily press. 
It is sufficient to say that our metropolitan, 
newspapers of to-day devote, over half of their 
first _ page to scandals. Suicides, divorce pro- 
ceedings, rtjbberies, murders and other abomi- 
nable social barbarities. If this' is evidence of 
the moral d(;cadence of our democracy, then 
there is a clear dutv for all of us. The failures 
we see on every side are due largely to the fact 
that few think of their vocation as being valB>- 
ble chiefly as the means of mental and moral 
improvement. We would remind the journalist 
that his office is one of public trust His moral 
mission in society is to instruct or direct the 
masses, but to accomplish this he must practise 
and pursue a sound moral policy. We ask for 
editors strong, upright men, whose rery utter- 
ance b the touchstone of a moral mind. 

Here, then, is our ideal. We know that in 
the past men like John Boyle O'Reilly, Bishop 
England, Archbishop, Hughes and Orestes A. 
Brownson gave a stimulus and a prominence 
•to Catholic journalism that reflected itself in a 
national way. They compelled recognition and 
•respect from Horace (rfeeley, Henry Jarvis 
-Raymond, James (jordon Bennett and a score 
of other prominent newspaper men. John 
Bojrle. O'Reilly perhaps did more to clear away 
prejudices than any other e<Utor of his day. He 
must be reg^ded as the premier Catholic jour^ 
nalist of the 19th centurv. The needs : of 
. Catholic journalism in our day dcnpiand that we 
roust secu^'e the best journalistic ability and pay 
well for it. If the Catholic press is to measure 
;up to the i4eal'set, if it is to b^ ^ mighty powqr 

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for good, the co-operation of the laity is neces- 
sary. The past has demonstrated that without 
this eenerous assistance there can be no great 
standard of excellence, no great measure of 
success. It has been also the mediocrities of 
Catholic journalism that have hindered its 
growth and development. This need no longer 
Be so. Three Catholic imiversities, Notre 
Dame, Fordham and Marquette, have during 
the past decade established schools of journal- 
ism, where young men may be trained in sden- 
tific, cultural, professional and ethical ways that 
will enable them to stand in the front rank of 
editorship. The Catholic laity must in the 
future respond to the leadership of the schol- 
arly and experienced journalist. Thw must 
|)ay for this nigh moral and intellectual^ worth 
if Catholic journalism is to accompli^ its 

Biblio^praphjr. — ^List of Catholic periocn- 
cals published in the United States* (Reprint 
from the Records of the Catholic Historical 
Society) ; 'Pioneer Efforts in Catholic Journal- 
ism in ue United States,' by the author of this 
article; 'Michigan Pioneer and Historical Col- 
lection'; Finotti, Joseph M., 'Bibliographia 
Catholica Americana,' 'American Catholic His- 
torical Researches' ; 'Records of American 
Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia'; 
'Records and Studies of the United States 
Catholic Historical Society of New York' ; 
'Catholic Encyclopedia' ; 'Vida del Presbiter 
Don Padre Felix Varela'; Lives of Arch- 
bishop Hu^es, Orestes A. Brownson John 
Boyle O'Reilly, James Gordon Bennett, Heniy 
Jarvis Raymond, Horace Greeley, etc.: Hud- 
son, 'Historjr of Journalism' ; 'Journal of the 
American Irish Historical Society' ; Files of 
Catholic Newspapers and Magazines found at 
Georgetown University, Library of Cotigress, 
■ and Catholic Reference Library and Catholic 
Archives of America, at Notre Dame, Ind. 
Paul J. Foik, C.S.C, 
Librarian, Notre Dame Omversity. 

seminary is generally applied to institutions 
where candidates for the diocesan priesthood in 
the Catholic Church receive their spiritual and 
intellectual training. Preparatory departments 
(Petite Seminaire) are sometimes found in the 
same building, but the term is generally applied 
in the United States to those institutions which 
admit only those applicants who have com- 
pleted the collegiate course. 

Saint Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, Md., was 
the first American Catholic seminary. It was 
founded at the request of Bishop Carroll, who 
secured from Father Emery in 1/91 four priests 
of the Society of Saint Sufpice, which had been 
established in Paris by Father Olier in 1642 for 
the express purpose.of training young men for 
the priesthood. For many years it was the only 
institution of its kind in the United States, and 
consequently it supplied to the ranks of the 
clergy the vast majority of native trained 
priests. At present there are about 250 semi- 
narians at Saint Mary's. In 1805 it was raised 
by the Maryland legislature to the rank of a 

In Saint Charles Theological Seminary, Over- 
brook, Pa.; the aspirants to the priesthood for 
the archdiocese of Philadelphia are trained. 
In 1835 Bishop Kenrick placed five ecclesiastical 

sttufents under the care of his brother. Rev. 
Peter Kenrick; in a little house on the comer 
of Fifth and Prune (now Locust street), Phila'- 
delphia. This was the humble beginning of the 
present magnificent establishment. A prepara- 
tory department was begun in 1859 at Qen Rid>- 
dle over which the present Bishop Shanahan of 
Harrisburg presided for nine years. This instit- 
tution passed out of existence when, in 1871, the 
students to the number of 128 took possession 
of the present building at C>verbrook, which 
had been erected bjr Bishop Wood. For the 
maintenance of this institution the Catholics of 
Philadelphia contribute annually about ^S,000i 
There are approximatdy 100 seminarists at 
Overbrook; 15 professors and a library of 
25,000 volumes. 

Saint Joseph's Seminary, the Aeological 
seminary for the archdiocese of New Yonc, is 
located at Valentine Hill, near Dunwoodie, a 
station on the Putnam di^sion of the N. Y. C 
Railroad, and within the city Kmits of Yonloers. 
It was founded by the late Archbishop Corrigan 
and constructed at a cost of nearly $1,000,000. 
It was opened in September 1896 and was at 
first tmoer the direction of the Sulpidans. 
The full course of study comprises six years, 
two of which are devoted to philosophy, the 
remaining four to theology. The faculty com- 
prises 13 regular professors and a few instruct- 
ors, and the students (who are not admitted 
until they have completed a classical college 
course) nui^iber abou. 161, nearly all from the 
archdiocese of New York. This institution has 
taken the place of the old provincial seminaiy 
of Saint Joseph, at Troy, N. Y. 

Mount Saint Mary's Theolo^cal Seminary, 
Emmetsburg, Md., was founded in 1808 by Rev. 
Du Bois during the episcopate of Bishop 
Carroll of Baltimore, and in the following year 
16 young aspirants to holy orders were brought 
hither from Pigeon Hill, Pa. In 1810 the col- 
les[e had 40 pupils, and as a more commodioos 
buildipg had been erected, the founder gave to 
Mrs. Seton the log house, which thus became the 
cradle of the great community of the Sisters of 
Charity in the United States. United to the 
seminary is the college department, wherein 
regular classical and scientific studies are pur- 
sued. There are 18 regular professors, several 
assistant teachers and over 332 students. 

Saint Paul Seminary, Groveland Park, Minn., 
together with the C<^lege of Saint Thomas, 
Merriam Park, was founded by Most Rev. 
John Ireland, the present archbishop of Saint 
Paul. They are the result of the generosity of 
T. J. Hill, late president of the Northern Pacific 
Railroad, are located within a few miles of the 
city, have maintained a high grade of scholar- 
ship from the beginning and are directly affili- 
ated with the Catholic University in Washing- 
ton. At present there are 131 students and 12 
professors in the seminary proper ; in the college 
368 students and 17 professors. 

Niagara University (formerly Seminaty of 
Our Lady of Angels), founded by Rev. John 
Lynch of the Congregation of the Mission, a 
communit}; organized by Saint Vincent de Paul 
in France in 1625. Father Lynch, the first presi- 
dent, who afterward became the first archbishop 
of Toronto, in 18S6 opened an institution on the 
lake shore near Buffalo, but finding the place 
not quite suited for the purpose, he removed in 
1857 to the present site on the New York bank 

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«{ ilK Niagara Riv«r, about four pMet aordi of 
the great cataract The uoiversity owns 300 
acres ; numbers about 200 students, 60 o£ whom 
are in the seminaiy, and has a faculty of 20. 
Its library contains 13X)00 volumes. The 
grounds and buildings have a value of over 
$500,000. The institution was incorporated 
under the title of tbe College and Seminary of 
Our Lady of Angels by an act of the legislature 
of the Sute of New York in 1863, and in 1883 
it was erected into a university with full aowen 
and authority under the present title of Niagara 
University, by the regents of the State of New 

Saint John's Exdesiastical Seminary for the 
Boston archdiocese, located at Brighton, a 
charming suburb^ and now tmder direction of 
diocesan ckrg:|r, was placed by its fowider. 
Archbishop Williamsj under the direction of 
SuliHcian Fathers, assisted here, as in Baltimore 
and New York, by professors taken from the 
ranks of the diocesan clergy. In the two depart- 
ments, philosoiilUcal and Uieological, there are 
12 professors and 100 students. 

There are about 85 seminaries in die United 
States, wherein 4,000 diocesan . students and 
members of religious communities are trained 
for the priesthood. In Europe two institutions 
are maintained t^ the American bishops for 
the training of Ajnerican students, the Amen 
can College in Rome, and another at Louvain. 

AMERICA, a school for higher education es- 
tablished by the Roman Catholics at Plattsburg, 
U. Y., on Lake Champlain. It was organized in 
1892, and met at various places before the pres- 
ent site was decided upon. In 1893 ,the regents 
of the University of the State of "New York 
granted a charter by which this school became 
a legal corporation, and was dassiiied in the 
system of public instruction devoted to univer- 
sity extension. By this charter certain advan- 
tages are acquired by summer-school students 
who wish to prepare fof the regents' or State 
examinations. The object of the school is to 
increase facilities for those who wish to pursue 
Hues of study in various departments of knowl- 
edge. Opportunities for instruction are provided 
by lectures from eminent speoaUsts. Courses 
are given in philosopfay, anthropology, history, 
literature, ethics, science, pedagogy, sociotognr 
and religion. Tne school is beautifidly located, 
and though not far from the principal summer 
hotel on Lake Champlain, has its own cottage 
accommodations, a club or casino for social re- 
unions, its lecture halls and local book store. 
The jdace is an ideal summer resort and at- 
tracts many friends of education, both Roman 
Catholic and Protestant, during the school 

Another summer school, the Colmnbian 
Catholic Summer School, assembled at Madi- 
son, Wis., in July 1898, with lecturers from 
Washington, D. C, and other centres of educa- 
tional work. In 1901 it removed to Saint Paul, 
Minn., and adopted the name of the American 
Catholic Chautauqua. 

UNION OF AMERICA, a confederation of 
all the Catholic total abstinence orgatuzations 
in this country. It believes that the virtue of 
temperance is a religious virtue, to be cultivated 
Dy religiotts metliods. The mcmberdiip, amountx 

iag in the year 1910 to nearly WOlflOO, includai 
women's and juvenile organizations, as well as 
men's societies. While the Union urges men to 
become total abstainers, it does not hold that 
drijok is an evil in itself, or that the use of it is 
wrong, but that the use of it is for many the 
proximate occasion of sin; and that by such 

fersons drink should be abandoned altogether. 
t does not assert that all goodness and virtue 
are in total abstinence, but it does hold that 
total abstinence is a powerful preventive of 
social disorder and sin. Tlie office of die gen- 
eral secretary of the Union is in the house of 
the Paulist Faldhers in New York. The Union 
publishes for circulation numerous pamphlets 
on the subject of total abstinence. 

ICA, The, an institution for higher education 
maintained by the Catholic Church in the 
United States and located at Washin^on, D. C. 
"The need of a university in which instruction 
should be given and research conducted in 
all the departments of knowledge, under Cath- 
olic auspices, was recognized by the bishops 
assembled in the Second Plenary Council of 
Baltimore (1866); -and the establishment of 
such an institution was resolved upon in the 
Third Plenaiy Coundl (1884). Pope Leo XIII 
in 1887 approved the project and granted the 
pontifical charter iy the Apostolic Letter 
•Magni noUs ga.udii» of 7 March 1889. The 
university was incorporated tmder the laws 
of the District of Ck>lumbia, and the city of 
Washington was selected as the site. The 
first endowment ($300,000) was contributed by 
Miss Mary Gwendoline C^dwell of Newport^ 
R. I. The Rt Rev. John J. Keane, then 
bishop of Richmond, Va., was designated as 
rector of the university. In November 1889. 
academic work was inaugurated in the School 
of the Sacred Sciences, lihe Schools of Philos- 
ophy and Social Science were opened in 1895 
and their departments were subsequently reor- 
ganized in the Schools of Law, Philosophy. 
Letters and Sciences. 

The "organic law* of the university is 
embodied in the constitution, which was 
approved by the Holy See in 1889. It provides 
mat the bishops of the United States shaU 
have plehacy authority in all matters pertain- 
ing to organization, instruction or discipline. 
TUs authority is exercised by a board of 
trustees composed of bishops, priests and lay- 
men, who may elect new members and nil 
vacancies in the board. The chancellor, as the 
representative of the Holy See, presides at the 
meetings of the trustees. Subject to the author- 
ity of the trustees, the immeduite government 
of the university is placed in the hands of the 
rectm;^ assisted by the academic senate. The 
ex officio members of the senate are the rector^ 
the vice-rector, the general secretary, the 
deans of the faculties and the presidents of 
university colleges. In addition, each faculty 
elects two delegates to serve in the senate for 
two years. 

The senate acting with the rector has com- 
petency in matters pertaining to the methods 
of instruction, the ^pointment of associate pro- 
fessors and examinations for degrees. It pro- 
poses to the board of trustees such measures 
as may seem advantageous for the develop- 
ment of the university and it recommends to 

Digitized by 




die cHaAcellor successful candidates foi* 

The work of each school is in charge of a 
faculty composed of professors appointed by the 
board of trustees. The school comprises vari- 
ous departments in which courses are given by 
professors, associate professors, instructors 
and occasional lecturers. The faculty elects 
its officers — dean, vice-dean and secretary — 
and two delegates to the senate. It has a con- 
sultative voice in reg^ard to the appointment or 
removal of professors, and, subject to the 
decision ' of the senate^ draws up or revises 
courses of study, examines candidates for de- 
grees and makes recommendations for the 
development of the school. The teaching staff 
for 1916-17 includes 32 priests and 47 laymen. 

The revenues of the -university are derived 
from endowments, donations for special pur^ 
poses, tuition fees and annual collections taken 
up in each diocese of the .United States. A 
detailed statement of the receipts and expendi- 
ture is published yearly in the rector's report. 
In_1916 there were 20 endowed chairs, 4 fellow- 
ships, 37 scholarsliips and 50 graduate scholar- 
slups, the last named being the foundation of 
the Knights of Columbus (1914). The terms 
of award of these endowments for the assist- 
ance of students are published in the *Year- 
Book^ of the university. 

The student body includes clerics and lay- 
men, the former representing the diocesan 
clergy and the religious orders. According to 
the registration lists for 1916-17, the university 
enrolled 564 students, 131 clerics, 429 lay. 

The courses offered by the School of the 
Sacred Sciences are for graduates onl^r, i.t., 
for students who have completed both their Qol- 
legiate studies and the usual course (five years) 
01 the theological seminary. In other schools, 
some of the courses are for graduates only, but 
most of them are open to undergraduates, Le., 
to students who have completed a four years 
high school course. Students who apply for 
admission without certtAcate of previous study 
must take. an examination in accordance with 
tit requirements of the college entrance exami- 
nation board. 

Grouped about the university are the 
houses of study of the religious orders : the 
Paulists, Marists, Fathers ofthe Holy Cross, 
Franciscans, Sulpicians, Dominicans, Brothers 
of Mary, Carmelites, Oblates and Missionaries 
of Divine Love. Each order maintains a col- 
lege which is open only to members of the! 
order, and in which courses of instruction are 
given with special reference to the needs of the 
students and their training aS religious. For 
advanced courses^ these students attend the 
university. Other institutions affiliated with 
the universitv are the Saint Paul Seminary, 
Saint Paul, Minn.; the Institute of Scientific 
Study, New York city; Mount Saint Mary's 
Seminary of, the West, Gncinnati, Ohio ; and 
the Apostolic Mission House, Washington, 
D. C. 

The Catholic Sisters College (50 students), 
established in 1911, receives only members of 
female religious communities who desire to 
prepare for the work of teaching. The courses 
of instruction are given by professors from the 
university and the requirements for degrees are 
the same as those prescribed for candidates 
within the university. 

Trinity College (256 students), founded fai 
1897, has for its purpose the hi^ier education 
of women. It is conducted i^ the Sisters of 
Notre Dame of Namur and is affiliated witb 
the university, some of the courses being given 
by university instructors. 

Since 1911 summer courses have been gives 
by the university at Washington and since 
1914 at Dubuque, Iowa. They are followed by 
members of the teaching communities and b]r 
lay teachers, the average attendance being 600< 

In 1912 the university adopted a plan for the 
affiliation of colleges and high schools. Thi 
course of study in the affiliated institution 
must be approved by the university which also 
sets the examination. At present 10 colleges 
and 112 high schools are affiliated. 

The publications that issue from the univep* 
sity are: The Catholic University. Bulletin'; 
The Catholic Educatiottai Revieyu; The Corput 
Seriptorum Christianorum Orientalium; Tht 
Catholic Historical Review and The Catholic' 
Charities Revievi. 

Bibliography. — Becker, <Plan for the Pro- 
posed Caaolic University' (in American Cath- 
olic Quarterly Review. 1876, p. 6SS) ; Hewitt, 
♦The Catholic University of America' (in Cath-^ 
olic World, xlii, 223) ; Keane, «The Catholic 
University of America and its Constitutions'. 
(in Catholic World, xlix, 427) ; Mulvany, <Thfi 
Catholic University of America' (in American 
Catholic Quarterly Review, July 1903) ; Shaban, 
'The House of God' (New York, 1905, 9- 
326); id, <The Catholic University of 
America, 1889^1916' (in Catholic World, June 

Edward A. Pace, 
Professor of Philosophy, Catholic University of 

TIONAL UNION, an association orraniaed 
in 1875, for the fttrtherance of by Roman 
Qitholic unity and the moral advancement of 
its members. The means relied on for accom- 
plishing its object are practical fulfilment by 
the individual members of the obligations itor 
posed bpr their religion; fraternal union of all 
associations that aim in any way at the spiritual, 
intellectual and moral improvement of Catholic 
young men, and the privilege assured to each 
member of being[ received as a guest t>y any 
society in the Umon, or as a member by transn 
fer. The Third Plenary Council of the Bjomait 
Catholic Church of the United States, held at 
Baltimore, thus expressed approval of the 
Union in its pastoral letter: *In order to ac- 
knowledge the great amount of good that the 
C. Y. M. N. U. has already accomplished 
... we cordially bless their aims and endeav- 
ors, and we recommend the Union to all Roman 
Gimolic young men.'' With this association 
originated in 1892 the successful summer school 
session now annually held at Cliff Haven, on 
the shores of Lake Champlain, near PlattsburgEi 

CATHRBIN, ka-trtn', Victor, Swiss 
Jesuit writer and sociologist: b. Brig, Canton 
Wallls, Switzerland, 8 May 1845. He was edu- 
cated at the Brig gymnasiuni and at various 
Jesuit scholasticates. He entered the Society of 
Jesus in 1863 and in 1867-69 was professor o£ 
Getman at the Belgian colleges of Antwerp 
and Verviers. Daring the Franco-Prassiaii' 

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War «f' 187&;71 he wais «nga^4' in cAtHigiot 
wotinded French soldiers at CobleAz. In t8C^ 
he was expelled from Germany by law against 
the Jesuits, and wba ordained to tne priestlyood 
in 1877. From 1879 to 1882 he was on the staff 
of Stimmen ohs Maria-Loach, and from 1882 
to 1912 was successively professor of ethics at 
the Jesuit scholasticates of Blyenbeck Eacaten 
and_ Valkenburg, Holland He wro^c *Die 
englische Verfassung^ (1881) : 'Die Aufgaben 
der Staatsgewalt und ihre Grenaen' (1882; 
lOth ed, 1915) ; 'Die Sittenlehre des Darwinjs- 
mus; eine Kritik der Etbik Herbert Spencers* 
(1885); <Moralphilosophie> (2 vols, 1891; Sth 
ed., 1911); <Der Sozialismus> (1890; lOtfa edL, 
1910) ; <Das Privatgrundeigentum und seine 
Gegner> (1892; 4th ed, 1909); <Philosophia 
moralis in usum scholarum' (1893; 10th ed, 
191S); <Kirche unde Volksschule> (1896); 
'Durch Atheismus ziun Anarchismus' (1895; 
2d ed, 1900) ; *Recht, Naturrecht imd positives 
Recht> (190O; 1909) ; 'Glauben und Wissen' 
(1901; 5th ed, 1911); <Die Grundbegriiie des 
Strafrechts> (1905); < Die Frauenf rage' (1901; 
3d ed, 1900) ; 'Religion und Moral, oder gibt 
es eine Moral ohne Gott?' (1902; 2d ed, 19(H) ; 
'Die katholische Weltanschauung' (4th ed, 
1914), and contributions to perioaioals. 

CATILINS (Lucius Sekgius Cathina), 
Roman statesman : b. about 108 b.c. ; d. Pfstoia 
5 Jan. 62 B.C. Of jatridan birth, but poor, he 
attached himself to the cause of Stdla. had 
some share in his success, and still more m his 
proscriptions. Murder, rapine and conflagra- 
tion were the first deeds and ^easitrrs of his 
youth. He appears to have served In the army 
with reputation. Sallust, who has written the 
history of his conspiracy, describes him as 
having a constitution that could support hunger« 
cold, fatigue and want of sleeps to almost «riy 
limit; with a spirit bold cunning, fruitful in re- 
sources: lusting after the wealth of others 
prodigal of his own ; a man o£ fiery ji^ssions, 
out limited judgment. Such was his art, that, 
while poisoning the minds of the Roman youth, 
he gained the friendship and esteem of di^ 
severe Cato. E/jually well qualified to deceive 
the good to intimidate the weak and to infuse 
his own boldness into his associates, he evaded 
two accusations brought against him by Clodius 
for criminal intercourse with a vestal, and for 
monstrous extortions, of which .he had been 
guilty while proconsul in Africa. A confiede- 
racy having been formed of many young men 
of high birth and daring character, who saw 
no other means of extricating themselves from 
their enormous debts than by obtaining the 
highest offices of the state, Catiline was placed 
at their head. This eminence h^ owed chiefly 
to his connection with the old soldiers of Sulla, 
by means of whom he kept in awe the towns 
near Rome, and even Rome itself. At the same 
time he numbered among his adbereuts not only 
the worst and lowest of the populace, but also 
many of the patricians and meii of, consular, 
rank. Everything favored _ the audacious- 
u-*7*" Poiipcy was pursuing the victories 
which Lucullus had prepared for him; and the 
Wlter was but a feeble sanMrter of the 'paiiktts 
ui the Senate, who wished him, hot in vain, t6 
V^. himself at their head Ctassua, who bad 
whvexed Italy from the gladiators, was now 
stnviag after power and ricbes,. and Cbttnter 

nanced the growing InAuence of Catiline as a 
means of his own aggrandizement. Csesar, who 
■was laboring to revive the party of Marius-, 
S^red Catiline, and perhaps even encouraged 
him. Only two Romans remained determined 
to uphold their falling country — Cato and 
Ocero ; the latter of whom alone possessed the 
qualifications necessary for the tadc The con- 
aginton were now planning the elevation of 
Ottiluie' and one of his accomplices to the con- 
sulsbtp, by which they hoped to obtain posses- 
sion of the public treasures and the property of 
the dtizefts under various pretexts,- and espe- 
cially by means of' proscription. Cicero had the 
courage to stand candidate for the consulship! 
neither insults nor threats, nor even riots and 
attempts to assassinate him, deterred him from 
his purpose; and being supported by the rich 
citizens, be gained his election, 65 b.c. All that 
the ^rty of Catiline could accomplish was the 
election of Antonius, one of their accomplices, 
as colleague of Cicero. This failure, however, 
did not deprive Catiline of the hope of gaining 
the consulship the following year. For this 
purpose he revived the kind of terrorism by 
which- he had laid die foundation of his power: 
Meanwhile, he had lost some of the most iin- 
fiortant members of his conspiracy. Antony 
had been prevailed upon or compeUed by Cicero 
to remain neutral. Csesar and Crassus had 
MSolved to do the same. Piso had been killed 
in Sipdin. Italy, however, was destitute of 
troops. The veterans- of Sulla only waited the 
signal to take tip arms. The signal was now 
given by Catiline. The centurion Manlius ap- 
peared among them, and formed a camp m 
£truria. Cicero was on the watcii : a fortu> 
nate accident disclosed to him the counsels of 
the conspisators. One of them, ' Curius, was on 
intimate terms with a woman of doubtful repu-J 
tation, Fulvia by name, and had acquainted her 
with their plans. Throu^ this woman Cicero 
learned that L: Vaigunteius, a senator, and G. 
Cornelius, a knight, had undertaken to assassi- 
mite him at his house. On the dajr which they 
had fixed for the execution of their plan, they 
found the doors barred and guarded. Still 
Cicero delayed to make public the circum- 
stances of a conspiracy, the progress and 
resources of which he wisned first to ascertain. 
He contented himself with warning his fellow 
citizens, in general terms, of the impending 
dinger. But when the insurrection of Manlius 
was made known, he obtained from the Senate 
the decree, only promulgated on occasions of 
the utmost importance, that "the consuls should 
take care that the republic receive no detri- 
ment.* It was exceedingly difficult to seize the' 
person of one who had soldiers at his command 
both in and out of Rome; still more di|)icult 
would it- be to prove his guilt before judges' 
who were accomplices with him, or at least 
were willing to make use of his plans to serve 
thdr own interest. Cicero had to choose 
between two evib — a revolution within the 
city, or a civil war: he preferred the latterf 
CatUine had the boldness to take his seat in 
the Senate known as he was to be the enemy' pf 
die Roman state. Cicero then rose and deliv" 
CMd that bold oration against him, beginning; 
Quo usqut tandem tibi*tere, CatUina, patienM 
nostraf (*How long, then, Catiline, wilt thotr 
abuse our patience?") Assuming a confidence 
he did not possess,- he attempted a reply, but hi^ 

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words were instaa% browned by thtf cries of 
*Parricidel* and *TraitorI> which rose on all 
hands. Now fully conscious that his plana were 
discovered, he rushed from the assembly with 
threats and curses on his lips, and left Rome at 
dead of night. The conspirators who. remained, 
Lentulus Sura, Cethegus and other infamous 
senators, engaged to head the insurrection in 
Rome as soon as_ Catiline appeared at the gates. 
According to Gcero and Sallust, it was the 
intention of the conspirators to set the city on 
fire, and massacre the inhatHtants. Lentuhis, 
Cetnegus and the other CMispirators, in th^ 
meanwhile, were_ carrying on their crinunal 
plots. They applied to the ambassadors of the 
Allobroges to transfer the war- to the frontier 
of Italy itself. These, however, revealed the 
plot, and their disclosures led to others still 
more important. The correspondence of the 
conspirators with their leader was intercepted. 
As me circumstances of the case did not allow 
of a minute observance of forms in the pro- 
ceedings against the conspirators^ the faws 
relating thereto were disregarded, as had been 
done in former instances of less pressing 
danger. Oesar spoke against immediate execu- 
tion, but Cicero and Cato prevailed. Five of 
the conspirators were put to death. Caius An- 
tonius was then appointed to march against 
Catiline, but on the pretext of ill health, gave 
the command to his lieutenant, Petreius. He 
succeeded in enclosing CatiUne, who, seeing no 
way of escape, resolved to die sword in hand. 
Hb followers unitated his example. The battle 
was fought with bitter desperation. The in- 
surgents all fell on the spot which tbdr leader 
had assigned them, and Catiline at their head. 
Consult Sallust, 'Bellum Catilinarium> ; Cicero, 
'Orationes in Catilinam' ; Rose, ^History of 
Catiline's Consinracy' (1813) ; the biographies 
of Caesar and Ocero in Plutarch's 'Lives,' and 
Beesley, £. S., <Catiline as a Party Leader> 
in Fortnightly Rtview (June 186S). 

CATINAT, ka-te-na, Nicolu de, marshal 
of France: b. Paris 1637; d. Saint Gratien 1712. 
He quitted the profession of the law for that of 
arms, and attracted the notice of Louis XIV 
at the storming of Lille in 1667, and was pro- 
moted. By a number of splendid deeds he 
gained the esteem and friendship of the great 
Condi, particularly by his conduct at the battle 
of Senef. He was sent as lieutenant-general 
against the Duke of Savoy, gained the battles 
of Staffardo, 18 Aug. 1690; and of Marsajdia, 4 
Oct lo53, occupied Savoy and part of Pied- 
mont, and was made marshal in 1693. In the 
conquered countries his humanity and mildness 
often led him to spare the vanquished, contrary 
to the express commands of Lotivois. In Flan- 
ders he displayed the same activity, and toiAc 
Ath in 1697. In 1701 he received the command 
of the army_ of Italy against Prince Eugene; 
but was straitened iqr the orders of his court, 
and was destitute of money and provisicms, 
while Eugene was allowed to act with full lib- 
erty. On 6 July he was defeated at Carpi. 
Equally tmfortunate was the battle of Chiari, 
where Villeroi had the chief command. In 
spite of his representations the French court 
would not believe the disasters in Savoy to be 
owing to the perfidy of the Duke of Savoy, and. 
Catinat was disgracmi. From . lus unalterable 
calmness and consideration his soldiers called 

him *le Pere t« Peafi6e.» CootultUs (Mfemoir^ 
(Paris 1819) and the biography by De Broglie 

CATINKAU-LAROCHB, ka-te-nd »- 
rdsh, Pierre-Marie-Sebaatien, French politi- 
cian: b. Saint-Brieu, 25 March 1772; d. 22 May 
1828. He studied at Poitiers, and to escape the Re- 
volution emigrated to San Domingo, where he 
pufished a joamal. L'qmi de la paix et de Funion. 
He was sentenced to death for the Oj^inions 
whidi he advocated, but, by the timely assistance 
of die a^nts of the king of France, succeeded 
in escaping to Cape Haytien (then called Cape 
Francais), where he atone of 17 of his cotmtiy- 
men was saved from the subsequent massacre 
in that city. He now visited the United States 
and Elngland, and on his return to Paris, in 
1797, prepared several dictionaries. His print- 
ing office having been destroyed by fire^ the gov- 
ernment employed him in various pubhc capaci- 
ties. In 1809 he was appointed secretary-gen- 
eral of the commission houses and sent to 
Austria; and in 1810 he was made inspector 
of Illyna'. He was made head of the Library 
Administration Bureau and served as secretary- 
general of the department of Aisne, prefect; 
and sub-prefect of Saint-Quentin. Once more 
he visited the United States, and on his return 
in 1819, he was commisaioned to go to (joiana, 
to study the climate and resources of that prov- 
ince. His notes on that country appeared in 
1822. He became chief of the Bureau of €x>m- 
merce and of the 0>lonies (1826) and com- 
missary-general of the interior (182S). 

CATLBTTSBURO, Ky., dly and county- 
seat of Boyd County, on me Ohio and Big 
Sandy rivers at fheir confluence, and on the 
Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. It has exten- 
sive lumber interests and has flour mills, 
machine shops, saw mills and wholesale 
grocery, hardware and shoe warehouses. Pop. 

CATLIM, George, American travder and 
artist: b. Wilkesbarre, Pa., 26 June 1796; d. 
Jersey Qty, N. J, 23 Dec 1872 After prac- 
tising as a lawyer for two years he set up at 
Philadelphia as a portrait painter, andin 1832 
commenced special studies of the American In- 
dians, residing many years among them both in 
North and South America. In 1840 he went to 
Europe, and subsequently introduced three 
parties of American Indians to European 
courts. His finely illustrated works are 'Man- 
ners, Customs and Condition of the North 
American Indians^ (1857) ; 'North American 
PortfoUo' (1844); 'Eight Years' Travel in 
Earope^ (1848) ; 'Last Rambles Among the In- 
dians,> etc (1868). His 500 portraite from life 
of American Indians are now in the National 
Museum at Washington, D. C, constituting 
what is known as the 'Catlin (Jallery.* About 
400 sketches are in the possession of the 
American Museum of Natural History, New 
York dty. Consult Miner, 'George C!atlin, 
with an Annotated Bibliography of His Writ- 
ings> (New York 1901) ; 'My Life Among the 
Indians' (ed. by M. G. Humphreys, 1909). 

CATLINITE (named after Catlin (q.v.), 

, American traveler and artist), a dull red in- 

' durated clay. It occurs in Pipestone Ckrant^, 

Minn., as a layer about 18 inches thick in 

qnartzite. It has been extensivdy mantH 

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twetvttti by the Skiux Indkuu into Mie> and 
various ornamental objects. 

CATNIP, or CAT-MINT, a hardy per- 
ennial herb {Nepeta catoria) of the family 
Mentkacetf. It is a native of the Orient and 
Europe, and has become distributed in most 
temperate regions of the globe. It is very com- 
mon in America in the neighborhood of dwell- 
ings. Cats are especially fond of it, rubbingr 
themselves upon it and eating it with evident 
relish. Like other members of its family, it 
contains a fragtant volatile oil, 'for v^iich it is 
sometimes ased in cooking. It grows about 
two feet tall, bears heart-shaped, velvety, 
whitish-green leaves, and dense whorls of nu- 
merous small, purplish or rosy^whitc flowers. 
Catnip is sometmies planted in herbaceous bor- 
ders to soften the tintinK at the same time 
heightening the effect with its erect stems. In 
medicine, catnip tea enjoys great popularity with 
the laity. It is brewed hot and is very nsefnl 
in attempts to avert *colds.* The heat, volatile 
oil, and accompanying care that the patient 
takes are all self-conservative. 

CATO, ka't6, Dionysius, the reputed au- 
thor of the small collection of moral apopb- 
therans known as 'Catonis Disticha de Moribus 
ad-FOium.' Nothing is known of him; but the 
worl^ which is apparently in large part a eenu- 
ine classic, had a hig^ reputation in the Middle 

CATO, Marau Pordaa, The Cknsob, sur- 
named Priscus, also Sapiens {'the wise*), and 
Majok (*the elder"*), Roman statesman and 
general : b. near Tusculum 234 B.a ; d. 149 ac 
The modem village of Monte Porzio Catone 
near Tusculum perpetuates his memory. He 
inherited from his father, a plebeian, a small 
estate in the territory of the Sabines, which he 
cultivated with his own hands. He was a youth 
at the time of Hannibal's invasion of Italy, and 
served his first campaign, at the age of 17. 
under Fabius Maximus, when be besieged 
Capua. Five years after he fought under the 
same commander at the siege of Tarentum. 
After the capture of the city he became ac- 
(luainted with the Pythagorean, Nearchus, who 
initiated hirt into the suUime doctrines of his 
philosophy, with which, in practice, he was 
already conversant. After the war was ended 
Cato returned to his farm. As he was versed 
in the laws, and a fluent speaker, he went at 
daybreak to the neigU>oring towns and acted 
as counsellor and advocate to those who ap- 
plied to him. Valerius Flaccos, a noble and 
powerful Roman, who had an estate in the 
vicinity, observed the talents and virtue of the 
youth, conceived an affection for him and per- 
suaded him to remove to Rome, where he prom- 
ised to assist him with his influence and patron- 
age. A few rich and hig^-bom families then 
stood at the head of the republic Cato was 
poor and unknown; but his eloquence, which 
some compared to that of Demosthenes, and 
the integrity and strength of_ his character, 
soon drew public attention to him. At the age 
of 30 he went as military tribune to Sicily. In 
the following year 'he was quaestor, at which 
I)«riod there began between him and Scipio a 
rivalry and hatred which lasted till death. 
Cato, who had returned to Rome, accused 
Sdpio of extravagance ; and, although his rival 
va» acquitted, this zeal in the cause of the 

public gave Cato a great influence over the 
pcot^. Five years alter, having been already 
atdile, he was chosen praetor, and obtained the 
province of Sardinia. His strict moderation, 
mtegrity and love of justice were here still 
more strongly displayed than in _ Rome. On 
this island he formed an acquaintance with 
the poet Elnnius, of whom he learned Greek, 
and whom he took with him to Rome on his 
return. He was made consul 192 b.c, having 
his friend Valerius Flaccus for colleague. He 
opposed with all his power the abolition of the 
Opjuan law, passed in the pressing times of the 
Second Funic War, forbidding the Roman 
women to wear more than half an ounce of 
gold, to dress in garments of various colors 
or , to wear . other ornaments ; but he , was 
obliged to yield to the eloquence of the tribune 
Valerius and still more potent female im- 
portunities. Soon after, he set put for Spain, 
which was in a state of rebellion. His first 
act was to send back to Rome the supplies 
provided for the army, declaring that the war 
ought to _sup;>ort the soldiers. He gained 
several victories with a newly-raised army, 
reduced the province to submission and re- 
turned to Italy, where the honor of a triumph 
was granted to him. He afterward pnt himself 
imder the command of the Consul Manlius Adl- 
ius, to fight against Antiochns, and to carry 
on the war in Thessaly. By a bold march h^ 
made himself master of the Callidromus, one 
of the highest peaks of the mountain pass of 
Thermopylae; and thus decided the issue of the 
battle. He brought the intelligence of this 
victory to Rome, 189 B.c Five years after, in 
spite of a powerful faction opposed to him, he 
obtained the most honorable, and at the same 
time the most feared, of all the magistracies of 
Rome, the censorship. He had not canvassed 
for the office, but had only expressed his will- 
ingness to fill it. In compliance with his wishes 
Valerius Flaccus was chosen his collea^e, as 
the only person qiialified to assist him in cor- 
recting the public disorders, and restoring the 
ancient punty of morals. He fulfilled this 
trust with inflexible rigor; and though his 
measures brought him some obloquy and op- 
position, they met, in the end, with the highest 
api^ause; and when he resigned his office, it 
was resolved to erect a statue to him with an 
honorable inscription. He ai>pears to have 
been quite indifferent to the honor; and when, 
before this, some one expressed his- wonder 
that no statue had been erected to him, he 
answered, *I would rather have it asked why 
no image has been erected to Cato than why 
one has.* Still he was not void of self-com- 
placency. «Is he a Cato, then ?* he was accus- 
tomed to say, when he would excuse the errors 
of another. Cato's political life was a con- 
tinued warfare. He was continually accusing, 
and was himself accused with animosi^, but 
was always acquitted. His last public com- 
nfission was an embassy to Carthage to settle 
the dispute between the _ Carthaginians and 
King Massinissa. It is said that this journey 
was the original cause of the destruction o£ 
Carthage; for Cato was so astonished at the 
rapidrecoveryof the city from its losses, that he 
ever after ended everv speech of his with the 
well-known words, Praterea censeo Cartkag- 
inem esse delettdam CI am also of opinion 
that Carthage must be destroyed*). He died 

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a year after his return. Cato, wfco was so 
frugal of the public revenues, was not indif- 
ferent to riches. He was rigorously severe 
toward his slaves, and considered them quite 
in the light of property. He made every exer- 
tion to promote^ and improve agriculture. He 
was twice married, and had a son by each of 
his wives. His conduct as a husband and a 
father was equally exemplary. He composed a 
multitude of works, of which the only one ex- 
tant is <De Agri Cultura.' Those of which the 
loss is most to be regretted are his orations, 
which Cicero mentions in terms of the Ugfaest 
encomium, and his history of the origin of the 
Roman people, which is frequently quoted by 
the old historians. Fragments of his orations 
are to be found in M^ers, 'Oratorum Roman- 
orum Fragmenta' (Zurich 1842) ; and in Jor- 
dan's edition (Leipzig 1860) ; and Peter, H., 
•Historicorum Romanorum Fragmenta' (ib. 
1870^. Consult Sears, 'History of Oratory* 
f Chicago 1896). For a translation of *De 
Agri Cultural see 'Roman Farm Management: 
The Treatises of Cato and Varro done into 
English, by a Virginia Farmer* (New York 

CATO, Marcos Pordna, called (to dis- 
tinguish him from the censor, his great grand- 
father) Cato of Utica and Cato thi Youngeb, 
Roman patriot : b. Rome 95 b.c. ; d. Utica, North 
Africa, 46 B.C He formed an intimacy with 
the Stoic Antipater of Tyre, and maintiuned 
through life the principles of the Stoic {Mloso- 
phy. His first appearance in public was against 
the tribunes of the people, who wished to pull 
down a basilica erected by the censor, Cato, 
which was in their way. On this occasion he 
displayed that powerful eloquence which after- 
ward rendered him so formidable, and won 
the cause. He served his first campaign as a 
volunteer in the war ag^ainst Spartacus, and 
highly distinguished himself. He served as 
military tribune in Macedonia in 67 b.c. When 
his term expired he went to Asia, and brought 
t»ck the Stoic Athenodorus with him to Rome. 
He was made quaestor in 65 B.C., and executed 
his difficult trust with the strictest integrity, 
while he had the spirit to prosecute the public 
officers for their acts of extortion and violence. 
His conduct gained him the admiration and 
love of the Romans, so that, on the last day of 
his quaestorship, he was escorted to his house 
by Ute whole assembly of the people. The 
fame of his virtue spread far and wide. In 
the games of Flora the dancing-girls were not 
allowed to lay aside their garments as long as 
Cato was present. The troubles of the state 
did not permit him to remain in seclusion. The 
example of Sulla in usurping supreme power 
was followed by many ambitious men, whose 
mutual dissensions were all that saved the 
tottering constitution from immediate ruin. 
Crassus hoped to purchase the sovereignty with 
his gold; Pompey expected that it would be 
voluntarily conferred upon him; and Cxsslt 
united himself to both and made use of the 
wealth of the one and the reputation of the 
other to attain his own objects. By keeping 
aloof from all parties Cato served the Common- 
wealth with sagacity and courage; but he often 
injured the cause which he was trying to bene- 
fit by the infiexibility of his character. In 63 
B.C. he was chosen tribune of the people. 

About tins time the ' conspiracy of Catifine 
broke out. CAio supported Cicero, then con- 
sul, with all his power, fix^ gave iiiin vublicly 
the name of "father of his country,* and urged, 
in a fine speech preserved by Sallust, the rigor- 
ous punishment of the traitors. He opposed 
the proposition of Metellus Ne^s to recall 
Pompey from Asia, and give lum the com- 
mand against Catiline, and very nearly lost his 
life in a riot excited against him on this ac- 
count by his colleague and Cesar. After the 
return of Pompey he frustrated many of his 
ambitious plans, and first predicted the conse- 
quences of his union with Crassus and Caesar. 
The triumvirate, in order to remove him to a 
distance, had him sent to Cyprus, of which he 
took possession on behalf of Rome (58-57). 
Compelled to obey, he executed his commission 
with so much address that he enriched the 
treasury with a larger sum than had ever been 
deposited in it b:r any private man. In the 
meantime he continued his opposition to the 
triumvirate. Endeavoriiw to prevent the pas- 
sage of the Tribonian law, for investing the 
triumvirs with extraordinary powers, he was 
drawn into tumults, and even personal conflict 
Being made p/aetor in 54 fl.c., he carried into 
execution a law against bribery that displeased 
all parties. After_ the death of Crassus the 
civil commotions increased, and Cato, as the 
only means of preventing greater evils, pro- 
posed that Pompey should be made sole consul, 
contrary to the constitution, which proposition 
was adopted. The year following, 51 B.C., Cato 
lost the consulship by refusing to employ 
bribery to procure a majority. In 49 b.c the 
civil war broke out. Cato, then propraetor in 
Sicily, on the arrival of Curio with three of 
Ctesar's legions, departed for the camp of 
Pompey at Dyrrachium. He had always hoped 
to prevent the war by negotiation ; and when it 
broke out he put on mourning in token of his 

Siti. Pompey, having been victorious at 
yrracMum, left Cato behind to guard the 
military chest and magazine, while ne pushed 
after his rival. For this reason Cato was not 
present at the battle of Pharsalia, after which 
he sailed with his troops to Cyrene, Africa. 
Here he learned that Pompey's father-in-law, 
Scipio Metellus, had gone to Juba, king of 
Mauritania, where Varus had collected a con- 
siderable force. Cato immediately set off to 
join him, and after undergoing every hardship 
reached Utica, where the two armies effected 
a junction 47 B.C. The soldiers wished him to 
be their general, but he pave this office _ to 
Scipio, and took command in Utica, while Scipio 
and Labienus marched out against Ciesar. Cato 
had advised them to protract the war, but they 
ventured an engagement, in which they were 
defeated, and Africa submitted to the victor. 
Cato had at first determined to defend himself 
to the last, with the senators in the place, but 
abandoned this plan, and despairing of the 
Commonwealth, and unwilling to live under the 
despotism of Claesar, resolved to die. On the 
evening before the day which he had fixed 
npon for executing his resolution, he took a 
tranquil meal, and discussed -various philosoph- 
ical subjects. He then retired to his chamber 
and read the 'Phaedo' of Plato. Anticipating 
his intentions, his friends had taken away his 
sword. He sent for it, and in spite of the tears 
and entreaties of his friends persisted in his 

Digitized by 




porpose, adnsed' those present' to sMjtnit to 
Caesar, and dismissed all but the philosopheri 
DemetriuB .and Apollonius, whom ne asked if 
they knew any way by which he could continue 
to live -Without being false to his principles. 
Weeping silently they left him. He then re- 
ceived Us sword joyfully, agiaa read 'Phaedo,'' 
made calm inquiries for departing friends, slept 
awhile, and when left alone stabbed himseif . 
His people rushed in, and finding him in a 
swoon bound up his wounds ; but, on coming to 
himself, he tore off the bandages and expired. 
The Uticans buried him honorably, and erected 
a statue to him. Oesar, when he heard the 
news of his death, exclaimed, *I grudge thee 
thy death, since thou bast grudged me the 
honor of sparing thy life." 

CATO, the title of two noted 18th century 
plays: (1) A blank verse tragedy by Joseph 
Addison in five acts. It was first- presented 
in 1713. The scene is laid in a hall of the gov- 
ernor's palace at Utica. The subject is Cato's 
last desperate struggle against Caesar, and his 
determination to die rather than survive his 
country's freedom. <Cato* owned its extraor- 
dinary success to the deadlj^ hatred that raged 
between the Whigs and Tories at the time : the 
Whigs cheered when an actor mentioned the 
word •liberty*; and the Tories, resenting the 
implied innuendo, cheered louder than they. To 
the Whigs Marlborough was a Cato, to the 
Tories he was a Caesar. Eveiy poet of the 
time wrote verses in honor of <Cato,> the best 
beiitg Pope's prologue ; and it was translated 
into French, German and Italian. (2) A tra^^ 
edy by Metastasio, 1727. The author follows 
closely the historic accounts of Cato's relations 
widi Ceesar, and tbe 4eiatls have Aiore p<ob-' 
sd^lity than those Of Addison. He shows a de- 
cided superiori^ ta Addison in making Caesar 
die principal figure next to Cato, and placing 
them constantly in contrast with each other. 

lish history, a plot formed in 1820 to murder 
the Foreign Secretary, Lord Castlereagh and 
other Cabinet Ministers, and to form a pro- 
visional government. The leader of the con- 
spirators was Arthur Thistlewood. The plot 
was discovered and several of the conspirators 
captured, on 23 FebfTiarVj when they had as- 
sembled in a stable on Cato street and were 
preparing to carry out their intentions. Thistle- 
wood, woo escaped was arrested the next day. 
After a trial in which they were defended by 
John Adolphus, Thistlewood and four others 
were executed, and five were transported. 

CATOCALA, a genus of nocteiid moths, 
represented by more than 100 species in North 
Aitnerica, and many in the Old World. See 

CATON, John Dean, American lawyer and 
author: b. Monroe, N. Y., 1812; d. 1895; From 
18S5 to 1864 he was chief justice of Illinois. He 
has traveled extensively in EuropCj China and 
Japan and published <A Summer m Norway* 
(1875) ; <The Last of the Illinois and a Sketch 
of the Pottawattomis' (1876) ; <The Atitelope 
and Deer of America' (1877). 

CATOPTRICS, that branch of optics which 
explains the properties 6f incident ' and te- 
flbcted llgkt, itbd particularly that wUch is 

reflected froln' mitYttrs or polished surfaces. 
The- whole doctrine of catoptrics rests on the 
principle that the angle of incidence is equal 
to the atQ;le of reflection, and (n the s^oe plane. 

CATOFTROMANCY, a spedes of divina- 
tioa practised by the Greeks, in which a mirror 
was let dbwli by a cord into a fountain in the 
temple of Ceres, in Achaia, - into «diich sick 
persons looked. If the observer's face ap- 
peared in it sickly or ghastly the omen was 
considered unfavorable, and the sick iwrson 
would not recover; but if, on the other hand, 
it appeared fresh and healthy, the omen was 
considered favorable. The superstition that' 
seven years of bad luck will follow the break- 
ing of a mirror or that if a young lady looked 
in the mirrow by candle linit on Hallowe'en 
she would see the face of her lover are evi- 
dently survivals of this old form. 

CATORCB, ka-t6r'4a, or k^-tor'sfi, Mex-' 
ico, mining town of San Luis Potosl, which 
received its name, signifying 14, from a gang 
of robbers, formerly a constant menace to its 
inhabitants. It is situated in a barren district 
8,700 feet above sea-level and 108 miles north 
of San Luis Potosi by rail. The town lies at 
the foot of a mountain 10,000 feet high. It 
contains valuable iilver mmes discovered in 
1773, now pretty well worked out. The ore is 
mixed with sulphur, and requires treatment by 
a high degree of heat When the French in- 
vaded Mexico, a mint was started her^ and 
worked until 1867. The amount coinea was 
about $52,000,000. The population is variable, 
ranging from 10,000 to 18,000, according to the 
state of mining. 

CATOSTOMID£, a family of fishes of 
the order PUctospondyli (q.v.), or, in a more 
limited sense, of the EventognathL They have 
the first four vertebrae coalesced and part^ con- 
verted into a chain of bones reaching from the 
swim-bladder -to the internal ear; the lower 
pharyngeal bones elongated and falcate and 
bearing a row of numerous comb-like teeth ; the 
jaws toothless and formed in part by the maxil- 
lary bone; the mouth usually small with thick 
protractile lips; the form more or less elongate 
and rounded or slightly compressed; and the 
fins soft, rayed with no adipose f rayless) dor- 
sal fin. An extensive family oi fresh-water > 
fishes, chiefly of North America, where 12. or 
14 genera and more than 60 species occur; in 
addition to which a very few are found in east- 
em Asia. Although abundant almost every- 
where in the United States, none of the species 
have more than a local value as food fishes. 
To the Catostomida belong the suckers, buffalo- 
fishes, horse-fishes, certain so-called mullets, 
etc. <:qq.v.). 

CATRAIL (also known as &e PiCTS' 
Work or Picts' Work Dnca), the name ap- 
plied to the remains of a large earthwork in 
Scotland, about SO miles in length, which, be- 
ginning at Torwoodlee Hill, near the junction 
of the Gala Water with the Tweed, runs with a 
semi-circular sweep southward through the 
counties of Selkirk and Roxburgh to a point 
under Peel Fell, in the Cheviots. The earth- 
work consisted of a deep ditch, with a fampart 
on each side, and varied in breadth from 20 to 
26 feet. Various causes have resulted in the 
destruction of the ramparts in many places. 
Tlie origin of the (}atrail has led to much 

Digitized by 




speculation, but is now supposed to have been 
a line of defense raised by the Britons against 
the invading Saxons. 

CATS, kits, Jakob, Dutch poet: b. Brou- 
wershaven, Zealand, 10 Nov. 157/; d. Zorgvliet 
near Scheveningen, 12 Sept. 1660. He studied 
at Leyden, Orleans and Paris. In 1627 and 
1631 he was Ambassador to England, and in 
1636 grand pensioner of Holland. His poetry 
is unimaginative aiiu didactic, but has been ex* 
tremely popular with the Dutch middle class by 
whom he is frequently affectionately alluded to 
as "Father Cats.* A statue has been erected to 
him at his birthplace. His worics consbt of alle- 
gories, according to the taste of his times, poems 
on the difFerent ages and situations of life, idyls, 
etc Among the most noted are <Het Houwe- 
lyck' (Marriage) (1625) ; 'Sinneen-Minnebeel- 
den> (1618) ; <Trouringh> (1637); 'Maechden- 
pUcht' (1618); 'Selfstryst' (1620): <Spiegel 
van den ouden en nieuwen tydt' (1632) ; 'Faces 
Agustae' (1653^. Consult Derudder, G., 'Un 
poite n^rlandais' ; ^Cats, sa vie et ses oeuvres' 
(Hague 1899). 

CAT'S-EYB, the name given to several 
hard semi-transparent stones used as gems, 
whiclL when cut in a certain way, show a line 
of lignt giving what is called a chatoyant eifect. 
The true cat's-eye is a chrysoberyl of a greenish 
color, found in Ceylon and Brazil. The line of 
light shown when the stone is cut en cabockon 
is due to the structure of the crystal, or to 
included impurities. The common cat's-eye, of 
little value, is a crystalline quartz sometimes 
containing fibres of asbestos, which, cut across 
the fibres, gives a chatoyant effect. It is found 
in Bavana. Tiger-eye (q.v.) also show* the 
chatoyancy of the cat's-eye. Beautiful tourmar 
line cat's-eyes, rivaling the Oriental stones, have 
recently been fotud m California. Stones ex- 
hibiting the cat's-eye ra^ have been cut from 
various other minerals, mcluding. beryl, corun- 
dum, fibrous hornblende, bronzite and faypers- 

CAT8KILL, N. Y., village and countv-seat 
of Greene Countv, 30 miles southeast of Albany, 
on the west side of the Hudson River and 
on the West Shore and the Catskill Mountain 
railroads, also connected with the New York 
Central by a ferry crossing the HiKlson. It is 
connected by steamboat lines with New York 
and Albany. The village, frequented as a sum- 
mer resort, though important rather as the point 
of departure for the more popular mountain 
resorts, has a courthouse, opera-house, free 
academy and public library. It manufactures 
woolens, hosiery, cut glass, bricks, etc., and is 
in a productive fruit-growing region. Cats- 
kill was settled about 1680 by Derrick Teunis 
Van Vechten. The village owns its water- 
works. Pop. (1910) 5,296. 



CATSKILL GROUP, a name given to a 
great thickness of red, brown, green and grav 
conglomerates, sandstones and shales of which 
the Catsldll Mountains are composed. Being 
well exposed by numerous cliffs and gorges, 
these deposits were carefully studied by the 
New York Geological Survey some 50_ years 
ago. The rocks were believed to constitute a 
series, having a definite place in the classifica- 

tion of the Pabeocoic rocks worked out by the 
Survey, and were ^ven the name Catsldll. Sub- 
sequent investigation has shown that the Cats- 
kill is not even to be called a group. It is 
simply a succession of shoal-water d^sits of 
Upper E>evonian Age, that were laid down along 
one shore of an interior sea, while normal 
marine sediments, now represented by lime- 
stones, were being laid down elsewhere. Thus 
is happens that the Lower Catskill, of the Cats- 
kill Mountains, is represented elsewhere by 
limestones of me Hamilton stage, the Middle 
Catskill bv the Portage and the Upper Catskill 
by the Qiemung. In the Catskill Mountains 
the so-called Catskill series is 4>S00 feet thick; 
and where thickest, at Mauch Chunk, Pa., it is 
7,500 feet thick. Farther south the rocks thin 
out and disappear - altogether in Virginia. 
ThotM^h having no standing as a rock group, 
the (Tatskill is of interest from its many re- 
semblances to the Old Red Sandstone of Eng- 
land, made famous bv Hug^ Miller, and is of 
economic importance from containing some beds 
of excellent flags, quarried at numerous open- 
ings in Ulster, Greene and Delaware counties, 
N. Y., and sold as Hudson River bluestone. 
See Devokian; Old R£d Sandstone. 

moderate elevation, part of the Alleniany 
Plateau, tying t» the west of the Hudson River 
and situated mainly in Greene and Ulster 
counties, N. Y. The svstem covers about 1,400 
square miles. The geological formation is very 
old, the mountains consisting of the shales and 
sandstone of the Catskill group of the Devonian 
system. The group contains several summits 
between 3,000 and 4,000 feet above sea- 
level. Slide Mountain, 4,204 feet; Hunter 
Mountain, 4,025 feet, are (he highest. The low 
lands along the creeks which drain the moun- 
tains and some uplands are cultivated. Many 
of the slopes form fine pastures; but the 
greater part is forested thicldy with oak, ash, 
maple, beech, pine, hickory, etc. The pure 
atmosphere attracts summer visitors in large 
numbers, and the region is dotted with many 
hostelries.^ Railways give access to many parts 
of the region, and several points can be reached 
bv boats. There are several pretty cascades in 
tne gorges,^ known here by their Dutch name, 
cloves. Within recent years part of the Cats- 
kill watershed is being utilued as a water 
supply source for New York city. 

CATT, Carrie Lane Chapman, American 
suffrage reformer: b. Ripon, Wis. She was 
educated at the State Industrial College of 
Iowa and subsequently studied law._ She was 
for three years principal of the High School 
at Mason City, Iowa, and in 1884 was married 
to Leo Chapman, editor of the Mason City 
Republican, who died some two years later. In 
1891 she was married to G. W. (itt (q.v.). 
Since 1890 she has devoted herself to woman 
suffrage work, lecturing in every State, and 
also in most of the countries of Europe. In 
1904 she was elected president of the Inter- 
national Woman Suffrage Alliance and still 
holds that office, and in 1915 elected president 
of the National American Woman Suffrage 

CATT, George William, American engi- 
neer: b. Davenport, Iowa, 9 March I860; d. 

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1905. He was educated at the Iowa State Col- 
lege and subsequently studied engineering and 
law. He was diief engineer of the San Fran- 
cisco Bridge Company, 1887-92; president and 
engineer of the New York Dredging Company, 
1893-99; and president and engineer of the 
Atlantic Gulf & Pacific Company from 1899. 
He has built government dry docks at the navy 
yards at League Island, Philadelphia, and Mare 
Island, Cal. 

CATTARO, kat'ta-rok Austria, a seaport 
in Dalmatia, at the foot of the Gulf of Cattaro, 
on the east side of the Adriatic, 38 miles south- 
east of Ragusa. It lies at the foot of steep 
limestone rocks, strongly' fortified and sur- 
mounted by a castle, and is surrounded with 
walls. The buildings are in the Venetian style, 
and the streets are narrow, irregnilar and dark. 
It is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, and 
the cathedral is a well-built edifice. The 
harbor is spacious. The chief trade is with 
Montenegro. Once a Roman colony, it became 
part of ue republic of Venice in 1^0: passed 
to Austria in 1797; was conquered by Italy 
1805; restored to Austria 1814. Two earth- 
quakes wrought c<MBsiderable destruction in the 
town. Pop. about 6,00a 

CATTEQAT. or KATTEGAT, a gulf of 
die North Sea, between North Jutland to the 
west, Sweden to the east, and the Danish 
islands of Zealand, Funen, etc., to the south; 
and by joining the Skagerrak on the west and 
the Little and Great Belts and the Sound on 
die east, forming the middle link in the chain 
of waters connecting the Baltic with the 
North Sea. It is about 150 miles from north 
to south; its greatest breadth about 90. 
It is difficult of navigation, being not only 
shallow toward the shores, and irregular in 
depth, but obstructed by several sand-banks, 
and the adverse winds which often prevail 
here increase the danger. The Cattegat is 
noted for its herring-fishery. It contains the 
islands Samsoe, Aimolt, Lessoe and Hertz- 

CATTELL, Henry Ware, American 
pathologist: b. Harrisburg, Pa., 7 Oct. 1862. 
After studies at Lafayette College and at the 
universities of Leipzig, Pennsylvania and 
Freiburg (Baden), he was appointed demon- 
strator of morbid anatomy at the University 
of Pennsylvania 1892-97, and director of the 
Ayer Chemical Laboratory in the Pennsyl- 
vania hospital. He was consulting pathologist 
to numerous Philadelphia hospitals and pro- 
fesaopal ex^rt in several criminal cases. 
Besides editing the International Medical 
Magasine (1894-97); International Clinics 
(1900-03) and again after 1910; Uediial 
Notes and Queries (after 1905) ; <Lippincott's 
Medical Dictionary' (1910; 3d ed., 1913), he 
translated Seder's 'Special Pathological 
Anatomv> (1899-97). His published works in- 
clude 'Notes on Demonstrations in Morbid 
Anatomy' (1899-1901); 'Post Mortem Pa- 
thology* (1903; 3d ed., 1906); <606' (1910). 

CATTELL, >mes McKeea, American 
psychologist: b. Easton, Pa., 25 May 1860. 
He was g^raduated at Lafayette College in 
1880, and studied at Leipzig, Paris, Geneva 
and Gottingen. He was assistant under 
Wimdt at the University of Leipzig, professor 

of pyscholoey m the University of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1^8-91 and professor of experi- 
mental psychology in Columbia University 
1891^96; from 1896 to 1902 head of the de- 
partment of anthropoloKy, and from 1902 to 
1905 professor in die department of philos- 
ophy. He resigned in 1917. He is coeditor 
of tile Psychological Review and Science, and 
The American Naturalist. 

CATTSRMOLB, George, English water 
color painter: b. EMckleborough, near Diss, 
Norfolk, 8 Aug. 1800; d. Clapham, Surrey, 24 
. July 1868. Like Turner and William Hunt! he 
started in life as a topographical draughts- 
man, and was emplmred as a draughtsman on 
Britton's 'English Cathedrals' when only 16. 
He_ drew the designs for the illustrations of 
various annuals, the Waverley Novels, for an 
edition of Shakespeare, and for his orother's 
'History of the Civil Wars.' In 1833 he was 
elected a member of the Society of Painters in 
Water Colors. He was a member also of the 
Academy at Amsterdam, and of the Bel^an 
Society of Water Color Painters. He obtained 
a medal of the first class at the Paris Exhibi- 
tion of 1855. In 1851 he resigned his memi>er- 
ship of the English Society, and devoted him- 
self to oil painting. Cattermole is one of the 
most important representatives of the Romantic 
movement in English art. Among the best 
known of his pictures are 'Hamilton of Both- 
weilhau^^ about to Shoot the Regent Murray' ; 
'Luther at the Diet of Spires' ; 'The Armorer's 
Tale'; <A Terrible Secret,' etc. 

CATTI, or CHATTI, one of the most re- 
nowned and valiant of ancient German tribes, 
inhabiting what is now Hesse, also part of 
Franconia and Westphalia. They carried on 
bloody wars with the Hennunduri and CHier- 
uscL In the time of Csesar they dwelt on the 
Lahn, and opi>osed him with effect Drusus 
defeated without reducing them._ In the reign 
of Marcus Aurelius they made incursions into 
Germany and Thrace^ but were afterward de- 
feated by Didius Juhanus. In 392 they made 
their last appearance in history in union with 
the Franks. According to Cjesar, their terri- 
tory was divided into 100 districts, each of 
which was obUged to send annually 1,000 men 
into the field, whose place was supplied the 
following year by those who had before re- 
mained at home to cultivate the ground. Their 
food was milk, cheese and game;_ their dress 
the sldns of animals. Their limited princes, 
who governed in connection with a diet, an- 
nually distributed the lands among the families. 

CATTLE. Cattle comes from the old 
French word catel, which is derived from the 
Mediaeval Latin captale or capitate, meaning 
goods or property. The use of the Enghsh 
word cattU ordinarily refers to a group of 
animals related to the ox or cow, although on 
occasion it has been applied to all the larger 
animals of economic value. The present Latin 
designation for cattle, bos taurus, was given bjr 
Linnaeus the Swedish naturalist, but as taurus 
means bull, this word is unsatisfactory if it is 
desired to refer to the female, the cow, or to 
the unsexed male, the steer. The English 
word ox is traced dirougfa several languages to 
the words urox, aurochs or auerochs, names 
given the prehistoric ox. This word ox (plural 
oxen) has been very widely used in reference 

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U>. caMlct thotigh not entirdy satisfactory in its 

Cattle existed in prehistoric times, and their 
remains have been extensively . found in the 
more recent geological periods. Wild oxen 
were hunted in Great Britain and on the con> 
tioent of Europe, and parts of skeletons have 
been fouiid in which were embedded flint spear 
heads. The prehistoric ox, known as B.of 
taunts primifftneus, varied in size ia f a>ar)ced 
degree, but as commonly found was much 
larger than the ox ot the present day. A com< 
plete skeleton of what lus been termed Bos 
taunu giganteus has been recovered from the 
English ten lands, and many parts of large 
skeletons may be seen in British musetmis. 
There are to-day in England and Scotland a 
few scattered herds of what are known as 
wild cattle. These are on large estates where 
they are preserved and allowed to reproduce in 
a state of nature. These wild catue are as- 
sumed to be lineal descendants of the prehis* 
tone ox. They are white in color, but with 
dark red or black, hairs upon the ears and 
about the muzzle; have long, shag^gy hair; 
heavy, upstanding horns, and are comparable 
in size with many of our domestic cattle. In 
a few instances wild females have been mated 
to domestic bulls, from which through several 
generations very excellent results nave been 

In a zoological way, cattle present certain 
features of special interest. They belong to 
the order of Ungulata or hoofed animals, which 
includes elephants, giraffes and camels.. How- 
ever, cattle belong to a sub-order of this group, 
having cloven feet, the horse belon^ng to 
another sub-order with a solid foot. The 
skeleton of the ox does not stand as lugfa as 
that of the horse, and the bony processes of 
the spine form a line along most of the back 
that IS nearly straight. Tlie horhs are essen-i 
tially extensions of the comers of the ^kull, al- 
though there are breeds of cattle tnat normally 
have no horns. Cattle h»ve no teeth at the 
end of the upper jaw; this part being covered 
with a tough membraneous pad, against which 
the incisor teeth at the point of the lower jaw 
press. In grazing the vegetation is caught be- 
tween the teeth and pad, and is pulled rather 
than cut off. The ox has a compound stomach 
of four apartments, which occupies nearly 
three-fourths of the abdominal cavity, and in 
large animals has a capacity of as much as 6p 
gallons. When food is first swallowed, it 
goes into the large first stomach, the paunch; 
where it is softened and macerated, and over- 
sows through a slit into the much smaller .sec- 
ond stomach or honeycomb. From one or the 
other of these stomachs, by muscular contrac- 
tidn, the food is forced back to the mouth in 
small balls ot *cuds,> when rumination or 
"chewing the cud'' takes place, which explains 
why cattle are generally known as ruminants. 
Rwmnation only takes place under conditions 
vi quiet and rest, and not during grazing. 
After chewing the end less than a minute, the 
food is swallowed, passing into the third 
stomach the manyplies, from which it moves 
on into the small abomasum or true stomach. 
In comparison with the stomach, the intestines 
in cattle are relatively small while with horses 
and swine the reverse is true. 

Cattle are world wide in their distribution, 

and either exist wild in a state of nature or 
are of the domesticated, improved races or 
breeds. Among the wild cattle are the hison 
of America and Europe, the buffalo of Asia 
and Africa, the yak of highlands of central 
Asia, the gaur of India, the bantin of JaVa, 
Siam, Burma ^ and adjacent countries, etc. 
There are various forms of bulfaloes ranpng 
from animals of small size to those of large 
proportions, and these are especially abundant 
on the continent of Asia and contiguous 
islands. South America and Australia possess 
no native wild cattle. Domesticated cattle are 
best represented in the various' breeds used for 
food or labor that are found in large numbers 
in all countries where herbage is easily grown. 
In Asia and Africa is found a class of humped 
domesticated catOe, commonly known as the 
zebu, of wiuch there are many breeds. I'bese 
In<fian <>r Brahman cattle^ as they are often 
called, differ from our common domestic cattle 
in general bodily form, in possessing a more or 
Jess large hump over the shoulders, in shape of 
ears, d^th of throat, curve and size of horns 
and form of skull, especially in its upper part' 
What are known as the common domesticated 
cattle of Ettrc^e and America differ in « 
marked degree in size, color andi certain 
features of -ionn; ■ fto^sev^r, tbey; are ^1, es- 
sentially the same from an anatomical point o£ 
view, and .belong to the same species. The 
variations referred to have been due to vari- 
ous factors, among which emphasis may be 
laid on environment, selection and the artificial 
breeding operations of man. In general our 
domestic cattle may now be divided into three 
classes or what are commonly known as i^ies, 
viz., beef, dairy and dual purpose. Beef type 
cattle have short, thick nedcs; smooth 
shoulders: wide, prominent breasts; large 
heart girth; broad ]»cks and loins; deep bodies: 
wide, level rumps; thick, meaty thighs and 
comparatively short legs. When in good con- 
dition, • the body is smoothjy, covered with a 
thick layer of flesh indicative of great meat- 
producing capacity. Good examples of beef 
cattle have bodies resembling a .parallelogram 
from side view, or square from the ends, hav- 
ing what is known as a "blocky form." Dairy 
type cattle are relatively thin of neck ; some- 
wnat prominent of shoulder ; narrow of breast ; 
deep yet lacking in thickness of chest; narrow 
at the withers and gradually widening along 
the back to the hips : long of rib and deep of 
middle; long and wide of mitap; and compara- 
tively narrow behind in thb thighs. The 
females are notable for large udoers capable 
of great milk production. This type is lean 
and muscular, and good examples show what 
is termed the. "triple wedge* form. (1) As 
viewed from one side, the body gradually 
widens in depth from front to rear. (2) 
Viewed from above the body gradually widens 
back to the hips. (3) Seen from in front the 
body widens in wedge form from the withers 
<just over the shoulder) downward. The beef 
type is notably broad and ^at, just above the 
shoulder tops, while the dairy type is narrow 
and sharp. Superior beef cattle as a rtUe are 
small milk {MToducers, while to the contrary 
high class dairy cows are very inferior meat 
producers. Dual purpose, oftentimes termed 
general purpose, cattle, are. fair producers of 
hoth meat and milk. Thty lack the thick. 

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1 Dexter Heifer 

2 Ayrshire 

S Group of Guenuey Calves 
4 Guernsey 
B Holstein 

€ Shorthorn 
7 Jersey Bull 

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1 Hereford 

2 Holstein 

3 Group of Dutch-belted Calvei 

4 Guemiey 

5 Devon 

• Jersey 
7 Ouetnsey 

Digitized by 


CATTl,5 . 


blecky- form most desirable ia the modd beef 
aninuil, with kss fullness over the shoulders 
and at the thighs. Dual purpose type cows 
should have good sized udders aiid show dis- 
tinct evidence of nrilk'producing capacity. 
Our domestic cattle, are not only £videa into 
types but into many breeds that have origi- 
nated under widely different surroundings. 
The influences of climate and food, as well as 
the breeding operations of man, have resulted 
in many breeds within these types, each of 
which is quite distinctiye in draracter and use- 
f nhicss. The measure of merit in our herds of 
cattle is absohnely dependent upon the 
meritorious character in the breeds themselves. 
The common herds cannot be improved without 
the use of sires from pure bred herds. 

The following breeds, grouped according to 
type, are the more hnportant ones to be found 
in North America, ' 

Beef Typi: ' 

Shorthorn cattle originated in north- 
eastern England in the counties of York and 
Durham, where they first came into prominence 
during the last quarter of the 18th century. 
The color may be all red, red and white, pure 
white or roan, the latter being a commingling 
of red and white hairs without forming solid 
color. Mature males of this breed commonly 
weigh from 1,800 to 2,200 pounds, although 
some bulls much exceed this. Mature cows 
commonly weigh from 1,400 to 1,500 pounds, 
though the latter figure is often exceeded. This 
is a homed breed, very domestic in tempera- 
ment,, and is noted for the production of 
superior beef. It is the most universally dis- 
tributed breed of cattle in the world, and is 
vciy popular in the United Kingdom, North 
and South America and Australia. Among 
the beef breeds the Shorthorn is noted for 
milk production and some families of the breed 
are especially famous in this regard. 

Hereford cattle originated in Hereford- 
shire, western England. It is a very old 
homed breed. The main body color is red, 
with white face; solid white markings usually 
occur on the legs about the ankles, the lower 
part of the belly, brisket and neck, top of neck, 
withers and brush of tail. Mature males often 
weigh 2,200 pounds, apd females 1,500 pounds 
or more. Much heavier weights however aire 
recorded. Hereford cattle are noted a$ 
grazers and rustlers, being unsurpassed for the 
range. They mature early and produce most 
excellent beef. The breed is largely re- 
stricted to Herefordshire in En^nd, but is 
deservedly popular on the grazing lands of 
the United States, Argentina and Australia. 

Aberdeen-Angus cattle, a black, hornless 
breed, originated in the counties of Aberdeen, 
Kincardine and Forfar in northeastern Scot- 
land. Occasionally a red specimen occurs but 
these are not used for breeding purposes. 
Mature bulls of the breed weigh about 2,000 
pounds, and females about 1,400 pouqd$. This 
is a famous beef breed, and in the British and 
American fat stock shows has lon^ secured 
premier honors. .The crossing of white' Short- 
horn bulls on Aberdeen-Angus cows has long 
been a custom in die Engush-Scotcfa border 
country, their union producing the . .fatnous 
blue-gray steers wluch yield the best ol- beef.' 

Aberdeenr Angus cattle are popular in Scotland, 
have a strong clientage in the United States 
west of the Mississippi and are regarded with 
favor in AustraKa. 

Galloway cattle are black and hornless, and 
originated in Galloway district, southwest Scot- 
land. It is a beef breed of medium size. 
mature bulls weig^iing about 1,900 pounds ana 
cows 1,200 pounds to 1,400 pounds. This 
breed is especially adapted, to grazing, and does 
not do its best under conditions of small farm- 
ing and confinement. It cannot be regarded as 
a popular breed, and has a comparatively 
limited clientage. This is largely due to a 
nervous disposition and a tendency to fattea 
slowly, although Galloways make very superior 
beef. The four beef breeds referred to are 
the only ones of importance in America. 

Daiky Breeds. 

Jersey cattle originated on the Island of Jer> 
sey, one of the group of Channel Islands near 
the coast of France. There they have been 
bred pure for more than a century. The law 
of the island prohibits the introduction of any 
other breed. Jerseys are fawn in color of 
various shades, such as yellow, red, brown,' 
mulberry, silver, etc. White markings are not 
rare, though not popular. Bulls at maturity 
commonly weigh 1,250 to 1,400 pounds, and 
cows from 850 to 900 pounds many animals, 
however, exceeding these weights. The most 
striking features in the Jers^ are the color, 
the wMge form, the short, dished face, the 
prominent beautiful eye, the fine bone, and 
deer-like character of the young calves. This 
is distinctly a dairy breed. The average yield 
for the better cows is about 7,500 pounds of 
milk a year, although the cow Passport 219742 
has an official record of 19,695 pounds for s 
year. Jersey milk usually tests 4J4 to 5 per 
cent fat, and is of very superior quality. Many 
Jerseys have produced 400 pounds of butter- 
.fat in a year, Sophie 19th of Hood Farm 
189748 having to her credit the great yield of 
999.14 pounds. Jersey cattle are very popular 
in England, the United States and C^naoa. 

Guernsey cattle are native to' the island of 
Guernsey, also one of the Channel Islands. 
Guernsey, like Jersey, prohibits the introduc- 
tion of any other cattle, excepting for slaugh- 
ter, and the cattle on Guernsey have been bred 
pure for many years. Guerasqrs are fawn of 
color, usually of a reddish shade, and fre- 
quently have white markings. The standard 
size for mature bulls is about 1,500 pounds and 
1,050 pounds for the cows. In recent years 
these cattle have made remarkable improve- 
ments and many large records of milk and but- 
ter-fat are credited to the breed. The better 
class of cows will average about 8,500 pounds 
per year of milk that is about 5 per cent fat 
Nearly 5,000 cows have averaged 437 jjounds of 
fat in a year, the largest record being 1,098 
pounds produced by Mume_ Cowan 19597. 
Guernsey butter is noted for its yellow color. 
This breed is more especially known in Eng- 
land and the United States east of the Mis- 

Ayrshire _ cattle originated in southwestern 
Scotland, with the county of Ayr as a centre. 
These cattle frequently have rather long, large, 
erect horns. -The polor of the hair is a corn- 

Digitized by 




bination of red, ' brown and white markings, 
with white in most favor at the present time. 
Ayrsiiires while a dairy breed tend to be some- 
what smooth bodied, and may be fattened to 
make very fair beef. At maturity standard 
weights will approximate 1,500 pounds or more 
for the bull and 1,100 pounds for the cow. 
Ayrshire cows of the better class, when ma- 
ture, will average about 9,500 pounds of milk, 
testing 3Mi to 3J4 per cent fat. Lily of Wil- 
lowmoor 22269, a famous cow of the breed, 
produced 9S5.56 pounds of fat in a year. In 
their native land, the milk of these cattle is in 
much favor for making cheddar cheese. Ayr- 
shires are little known outside of Scotland, the 
Scandinavian countries, the eastern United 
States and 'Canada. 

HoUtein-Friesian cattle originated in Hol- 
land, where they have been bred for centuries. 
This is a homed breed, and is black-and-white 
in color, in large marlangs. Present day po^ 
ttlarity favors a preponderance of white. This 
is a large breed, and mature bulls weigh usu- 
ally 1^ to 2,000 pounds, and cows 1,250 to 
1,400 potmds. There is considerable variation 
in type within this breed, with good examples 
of both dairy, beef and dual purpose type. 
However, the most pedlar s^le is the dairy 
type, with some thickness of thi^sand smooth- 
ness of fleshinip Holstein-Friesian cows sur- 
giss all others m milk productionl They have 
rge udders, but produce milk of quite ordi- 
nanr quality, testinjg; 3 to 3^ per cent fat. 
under avera^ conditions. The better cows oi 
the breed will average about 15,000 pounds of 
milk in a year and 500 pounds of DUtter-fat 
The cow Lutscke Vale Comticopia 110505 pro- 
duced 3L247 pounds of milk, while Duchess. 
Skylark Onnsby produced 1,205 pounds of fat 
cadi within a year. HolstdnrFriesian cattle, 
or closely related Dutch breeds, are popular in 
Holland and much of northern Europe and are 
looked upon with much favor in the tlnited 

Dutch Belted cattle originated in Holland, 
where they have long been bred in a very 
small way. They are of a dairy type, and are 
black in color excepting for a white stripe 
which encircles the body between hips and 
shoulders. These cattle have thus far made 
few records of interest, and they are little 
bred excepting as a fad for their peculiar mark- 

Kerry cattle are oi Irish origin. They are 
black in color and comparable with a small 
Jersey as to size. The Kerry is distinctly a 
dairy breed, that has been comparatively little 
improved, but the better cows produca ^000 to 
6,000 pounds of milk a year. This is a very 
hardy breed, and is but little known outside 
of Ireland, there being hardly a dozen herds 
in America. 

Dexter cattle are also of Irish origin, and 
are perhaps an offshoot from the Kerry. This 
is the smallest breed of British origin, bulls at 
maturity often weighing 600 to 700 pounds and 
the cows about 500 pounds. These cattle may 
be all black or all red. They not only produce 
choice small carcasses of beef, but some of the 
pows give comparatively large yields of milk, 
one En^'lish Dexter being credited with 12,000 
pounds in a year. These cattle are little known 
outside of Ireland and England. In the United 
States there were not over 10 herds in 1917. 

French CanaSan cattle originated in tfie 
province of Quebec, Canada, perhaps 200 years 
ago. It is a black or black-fawn breed, small 
of size, comparable with a small type Jersey. 
But little has been done in improving this breed. 
French Canadian cows produce a fair amount 
of milk testing slightly above 4 per cent fat. 
These cattle are almost unknown outside of 

Dual Pustose Cattle, 

Red Polled cattle are native to the counties 
of Norfolk and Suffolk in England. As indi- 
cated bv the name, these are hornless, red 
cattle. Mature males ordinarily weigh 1,800 to 
2,000 pounds, and cows from 1,250 to 1,300 
pounds. This is a distinctly dual purpose breed, 
and is so advocated in America and England. 
A miUc record of 5,000 to 6,000 pounds a year 
is quite common, though Jean DuLnth Beauty 
31725 produced 20,281 pounds in a year. The 
milk is a good standard, testing about 3.75 per 
cent fat Cattle of this breed incline to be 
somwhat nervous of temperament, in compari- 
son with Shorthorns. Red Polled cattle are 
mostiy found in eastern England and in the 
central United States. 

Devon cattle originated in Devonshire south- 
west England, being a very ancient breed. This 
is a horned, red breed. There are wide ex- 
tremes in type with the Devon, but most breed- 
ers in the United States, located in the EJist, 
regard it as of a dual purpose tv^. At one 
time this was a very popular breed m America, 
but is now rarely seen. There are no ofRcial 
milk records for this breed in America. The 
better cows produce a fair yield of excellent 

Brovm Swiss cattle are native to Switzer- 
land, in the eastern section. This is classed as a 
dairy breed by the American Brown Swiss Cat- 
tle Association, but is really a dual purpose 
breed, and is so regarded in Switzerland. The 
color is usually <utrk brown, with mealy or 
creamy marking about the muzzle, the udder, 
inside the legs, and sometimes along over the 
back bone. This is a large, homed breed, with 
rather coarse heavy bones ; mature bulls weigh- 
ing 1,800 to 2,000 pounds, and cows 1,300 to 
L^X) pounds, with many exceeding these wei^ts. 
Brown Swiss cows yield under fair conditions 
5,000 to 6,000 pounds of milk a year, testing 
354 per cent fat. The cow College Bravura 2a 
has a record of 19,461 pounds of milk. These 
cattle are comparatively little known in the 
United States. 

Statistics of the Number and Distmbutioit 
OP Cattle. 

Statistics relative to the number and distri- 
bution of cattle in the world are of interest 
According to the most recent census figures 
available, the following are the 10 leading cattle 
producing countries of the world: 


Year of oenu 
. . . • 1910 

■ Country N 
United Statn. . ..-. . 
Riaaa in Eunpe. . . 

mber csttte 

. . . 1912-13 





United Kingdom... 




gitized by VjOO' 














Digitized by 


Digitized by 




The 10 teading States 6Mhe Utiiled States id 
cattle interests are the following, based on 
statistics of the United States census for 1910: 



of ckttte 



Texas «,935.0IM 





... Nebraska 

, . . Wiaconain . . . 

f"::::;::: r&fv.:;:*; i-^ii.m 

S NewYbrk 2;423.C0a 

9 MionoKIU 2,3«i7,00a 

10 California 2,077.000 

■ 80.U7.0a0 

• ^siw.oop 

.. SD,dO6,OQ0 

The total val»e> oi the cattle of' the United 
States as a whole is given at $M9{l^524k00a 
In 1910^ WiacoHtn, New York, Iowa, lUinoit 
and Minnesota each had: over iJOOOfiOQ daio> 
cows, New York leading with l,60iaiOOO. At the 
pKsent date, 1 Jan. 1917. WiseOftiini leads., in 
numben' of iuty cattle. The aveiage. -value ol 
milch cows io, the United Stetes on 1 Jan, 
1916, according to United States Department 
o£ Agcicttlture statisticSki was $63.90^ atw^of 
other cattle. $33;49. Chia>0> i»UM «reat,ttttto 
raaricct of America. ^ 1^17 there .were .n> 
ceived at the Union Stock Yards, Chieagih 
3.209,427 head of cattle having ayahttliiMi ol 
ia22J256,S81. I>)i8ag the. past 50 yelM's thcw 
has been a gmnd. total of 1(M83.963 head «£ 
cattle shinped into the Chi«ag» yards, the largest) 
receipts tor one year being 3,371.796 heaa in 
1892. The genctral tendency in. the United States 
is to an increase in the nttmher of dairy cattle< 
and a decrease in beef cattle WiUi utcrtaae 
in population and the development of lane 
urban cmiununities is associated incfeased de- 
mand f«r milk. The census shows that frooi 
1900 to. 1910 there was an increase: ol about 2Q 
per cent in dairy cattle in .the United Statest 
The beef 8i«ply, however, has fallen «S to.a 
notable degree, la comparison with growth in 
population, so that we are now hardly prpduc- 
Mig enough beef for domestic use. For the 
10 years up to, 1915 indusivQ we have the foir 
fewing interesting records of, export .uid import 
trade on live eattle: 

' Nwnber Nunobcr 

Tear . of cattle Value of cattle Value 

1906 584,239 $42,081,170 20,119 *S4f,430 

1907 423.051 34.577,392 32,402 563.122 

1908 349,210 29,339<134. 92,356 1,307.310 

1909 207.542 18.046,976 139,184, 1,999.422 

1910 139,430 12,200,154 195,938 2,999,824 

1911 150,100 13. 163,920 182,923 2,953,077 

1912 105,506 8,870,073 818,372 4,805,574 

1913 . 34.7i4 1,177,199 '421,649 6,640,668 

1914 18,376 647,288 868,368 18,696,718 

1915 5,484 702,847 538.167 17.513,178 

Economic Factors. 
There are various factors explanatory of the 
decrease in b^ef production and' our. expoct 
trade. The area ot free grazing lands w«8t of 
the Missouri has largely diniimshed, many'oi 
the large private ranges have been divided aad 
it has not been possible to prddoM cattle 
thereon as cheaply as sn the past In ^k' 
central-West, in the heart of me bom beh, 
where beef cattle have been fed in great num- 
bers, land values have increased to sttch an 
extent that, considering the cost' of- cotn;. 
many have disoontiimed feediqg beef cattle, 

VOL. 6 — 8 

beeatise 6f the k>s& inwrfved, or small liiargin 
of 'pnofit -On the' other hand, in the more 
thiddy settled States, many farmers have 
changed from beef to dairy cattle, owing to the 
lar^ demand, for milk and the greater profit 
in Its production in comparison with beef pro- 
tiuction. Experimental research in Europe and 
America; notably by Lawes and Gilbert of 
England and Trowbridge and Eckles of Mis- 
souri, show the dairy cow to be a much more 
economical coftverter of products of the field 
into human food, • than is the beef-producing 
tmimid. Frbm 100 pounds of digestible matter 
In the' food eate^ according to Jordan, the 
cow prodocaiig 139 pounds of milk yields 18 
pounds of ediblo soliosi while tfaedressed carcass 
of the steer yields but 8.3 pounds marketable 
products, of which but 2.8 pounds are edible 
solids. These fi^rH show about six times as 
much edible solids in the milk of die cow as 
ih the carcass ot the steer, the result in eadt 
case from equal amounts of digestible food 
The feeding of cattle in'volves a wide range of 
agesj conditioti and fnirpose of die animals fed; 
availability of feeding stuffs and relationship 
10 markets. Extentive experiments, especially 
in Germatnr and America, have resulted in es- 
taUisfaihg feeding standards for cattle and other 
aaimals under certain conditions of weight and 
production. The evidence diemonstrates that 
for 1,000 pounds lire weight, or fraction thereof, 
there is required within Umitations a specific 
amount of dry matter, digestible crude protein 
•ad total xligestible nutrient^ :showing a certain 
nutritive, ratio. Modem saence has provided 
the stockman with standards of the composi- 
tion of feeding stuffs, as well as feeding stand- 
ards, whereby ne may without difRcnlty 1 eed his 
animals rations supplying the correct amounts 
of digestible food for their several needs. At 
the Resent day many, stockmen make use of 
fteding standards as necessary guides to intelli- 
gent, practice. .Quoting the Wolff-Ldiman 
standard, as given by Himry and Morrison in 
* Feeds aad. Feeding,' we have the ioUowing 
iUustrativQ standards for f atteiMng cattle : 

na'bAY-ntk 1,000' MtiMbs Livs wncar ' 

Aidiaal D«gert- Total 

. Dry ibie cmde d«e*tiUa 

Steer, fattaniag 2 matter, protein, nutnanta. Nutritive 
.. 7-:rT . .. ,j^ ']^^ ^^ 

2.0-2.3 18!o-20.e 7.0- 7.8 

1.9-2.3 17.0-19.5 7.0-7.8 

U8-3.1 16.0-18.5 7.0- 7.8 

0.6-0.8 8.4-ia4 iaO-16X) 

yr. old qn full feed 
Fikt 50-60 day*. . . 
Second 50-60 daw. 
Tiiird 50.60 dayk.. 
OxatreatiQitaU. . 






Speclat tables are pitepared for dairy cows, 
in^ which certiua amounts of ' nutrients are al-' 
lowed for fflaitatenance of' the body functions, 
to which is added re^dred c/ude protein and 
total drgestiUe nutrients for each pound of 
milk based bn its percentage of fat 
■ A large -variety of succulent feeds, hay or 
dry roughage, gtain and mflltng ^-^roducts 
are saited to the needs of cattle. Beef calves 
as a rule irorse their dims six months or more, 
while calves fmh dary cows are taken from 
their two or three days, and are grad- 
ually chaiiged fromwUoie to mm milk, Being 
fed the latter from three to four wcdcs of age 
up to oi^. months or sa Among die standard 
foods much in - use for cattle in 'the United 
States besides pasturage are the following dry 
roughages: timatho', blue grass, r^d top^ alfalfa. 

Digitized by 




red cloVfar, com flcxUer ahd stovtir. 0£ gninB 
we havb Indian. corn and oats, with a wide 
variety of by-products from milU haadUiiK 
wkeat, corn, barley, cotton and flax seeds. Sii' 
Age, mainly froto torn, is extennvely used at 
a. cattle f eetl both in milk and htcf productioa 
3n making up standard rationtt d^iT cows ace 
fed approximately two pounds of diy roui^iage 
or one pound of this and three pounds of alage 
daily, for each 100 pounds o£ live wei^t. with 
enough concentrates (grain or by-^oducts) 
to adjust the entire ration to the f eedwc ttana- 
ard. Experimental results have shown 
is: good practice to feed dairy cows daily about 
one pound of grain for each three to four 
pounds of miUc produced, cows producing rich 
milk, as Jerseys or Guernseys, requiring the 
lesser amount. Fattening' steers may be given 
daily about two and one>-faalf pounds of dry 
roughage (or the equivalent in suage) and con- 
centrates for each 100 pounds of Hve weighti 
the amount of concentrate ranging from one to 
one aod three-fourths pounds for each 100 
pounds live weight, based oa the degree of 

Extensive losses occur from disease' among 
cattle, of w^iich the more comaoa are tnberciH 
losis, contagious 'abortion, black leg and Texaa 
fever. Based on figiures reported, we have as 
annual ktss in diis country from diseaoc, eiepox 
sure, dcddent, etc., estimated at $177,75^000. 
The seven most important losses .are as foJ^ 
lows : 

lIuoell*neou*UveMdckdiaeues > «M,<M6,0M 

BfaKlclw >..... a7,t>I.QM 

Insufficwat or inegnlff feediiiy 27, 196, Q 

Exposure '. Jl ,(186,0 

TabercTllaaia ;....■...' 19,N7,4 

Contasious abortiaa „; t4.3S3,«._ 

Taxu fever uid nttte tick 10,417,000 

Inqninr was addressed to nHniert>us agents 
oiE the United States Department of Agnctil-' 
tnre as' follows: - ^For every SlOd worth of 
OBttie in the county what would you consider 
the4xtent of yearly k>6s from alt oaiases indi- 
' cated above ?'^ replies to which gave an average 
of $7.11 for the entire Umtiul States. See 
Animals, Domesticated; Daisy Inhustry; 
Cattle, Diseases ov; Live Sidck, Feeding of; 
Stock BREEomG. 

,. Biblio|rraphy.-T- Henry, W. A., and Mprri- 
sdin, F. B., 'Feeds and Foediiig' (Madison, 
Wis., 1915); Houghton; F. L;, 'Holstein-Prie-. 
sian Cattle' (Brattleboro, Vt., 1897); Hon*-' 
man, William, 'Cattle Breeds and Manage- 

Sent^ (London 1897) ; Linsley, J6hn S^ 'Jer'sey Amcriaa' (New York 1885) ; Lydekr- 
ker, R., 'The Ox and Its Kindred' (Londoa 
1912); Mumford. Herbert W., <Beef Produci 
tion) (Urbana, III., 1907) ; Drs. Pearsof^ Mur^ 
ray, etc., 'Special. Repmt on the .EKseases' ofi 
Cattje>: (Washington 1904) ; Plumb, Charles S., 
'Types and Breeds of Farm Animals' (Bostodi 
1906), and 'Judssng Farm Animals' (New 
York 1916) ; Sanders,' A. H" 'ShorAohi Cat- 
tle* (Chicago 1900), and 'The Story of the 
Herefords* '(Chicago 1914) ; Shaw, Thomasy 
'The Management and Feeding of Catfle' 
(New York 1909); Sinclsrit, James, 'Hibtory 
Of Shorthot^ Cattie> (London 1907), and 'His* 
Dory of Aberdeen--Angas Cattle' (London 
1910); Stdrer John, 'Wild White Cattle of. 
(H«at Britain' (Loadon d. d.) ; Vaughaa, H^ 

.W., <Tn>4s And NUrket Cla«us o{ Live Stock' 
iColumbus, Ohw, 1915) ; Wilson. James, 'The 
Evojution <kf British Cattle and the Fashioning 
of Breeds' (London 1909): Youatt, William, 
'Cattle' (London 1860); 'Cattle and ^airy 
J^aniung' . (Government Document Washington 
1887). . Chaeles S. Plumb, 

J*rofessor of Animal Husbandry, The Ohio 
State UnivtrsUy. 

CATTLC Diseasm of. CeatMf^tooB 
Diseasca. — All such diseases are comtnumcable 
|to other susceptible bovines by a microbe of 
some Idnd, which may be large enough to be 
demonstrated by a good microscope, or so 
Infinitesimal as to rcniain invisible under the 
strongest magnifyiMr powers- (uUravisible). 
But all alike show' their gcnetative power by 
oansing the diseane in any sasceptible animal 
inoculated, and this conifaiuoB^ so long as 
new stHc^ttibit sobjects are prtecnted — caus- 
ing a plagiM or epizoodc Plagues of cattle 
pnetent a Idifferent problem from plagues of 
Man, ' in the entire absence of any moral re- 
striotion cm the avtula^le modes of restricting 
diem or siam^ng them out Among the early 
cattle piagues in the Old World, Binderpest 
stood oiit as the most contagious and deadly, 
pmetieaUy all bovlit« animals exposed contract- 
ing the- msease, and nearly ^ dying. Since the 
b«qgimiing of the Christian era ditt iilague has 
prevailed^ in China, Mongolfa, Siberia, etc., and 
exttoded west into Europe whenever a ^reat 
mler was seized with an «xf ensioft of territory 
maaifl, and involving central Europe in war, 
created a ^great demand for lavge army supplies 
and the movement of great bodies of cattle 
f Kom Ae East. ' Protected by her enclosing seas 
Great Britain farg«ly escaped. I« l4ie war- 
ravaged 18th century the resulting losses in 
Europe were estimated at 200,/000,000 head. In 
Ae 19th century active commercia} intercourse 
largely displkced #ar as a cause,- tmdiriy tempt- 
ting corrupt and corroptihle - dealers. In ibe 
18w Miitury Great Britain, writhing under her 
unwonted losses, fell back on the rational de- 
vice, of ' quarantine of infected districts and 
slaughter of the herds, with indemnity to the 
owners, a«d, though the effect was slow imder 
the varj^ng earnestness or intelligence of local 
authorities, the' plu:ue was eradicated. Britain's 
next iqvasipn (^1865) was through a cirgo of 
cattle from Reval, Russia, and spread rapidly 
through' the island, causing ruinous losses, until 
stockmeb cbuM be educated anew to the con- 
ditions, {after wUch it was easily stamped out, 
as it had been a century before. Again and 
again n872 atid 1878) It mvaded Britain 
through her active commerce, from Russia and 
Germany, but the country alrea<hr instructed 
and prepared made short work of it 

Another pest, lung plague of cattle, invaded 
th4 British Isles throum the Dutdi trade (1839) 
dnd prevailed until ISw. Being 26 years before 
the IPth certfury experience with Rinderpest, 
amd of slower' progress and less fatal, stockmen 
ilemalned long obtuse to the danger and tem- 
potiaed yrith the plague, trusting largely to 
moculation' from the diseased lung into the tip 
of the tail, vrhere, in the absience of abundant 
conaactive tissue to' accommodate the ]>henom- 
enally large- liquid exudate thrown out into the 
ilrflamed structures,' the lesion' remained dr- 
cnttiscribed hnd the. system. at large had become 

Digitized by 




hniliuiiLBed before. Ute vlttaimible gem reaofacd 
the Ivm^ its natural kabilat. Thoug^ success- 
ful in uununusing and savmg the inoculated 
hb'rd this _ virtually spread the disease-germ — 
in die buildiiiKS, yards, pastures, manure, fod- 
der, etc, of the animals operated on and the 
pest was kept alive for 59 years, until, more 
thorough and radical measures were adopted. 

Lung plague was imported from England 
into BrooUyn, N. Y. (1843), into New Jersey 
<1847) and into Bostoii, Mass., from .Holland 
(1859). The New lersey importer stamped it 
odt by promptly killing the. whole herd; the 
Uassachaaetts authorities cleared that State by 
killing all infected herds at a cost of $77,511.07 
for iadenuiities. The Brookljm outbreak per- 
sisted for 49 years, extending into New Eng- 
land, New York, New Jersey, PennsylA^nia, 
Maryland, Delaware, District of Columbia, In- 
diana, Illinois and Wisconsin. In 1887, when 
the National Stock Yards, Chicago, became in- 
volved, and the whole oontinoit was imminently 
threatened, a campa^ for extinction -was 
started. In three months the plague-stricken 
Qiicago and Cook Ounty were cleared, and by 
1892 the United States was once more free, 
though at a heavy cost in catde. For long this 
outbreak failed to spread widely because the cat- 
tle traffic was practicalty all eastvnrd tn tlte large 
cities on the Atlantic seaboard, and this plague 
was finally carried West by a comparatively 
new but considerable traffic in thoroughbreds, 
and in calves sent to replace losses in the 
Western herds. This but rqteated die Old 
World experience that in countries breeding 
their native stock,, as in Spain and Portugalj 
Norway, Scottish and Welsh Highlands, cattle 
remained long free from this and other plagnies. 
The same is true of the diannel Islands. It 
*troagty emphasises the necessity of stopping 
the movement of all stock, and even men, in dis- 
tricts where a deadly pestilence prevails, of kill- 
ing all infected herds (skk aiid well) and of 
thorough disinfection of the carcasses, manure, 
litter, fodder and articles of all kinds that can 
by any possibility carry infection. The writer 
found that sterilized exudate from the diseased 
Ixme, wnen injected under the skin, immunizes 
such anifltals ' against attack on exposure. .If 
I>repared without possibility oi survival of the 
living germ this is en^rely safe and .harmless, 
but the probable escape of the live germ, ex- 
cepting in the most careful pr«>ar«taon, forbids 
its general use. In case of hii^ class cattle 
and under skilful supervision it may be profit- 
ably used on an already infected herd, kept 
absolutely separate from others. 

Foot and Mtmth Distasi. — This has . been 
repeatedly introduced into the United States 
in cattle, sheep and swine, and by cowimk 
vims, and has secured a widie and threatening 

Srevalenoe on different occasions. It is per- 
aps the. most contagious of cattle diseases,- and 
since other cloven- footed animals (sheep, goats 
and swine) are about equally, susceptible with 
cattle, and other warm-blooded races and man 
are only slightly less so, it hat at timea caused 
much apprehension and dread; veterinarians 
have pronounced it dangerous and fatal, and 
^vemment authorities have enjoined that all 
mfected animals, herds and flocks be promptly 
slaughtered and the places disinfected. It. is, 
however, one of the mildest and least fatal of 
cattle diseases, proving lethal only when the 

in^ectian has been swallowed in the food (will^ 
Water, soiled fodder, etc.) and lias set up the 
diseased process on the alimentary canal 
(stomach, bowels). As usually occurring it 
shows itself in isolated blisters one-third to one 
inch in diameter on the mucous membrane of 
the muzd^ Ups, cheek, tongue and throat, oii 
t&e teats and between the hoofs (extending up 
in front and bdiind). Each blister shows but 
one undivided sac filled with a clear serum (a 
cowpock of about the same size is separated 
by internal partitions into a number of separate 
.sacs and must be pricked again and a^in to 
anpty it). The disease has a period of incuba- 
tion of from two to eight days in cold weather, 
followed by some dullness in appearance ana 
rise of body heat, a pink color of the membrane 
of the mouth, heat and some tenderness of the 
teats and between the hoofs, and soon move- 
ments of the jaw& accumulations of white frodi 
in masses around the lips and a driveling of 
liquid saliva. A loud smacking usually follows 
caused by gaping, parting of the lips and sep- 
aration of the tongue from the roof of the 
mouth. The simultaneous attack of the whole 
hend and the concentration of the lesions on 
the three points named make a characteristic 
picture. The implication of sheep, goats or 
swine in the same building, yard or road is 
equalfy striking. The rale is that when kept 
dean, fed soft, sloppy food and treated with 
mild antiseptics, the patients improve rapidly 
and are well in 14 days, and after an attack 
tfaey can be considered immune for a length 
of time. They may have a second attadc 
a year later. As reassuring data it may be 
stated that in the United States, and in (jreat 
Bribain it was the rarest thing to have a death 
ocoir.- McMinn's cattle insnrance statistics, cov- 
ering long periods of prevalence of the plague, 
give not a single reference to a death. The 
writer's ex^rienc& having lived on a Scottish 
farm in hia youth, was that feeding cattle, 
be«igfat in the fall market usually brought the 
infection with them, passed through the attack in 
the first fortnight and recovered without excep- 
tion; and that the next spring crop of calves 
lived and throve without any sign of the mal- 
ady, even in cases of neglect of disinfection. 
The infection became inert when dried for 24 
hours at 88° F., but remained virulent for nine 
months when kept at 32° F. (Loffler). It in- 
fected men who consumed butter and cheese 
from infected herds; others have eaten this 
widiout harm, but these were in infected ^s- 
trkts and the experimenters were veterinarians 
with ample previous opportunity for exposure 
to the disease and consequent immunization. It 
^ould be added that the outbreak of 1870, 
imported in English cattle landed at Levis 
(Quebec), which spread through Quebec, (>n- 
tarioy New York and New England, showing 
its virulence fay sparing no bovine in any herd 
it entered,^ and extending to swine, sheep and 
human beings as well on the farm, ran its 
usual Old World course of two weeks, then 
subsided for lade of susceptible subjects, and. 
on the coming of spring and the fresh crop oi 
calves, it failed to attack any one of these. 
There had been no killing, not even an official 
quarantine; only the owners seduded the stock 
as usual in winter quarters, and this allowed 
tune for the spontaneous death of the germ. 
Again, the New England outbreak of 19Q2 from 

Digitized by 




contaminated cowpox virus occurred, like the 
Quebec one, in the fall, and should have had 
an equal chance of dying out quickly but for 
the fact that it involved a ntunber of large 
dairies supplying milk to Boston and other 
big cities and that it was officially subjected to 
compulsory slaughter, so that dairymen at- 
tempted to hide the existence of the malady 
as_ far as possible to prevent die ruin of their 
milk business, their chief or only source of 
livelihood. The animals were huddled in dose, 
unsanitary quarters, too often along with con- 
cealed manure, and thus contracted secondary, 
diseases from septic infection of the sores, 
which rendered^ the affection much more com- 
plex and injurious. The outbreak and these 
results lasted until May 1903, seven months 
after the Federal government took the matter 
in charge (or a vear after the first circum- 
stantial report of the existence of the pestilence 
in the State). This outbreak is in most marked 
and unh^py contrast with the experience of 
the simple disease in Scotland, Canada, New 
York and New England in 1870; also with a 
number of more restricted outbreaks in which 
newly imported cattle were kept until they had 
passed through the disease and recovered. 

Prevention, Exclusion. — For any disease 
like this, exclusively microbian, always requir- 
ing importation to start die first case in any 
Otttbreidc, non- fatal, lasting but two weeks, with 
microbe easily sterilized, Uie cheapest and most 
efficient resort is still to exclude it absolutely 
from the country by preventing importation. 
All warm-blooded animals must be shut out 
because these can contract the disease under 
favorable circumstances and can harbor the 
microbe causing the affection and convey it to 
other susceptible animals. - This would of neces- 
sity shut out not only warm-blooded animals, 
DUt also their products: hides, horns, hoofs, 
hair, wool, bristles, feathers, down, bones, 
meats, dried muscles, tendons, sausage cases, 
extracts of all kinds made from such aiunals, 
wet or dry, blood, manure, virus, bacterins, 
miscalled vaccines, real vacane (cowpox vari* 
ola) and all other products that coiifd convey 
foot and mouth disease. It would also exdum 
immigrants and especially stock men, and those 
with soiled clothes until these were sterilized 
1^ heat. This is confessedly « large order, but 
we have already suffered throng^ these chan- 
nels and are liable to suffer again and again 
while present methods continue. Which th«i is 
better: to make our own products at home, 
or to stamp out every few years a pestilence 
threatening all of our 9Qt000;O0O bead of cattle 
that it can reach, and their yearly offspring, 
until the pest is thoroughly extirpated? An 
alternative would be to detain all sudi im- 
ported animals and animal products at the 
port of arrival, quarantinin)^ tne former under 
the most rigid and inflexible rules for one 
month, or more if needed, under constant pro- 
fessional supervision; and steriliring the latter 
by heat or i^ thorough disinfection before they 
were rdeased. The mere exdusion of live 
imi>orted cattle or their safe sednsion after 
arrival would be open to continual acddents 
and loofrfiole escapes. Birds, insects and even 
vermin would open the way for escape of in- 
fection. Tlie efficacy of a perfect quarantine 
and disinfection was evidently recognized by 
the Federal officials, who, under the urgent 

protest of the owners of tfaorou|rfibreds Aen 
on exhibition in the Qlicago International 
Cattle Show, retained the whole exhibit for a 
length of time and after disinfection finally 
released them. But inconsistently enough a 
highly valued thoroughbred herd outside the 
city was ruthlessly slaughtered; and again, 
when the Chicago Stock Yards were dosed, 
teveral davs' grace were allowed so that slock 
unexpectedly caught there could be di^oscd of. 
As might be expected the disease made its way 
in several new directions in the interval. 

A costly and irremediable result of the 
slaughter of some of the best stock in the 
country lay in the sudden removal of priceless 
cattle that it had cost lifetimes to secure and 
the rendering impossible of the birth of their 
equally priceless prospective issue. It was a 
deed that could in no way be daimed as wise 
foresight, loyal patriotism nor devotion to the 
interests of live stock improvement or national- 
prosperity. Official rqwrts of cattle killed and 
paid for (19Q2-0i3) in the New England in- 
vauon were $179,572J7. For that of 1908 re- 
ferred to above the charges for cattle killed 
were $376^78S.39, but these do not take into 
account the other losses to die stock owners, 
the interruptions^ oiten permanent, of business 
connecdons and enterprues, the oudays made 
imperative to establish new lines of trade, the 
losses incident to restocking (vi4ien the old 
stock could have been profitably retained) and 
the certain loss of all prospective issue of the 
stock needlessly killed. The offidals have 
sought to excuse their actions by quotations of 
heavy losses in dairy cows kept day and nig^t 
in close, offensive city stables, the empty stalls 
being promMly filled from dty markets diarwed 
with infection^ and a^in of others from Ger^ 
many, where, m addition, every dty maintained 
its Freibtmk for the sale of detective meat 
at a cheap rate; and through which there was 
inevitably a continuous distribution of infection. 

Treatment consists in scrupulous cleanliness 
and diyness, with the use of healing lotions 
weak enough to be non-irritating — alum, 
borax, copperas, blue ston& aniline blue, forma- 
lin, hypochlorite of lime (bleaching powder), 
or, better still and cheaper, die (]ardl-Dakin's 
combination of hme hypochlorite (30 per cent 
chlorine), 4}4 ounces put in a bottle with S 
quarts water and shaken often for 6 hours; 
2 otmces dried soda carbonate and 1^ ounces 
bicarbonate of soda in 5 quarts water put in a 
separate bottle, well shaken and set aside for 
6 hours; add the two liquids together, shake 
well for some minutes; set aside for one-half 
hour ; siphon off the surface water without dis- 
turbing the predpitate; filter through paper 
and use. ' 

/mmwmfy.— Viewed bnoAW. thu consists in 
invulnerability of a living; body to the attack 
of a microbe. Sudi resistance may apply to 
a particular microbe or many. Every race of 
animals shows a susceptibility to its own mi- 
crobian enemies and insusceptibility to others, 
and where the latter is very pronounced the 
blood or other serums may often be used on 
other susceptible races to confer a measure 
of immunity. But this is not an invariable 
result J one animal, with a strong vulnerability 
to a given microbian affection, when it has once 
passed through that disease and recovered, 
shows an equally potent acquired immunity 

Digitized by 




«4ien again exposed to it Another anknalldueli 
naturalnr shows a strong tendency to suffer f rem 
a microbtan or other protein poison when once it 
succumbs to it wilt show a far greater and 
more dangerous procUvitir when exposed to it 
again (anaphylactic]|. ^nUs is the exact op« 
posite of immunization. ObservatioD and ex- 
perience must guide as to the result to be ex- 
pected from the use of any microbian or protefai 
poison on an animal of a given race and m 
given conditions. The tolerance or intolerance 
of a given race, or animal, to a microUan 
poison cannot be asserted until one knows the 
action of that poison on that race and the his- 
tory of that particular animal as regards pre- 
vious infection, iminunization and exposure. 
Vulnerability is also liable to be a£Fected b^ 
age, by food and by other proteins generated 
in the body or oufside of it. Rats confined to 
an exclusively animal diet become highly resist- 
ant to anthrax. Algerian sheep bred for long 
ages in a highly anthrax district now retan a 
surviving race immune from this disease; 
whereas elsewhere flodcs are quiddy cut off 
in an anthrax environment. Pigs, dogs and 
fowls (meat eaters) are highly resistant to 
anthrax, but subjected to a low temperature they 
sttcciunb readily. The animal food of sucklings 
largely protects them from diseases to whidk 
they are obnoxious when put on a weaned diet 
Some proteins which are highly injurious to 
man and animals when injected directly into 
the veins are habitually eaten by the same and 

Eove harmless, once likty have been digested 
the stomach secretions and absorbed through 
i gastric mucous membrane: As examples 
of other poisons which greatiy increase sus> 
ceptitMlit^ to disease we have the effect of 
lactic aad, of the sarco-lactic add developed 
in the muscles of an animal subjected to hard 
work and of phloridzin, which greatly increase 
the virulence and mortality of anthrax. These 
must serve to illustrate the many loopholes 
(known and still unknown) which interfere 
with disease-products in dealmg with contagion 
and in immunization. And yet, where appli- 
cable such agents act with a success that may 
be conridered almost magical. No known resort 
is more reliable in appropriate cases^ and with 
care many of the pitfalls can be avoided, indiile 
if die protective or curative agent can be taken 
from the already infected herd and from no 
other, we safely escape any blunder in dtag- 
nosis and the far ^eater risk constantly present 
in using commercial products made in labora^ 
tories, where they may come from a far diffep- 
ent disease, with an utterly different microbe, 
productSj therefore, which are useless for the 
disease in band and even likely to introduce 
and disseminate the germs of a second malady 
to complicate the problem we have to meet and 
add perhaps materially to the mortality. Our 
repeated unhappy experiences in the hnporta- 
tion in cowpox germs of an admixture of those 
of foot and mouth disease should settle for all 
time the safety of autotherapy from the herd 
itself and make it first choice over the tmcfet^ 
tain and dangerous commercial laboratory 
products. If taken from the infected herd 
itself and applied to it, it cannot introduce any 
new and reooubtable infection, and if the ex- 
isting infection is that of a contagious and 
self-Nmiting (fisease there is every reason to 
expect that the attack will be sboitc&ed and 

nuiddy ended. In the case of foot and moulA 
aisease, or any other mihi non-fatal and short- 
lived affection, every animal would be at once 
put under the sway of the poison, all would 
recover simultaneously, the herd would be 
released at an earlier date and any danger to 
other herds would be at an end. 

The process of immunization is confessedly 
a complex one. If effected throuf^ the agency 
of the antibodies (defensive agents) found in 
the healthy blood and tissue cells of .the sound 
animal body charged with the duty of protect- 
ing the body when assaulted by the poisons 
(toxins) produced by the invading microbe (of 
which a htrge ntunber have been identified and 
named), also by bodies that tend to devitalise 
and destroy the invading microbe,^ the case is 
simplified somewliat These defensive products, 
in small amount at first, go on increasing in 
quantity and potency as the disease progresses, 
and, in favorable cases, the patient recovers. 
The body and tissue cells having passed 
through this extraordinary stimulus to produce 
these defensive products in excess, continue the 
same worle indefinitely (sometimes for life) 
and protect the system from any new attack. 
If on the contrary tiie invading organism ' is 
too potent, or the system is too feeble to react 
sufficiently, the victim is doomed and perished. 

We see the working of this defensive red- 
action in all the lesser physical ailments and 
injuries which^ have not been haintnally classii- 
fied as contaf^ous. This protective power im>- 
plantcd at birdi is really the great healer, and 
the surgeon is condemned to stand by as an 
assistant, soothing by quiet rest, a suitable posi- 
tion or support and checking infections that 
fall on the wound, while the body itself per- 
forms the cure through granalating tissue and 
petliaps with earthy Hilts (as in broken bones) 
drawing together the gash in the skin, firmlv 
knitting the broken bone, etc It was in sudi 
targical cases that the auto-cure by the de>- 
fensive powers of the body for long main- 
tained its highest reputation, largely because 
the seat of the trouble conld be so thorou^ily 
reached by non-irritadng antiseptics, but in too 
many cases it is prudent to see that the potent 
powers of the defensive cells against microbian 
invasions should be no less availed of. Before 
the days of self-immunization as a medical 
weapon it was familiar to see poll evils and 
fistulas of the shoulder, withers and elsewhere 
persisting for many months, often fed by con- 
tinuous additions of infection from local 
sources, which to-day would reccrigniae the 
potency of natare's healer and of the pus dis- 
diarge from the a|>en sore (sterilized). So, 
too, when pus infection from an unseen source 
keeps np a constant succession of pustules, boils 
and other surface stmpurations, the auto-cure 
will often reaiore the balance and stronglv 
comribute to a recovery. In foot and mouth 
disease, cowpox and vesicular sore month, of 
approximatefy the same period of incubation 
and duration, and equally mild and non-fatal, 
the auto-cure is plainly invited. No iugb mot>- 
tality demands slaughter. There are always a 
few days' delay before such cases are reported'; 
with a large herd a few days are needed to 
prepare for burial; the disease has meanwhile 
reached its hei^t, and, left to itself, recovery 
would soon have been far advanced. Nothing 
is to be gained by Ulling — act even time; dw 

Digitized by 




lieating' of the salhra for half an hbu^ to 212' Ft 
in a suitable apparatos'iriil insure sterilization 
so that, in the absence of all living germs, it 
can be ttsed with full confidence of safety, and 
even in other diseases (spore-fonning), and 
'therefore liable to infect premises and soil, 
it is only necessary that the virus shall be snb- 

1'ected to repeated heatioKs with intervals of 
2 to 24 hours to allow lor the sproutittg of 
the spores to form microbes, and a sterilized 
product is obtained. 

A list of the more common contanous dis- 
eases is here given, indicating their adaptability 
or otherwise to the employment of autotherapy : 

(1) Cattle pests too contamous and fatal to 
idtnit safe autotherapy: Rinderpest, canine 
madness, chronic bovine dysentery (Johne's 
.disease). For these the cheapest, safest and 
most effective' resort is to stop any movement 
whatever of animals of any kind within a very 
large- area around the herds known to be in^ 
iected, to kill the infected herds, to burn or 
bury the carcasses and products and to thor- 
ou^ly disinfect the premises, pastures, etc. 

(2) Cattle pests in tvhich the germs ore pre- 
served in dead tissues of the living body, 
caseaied or pus products, etc. to spread the 
malady after recovery: Lung plague, calf diph- 
theria, tuberculosis, gangrenous coryza (cold 
in the head), catarrh of the nasal sinuses, 
caseated lymph glands, anthrax, foot rot. ' In 
&ese autotherapy should be tised only under 
careful restriction and good judgment. (3) 
Cattle pests in which the germs survive indent- 
■nitely in air, earth or water, to spread the 
affection later: Anthrax, black leg, tetanus 
(lockjaw). In these the cattle operated on are 
likely to prove immune, but susceptible animals 
ooffiinK on the lands later, by fatrth or from 
putsidk are liable to suffer and start a new 
ontbreak. Here autotherapy protects the ani- 
inals on the ground, but einciency demaiids 

Quarantine, drainage (drying the land), and, 
or a length of tune, seclttsion of the area 
from other live stock. (4)' Cattle pests that 
are not self-limiting (self-immunizingy. Here 
the disease may show itself a second tiriie in 
animals treated by autotheranr and may spread 
to other susceptible or new-oom animals, the 
beginning of a fresh outbreak: Poll evil, fis- 
tulous withers, foot rot, chronic tuberculosis, 
deep-seated pus pockets having no sufEcient 
dependent outlet, chronic intermittent bovine 
dysentery (Johne's_ disease), cancer, actinomy^ 
costs, etc, which, like syphilis in man or glan- 
ders in the horse, ma^ persist for months or 
years in the same animal and steadily infect 
others. The danger of such a disease is sel- 
dom clearly appreciated by the owner because 
dte animal spreading it appears to suffer so 
little. But in such chronic cases the - germ 
carrier has become laigely immune or the 
deadly . germ ^ would _ have ^ cut . him off long 
before, and his indi'tidual invulnerability gives 
him a long opportunity to spread the germ he 
bears, and thus to become mcomparably more 
destructive to o&er and more vulnerable- sub- 
jects. By this means such splendidiv benefi- 
cent enterprises as Pasteur's method of im- 
munizing and saving the life of the already 
infected victim of hydrophobia has>' for lack 
of necessary accompanying precautions^ appar- 
ently become tiie means of preserving land 
spreading the germ pi this moat dqdorablie 

affeictidn . f o which itan iuid' beast oKt sOfgdVr 
erally susceptible. From 1868 to 1878 and 
later mad dogs and hydrophobic men were 
alike unknown in central ' New Yoric, while 
since the Pasteur laboratory was established 
mad dogs have been common- dtrough the 
country as they were earlier in N«w York city, 
and there has been no lack oi human patients 
at the 'laboratory. The same is true of Franca 
the. country made famous by Padteur's skilC 
The Pasteur laboratories have failed to ex- 
tirpate mad dogs or to save people from their 
bites and 'canine and human victims have been 
plJentiCul in France, while in Gtt*t Britaioi 
Australia and .other nations, where effective 
muzzling of dogs is secured, ma^ dogs and 
candidates for hydrophobia treatment are alike 
UnlaiowQ., 'It is -for the objector to explain 
<why. It is not for us to Abolish at once the 
Paisteur laboratory, but to see diat its patients 
are not allowed to leave the institution and 
mingle with the general public immediately on 
completion of the series of injections of the 
living germ and while that microbe is still 
alive in their systems. It is equally essentiaj 
Jthat the strict muszling of all dogs be enforced 
(n6t simpjy placed on the statute books) untU 
-long after t»e last case of hydrophobia has 
been effectually ^sposed of. 
- In all such cases autiitherapy by the steril- 
ized vims is the rational and safe resort. 

Tick Fever (Southern Cattle Fever). -^ In 
the splendid enterprise of extirpating this by 
.dipping again and again, all cattle in the inr 
iected district (embracing whole States) art 
cleared. But as a means to this end the cattle 
of a district w«re drirea at regular intervals 
to a place when the baths had been con- 
'Sttuctra, ' diroppin^ there and on the roadways 
the eggs, of the bver fltike (^Distoma hepaticum 
■and- tain ceohtvm}, thereby infesting the land, 
the 'water and slugs and_ laying the foundation 
^or 9 plague of flukes in the locality, a con- 
tinuous, infestment of the farm animals, a de- 
preciation of values and ruinotis losses in sheep 
especially, and only less so in cattle, p\ig? and 
other tnammals. Similarly, the opportunity 
was given for stocking the land and -water with 
.germs of anthrax, black leg, tetatuis and other 
plagues, the -gerriisof which survive outside the 

4oW. See CA.TTU1-TICK. 

Tuberculosis.—- The most widely prevalent 
and intractable pla^e of animals, largely be- 
cause it is often concealed through ladc of 
ob-vious symptoms, through the variety of or- 
gans attacked in different animals, so that the 
victims may appear to be in rug:ged health and 
yet oontindally spread the germ. Many of 
thein can be easily traded -off On an unsuspetl^ 
ing customer and will go on unsuspected ia 
-:the new herd , dealing ' their deadly gift all 
around, and especially to pigs, through feeding 
in common or in subcession with cattle. In 
-hidden cases germs are preserved in the hard 
iibrous tubercle, in the softened and caseated 
.masses: and even in partially calcified ones, and, 
.finally, there is no effective legislation nor ad- 
miniatration for its suppression. Tubercles ap- 
pear in the throat, the lun^s and their covering, 
-on Ae inner side of the ribs and spine, on the 
heart and pericardium, on the generative ot^ 
igans, stomach, liver, pancreas, peritoneum or 
in «ny gland or gland Krovip throughout the 
■boiyi jUHiKrficisl. qr: 4e^>f in bones or joints. 

Digitized by 




in the bnin or its. covendgs — iodemd, any* 
wher« througbottt. die bo4y. The majori^ ib 
an iniccted herd aray escape detection udess 
the tuberculin test is allied to aJl. The most 
simble procedure is to ^ut a drop of tuberculin 
usoer the lower eyelid in each animal. If next 
day that eye is- red, - inflamed and watering 
wmle the other ^_e has escape4 there is good 
ground for susindon and all animals showing 
this should be separated from others and at 
once, or better, after a week or two, should 
have a half-dram of tuberculin injected under 
the loose skin of the neck or side. The tein> 
posture of each animal taken just before the 
test, to give a tiortnal should be recorded and 
after eight hours the body temperature diould 
be taken' every hour for 12 hours. Any rise 
above the wnrnalirom 103.5° to 105° P. would 
condemn any subject that had also showed die 
congested eye. All such should be killed if 
the aim is to stamp out the disease. The eow- 
staUe should be disinfected with good, fresh 
bleaching powder, togedier widi mangers, 
racks and- drinking ti-oughs. The remaitider 
of the herd diould be tested yearly or half- 
yearly and reactors removed and killed 

In case of thoroughbred reactors, vahnble 
mainly for their high-priced calves, they may 
be kept in thoroughly secluded premises and 
welMenced pastures, their calves should be 
taken from them as soon as bom and brought 
op on the milk of sound cows (or on' their 
dams', first thoroughly sterilized by boiKng). 
Such cahres ^ould be kept rigidly apart- from 
other animids, in disinfected premises and 
safely fenced pastures. They should be tested 
when one jcat old. 

Protasoa are microscopic (or ttitramicro- 
soopic) animal parasites, as bacteria are minute 
v^|etd)le parasites. Some disease^ above re- 
ferred to, are caused by ^protozoa in tiie blood. 
lymph, tissues and liquids' of the host, and 
others, especially - the ultrayisible, - have been 
suspected of belonging to this class; blackhead 
in the tarkey and the , cluster masses of cells 
(Coccidio) on the sktn internal organs of 
birds and mammals, amcebee of the intefstinal 
contents, pirosoma (ptcopksma) of Texas 
(tick) fever and the' smaU pirotdasma - of the 
Khodesian East Coast tick fever. Suspected of 
being protozoa are the uhnudsibie . germs of 
hj>dn>phobia, hoig cholera, foot and mouth 
disease^ lung plague, rinderpest, oowpox, sheep* 
pox, contagious cerebro-spinai meningitis^ 
chicken pelt, contagious cpithelioitta, etc. 
Some of dieSe have been treated by weakened 
germs (tmsterilised autotherapy), but where 
they are extremely fatal and Contr(^cd very 
uncertainly by the mitigated vitMs it is more 
rational to employ the sterilized germ, blood 
and imtitoxins, etc. (sterilized autotherapy), 
rather than to run the risks of mistaken diag- 
nosis and the resulting introduction of an 
unknown disease. 

A widespread family of pathogenic protesoa 
{Tripanosonia) have eel-like, mobile bodies, 
with a delicate undulating membrane at one 
SMle running into a fine antenna at the tail. 
They are found mainly in the blood and animal 
fluids, but also in the tissues, and can live outr 
side the body. They are found mostly in warm 
dimates. but have no difficulty in surviving our 
North Amei'ican winters when domiciled in a 
warm-bJooded host, as in the case of the, breed- 

ing pxratysb of bpraes,.whikh baa assumed. a 
place in our studs. This demands castration, of 
both males and females when affected and ror 
manding them- to work service by thetnselvea. 
A progressive anaemia is common to all forms 
of tripanosoftiasis. They are largely carried 
from victim to victim by predatory nies. Hence 
they can be checked to a large extent \tj 
destruction of. insects. 

Larger Paratites. — These are usually large 
enough for tecognitioa without the microscope. 
Like the microbes they, are amenable to control 
or extinction in a district or country, thereby 
extirpating the diseases which they respectively 
cause. Each parasite must, however,- be dealt 
with on the - basis of its own genus and life 

Vegetable Po«m»1«.— The. cryptogams (non- 
flowering) are allied to bacteisa but larger, 
oiten quite, visible to the naked eye. Fungi 
attaddng the skin, hair, hair-bulbs and follicles 
are conimon in cattle, especiaRy about the head 
and neck, showing as circular masses of scurf 
with loosening and dropping hair, leaving h«rc 
patches (rinpvorm). .Microscopic examination 
shows fine filaments and spores, and the bare 
patches enlarge by extension around the edges. 
These ai!e unsighdy, but not. deadly, and can 
tisuall}r be cfaedced by. pulling out or sha-vin^ 
the hair. aAd iipplying tincture of iodine or an 
alcoholic solution of blnestone, repeating this 
daijy. Anotlier filamentous fungus of a snowy 
whiteness (Fusarium') attacking, the sldn of 
domestic anunals (including cattfe) is overcome 
by sulphur or coal tar omtaient Thrush of 
calves' mouths with formation of a fikonentous, 
curd-like axtcretion, as in diildren, is to be 
treated by boric acid .or chlorate of potash 
(powder or solution). The asper^lus of the 
atr passages in mammals (including cattle) 
causing wheezy cough and breathing, fie-ver and 
general disorder and an eruption on the bron- 
chia, lungs, pleura, etc., at first as if crinkled 
with water, but later with nodules and caseated 
ausses fitted with filaments and spores, and 
death as in acute tuberculosis, is to be met with 
antiseptics such as fumes of sulphur and alcohol 
burning in a close room .till it causes cough, 
and repeated two or three times a da;^. A solu- 
tion of bisulphite of soda may be injected into 
the windpipe. The walls of the building should 
be cleaned and thiddy. coated with a watery 
solution of bleaching powder. 

Animal j'oriutijtf.— Two-winged flies (D»p- 
fffxi),. larva in wounds: The most prevalent 
and persistent enemies are the common house 
flies and hear allies, wUdi are not blood 
suckers. Without perforating stylet they suck 
off the scurf-sldn so as to leave raw surfaces 
and mikt spreading sores. The horn fly is a 
familiar example of this. The maggot-like 
Jarvse^ like those of the blood suckers, live in 
almost any decaying organic matter (animal 
or vegetable) that attracts by its fetid odor. 
Suppurating wounds and sores attract them 
and the ravenous larvK add to the sores in 
depth _ and width. _ These are particulariy de- 
structive in ^c^ infested with intestinal -worms 
and scouring, so that the liquid discharges mab- 
ting the wool make a special protection and 
feeding grotmd for the maggot. The blood 
suckers' are, however, the most irritating fay 
drawing the blood diroug^ the stylet; they 
of tqa. transfer the most, dangerous diseases^ la 

Digitized by 




evil that is not uiilcBiywn in t&e case of the flies 
that suck only. Botflies pass their larval sta^e . 
mostly subcutaneoutly in cattle - in spring (in 
fall and winter they are usually near the guUe^ 
being apparently licked in from the sldn by the 
barbed tongue and swallowed). When numer- 
ous they do much damage to health and hide, 
iiK loss rising to $15 a head. These grubs 
should be squeezed out and crushed in early 
spring to head off the next year's -crop. 

Mosquitoes and Small Black Flies deserve 
mention. Their bite is venomous and' they may 
besides implant in the wound the germ of 
another disease from the blood of the last 
victim. It is common to cover drinking water 
by a £lm of kerosene to destroy their larvae 

Fleas are common enemies and carry disease. 
Some carry larva of tapeworms to tneir next 
victims; others infections. The tropical bur- 
rowixig flea gets under the sldn, forming a 
batching nest and suppurating sore. The eggs, 
larvjE and pupee hide m furmture, clothing and 
even on filthy skin where they can find decaying 
organic matter for sustenance. Keep bttihUiM;s 
scrupulouilv clean, boil clothing and use freely 
insect powder, creolin, laurel oil, tar water and 
even sticky paper to catch the offender in his 
leaps. Lice are among the most widespread 
and heahb-destroying pests. Cattle harbor two 
kinds, blood sudcers and biters. Blood suckei^ 
prefer parts covered with long' hair and htit 
oat of the way of the tongue (head, neck, 
back, tail). Itching leads to persistent mb- 
bing, and hairless patches indicate At inva- 
sion-areas. The safest remedies are weak tar 
or tobacco, water, decoction of hellebore or 
dtavesacre and naphthalin, though the latter 
will taint the milk. A second dressing is due 
in eight days to destroy the new crop hatched 
from the mts in the iaterv^. Ticks and Mites 
are eight-legged insects (larva has but six 
legs), and form large classes, always injurioas 
when attacking in numbers, which they do on 
the skin or in internal cavities. They develop 
tfarous^" four successive stages: eegs, larva 
(hiexapod), nymph (octopod) and mature. 
The larva attacks the mammal and lives on it 
until mature. Some ticks (Argus) generate 
a deadly venom and instil it into the victim. 
All produce some irritation and swelling where 
they bite. But they domo&t harm by tfans^ 
f erring deadly infections and infestments from 
animal to animal, as in Texas fever, which 
long prevented tm: success of cattle inidustria 
in the South and created one of the most 
deadly epizootics when taken North. This last 
tiok is now being exterminated in State after 
State in the South, though with imperfect pre- 
cautions to prevent diffusion of other diseases, 
like anthrax, black leg, flukes., etc. 

Mites like tides can carry infection, thoug^ 
in its absence they usually depreciate healm, 
ccMuUtion and value by irritation. The harvest 
mite of a dull red color, and an European one 
of a brilliant crimson, produce great irrita- 
tion for several days, or continuously if the 
victim goes daily through vegetation. _ Pro- 
tection is sought by indoor life, by solutions of 
tobacco or hellebore or by sulphur. 

Scabies in man, Mange in cattle are due to 
any one of various Acari, the burrowing ones 
(Sarcoptcs from Sarx flesh) boring into the 
skio or sweatHglands, and the others Irving on 

the sarf^LcCi under scurf, scales or scab& 
(Psoroptes Psora itch and Symbiotes live to- 
gether). The mange acati are very prolific, 
reaching 7,500,000 from a single pair in six 
generaoons, 60 days. They can be treated by 
sulphur or hellebore ointments, naphthalin, 
potassium sulpUdc'or by simple oil inunction 
— the oil bang applied- to Ae ria^t and left 
sides of the body on alternate daysL Tape- 
tBOfms. These are flat worms consisting of a 
succession of segrnents the first of whidi bears 
the small head with four suckers on. the cor- 
ners, and a proboscis in some spedes bearing 
hooks for attachment to the mucous mem- 
brane. Each segment is bisexual, and whoi 
mature is a mere bag of eggsL The embryos 
hatched out, each bores its way into the tissuei 
of its new host, forming the bladder worm or 
soolex, and the next host devours thc.sColex 
whkh then gjrows into the mature tapewomu 
If it fails to enter a suitable host it perisbefe. 
But the two hosts usually, live id numbers dose 
together, and as each fee4s on the producjti 
of the other, it follows that the worms multiply 
so as to cause most deadly plantes in flocks 
and herds. Cattle harbor in the bowel the 
following tapeworms: the serrated tapeworm, 
unarmed, 8 to 15 inches long and $i inch broad; 
the broad tapeworm, unamedr 12 to 18 feet 
lon^ segments showing a wavinjt posterior 
border; the white tapeworm, 18 mchesto .7 
feet long, 10 to 12 mm. broads unarmed; in 
tissues, the narrow-necked ti^xiirorm (diving 
bladder wortn) which becomes the mattite 
Tmia Marginata in the dog ; the Comurns 
Cerebralis (rather rare) in. the brain which 
passes into the Tsenia Ccenurus in the dog, a!ni 
the Echiaococcus Cyst wUch is the Tenia 
Echiaococcus in the. dog. Echinococcus being 
a wdl-known disease in man, to the ox bdonjgs 
the odium of forming a link in the chain of its 
survival. Treatment: after a few days' fast give 
powdered male shield fern or areca nut, ^ tO'l 
bz., to the bait of the mature tapeworm with 
an active purgative (Epsom salts 1 to 2 lbs.). 
Liver Ftefe^x (Distoma Hepaticum), ^ to 
1 inch long; and Ltmceolatum^ yi inch long, are 
flat, leaf-shaped parasites found in the gall 
ducts of catue or of other domestic animals, 
and the latter of man, near ponds, swamps and 
wet lands, where there are fresh Water snails 
diat harbor the undeveloped fluke as a ^>oro- 
cyst. The socijessive stages of devek^ment 
in the fluke ate: (I) The egg in the droppings 
of the host; (2) the embryo, a flat organism, 
like a microscopic fluke in fresh water; iSS 
the Sporocyst m a fresh water snail; (4) 
the Redia again floating free in water; (5) in 
summer often Daughter Re^; (6) in auttunti, 
Cerearia encysted on stems of water plants; 
(7V these grasses being eaten by mammals the 
flukes are set free by gastric digestion and 
pass into the first- intestine, and thence intt» 
the gall ducts to form the mature ' flukes. It 
seems as if the risks of' such a long chain of 
changes wovid arrest the increase or even 
annihilate the flnke, but in wet soils with abun- 
dance of fresh water snails, and heafvy stoddng 
with sheep, cattle or swine, the parante pros- 
pers and multiplies, and the fluke plague is 
constantly increased and extended. Tht vic- 
tims lose condition, become anemic and weak, 
dropsical in lower parts of the body and inter- 
nally and die.' Prevention is not t>o besQagbt 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



by wididrawinK all stock from the bmd -when 
the products of the s<m1 are so predoas. Thor> 
ough drainage is the true alternative and tintil 
the land is well dried die cattle and sheep 
may be confined to dry areas or indoors, by 
the disuse of all fresh water supplies, the charge 
ing with sea salt of all retained dritddng 
sources, the adoption of silos and well-salted 
ensilage, or well-saited dry food when ensilagt 
is not in use and the liberal salting of aU re> 
tained pastures (as far as possible without 
stopping their growth). These are the funda> 
mental precautions needed. The 30,000 eggs 
deposited at one hiying of the ihike constitute 
• terrible risk if any loopholes are left. Everf 
precaution must be taken to see that no fluke- 
infested animal can escape to spread the pest 
on wet lands as yet free from its curse. A 
census of fluke carriers may be kept and tiM 
victims restrained itom traroc (except for im^ 
mediate slau^ter on the premises) unless first 
cleared of the parasite. Even the gathering 
of live stock for sale, market or for some 
other sanitary object, though called under gov- 
ernment control, cannot palKate the evil done 
or rendered possible. Frogs and toads have 
been cultivated in the waters of Hawaii, and 
carp in the Columbia River, to combat suc- 
cessfid^ the snails and d«|s that form sudi 
an important link in preservmg this paraate. 

Other flukes found in the first stomach and 
intestines of cattle have rarely proved especially 
injurious. _ It is different with the Bilharzia 
Crassa which produces wMte, albuminous urine 
in man, and is charged with causing £pizo6tic 
Hematuria in cattle. The giant-fluke of lungs 
and liver of sheep and cattle encysts itself, 
causing dark red nodules. Fatal results are 
common when they are numerous. Prevent and 
treat as -for other flukes. 

Ro%nd Worms. — These are cylindrical, have 
true digestive organs and the sexes '■ in two 
separate individuals. Some produce live young, 
some throu^ eggs laid, some like Trichina 
pass Uieir immature life in one host, which 
being eaten br another goes on to maturity in 
the Tatter ; others pass Arough both stages in 
the same host; some again pass immature life 
in water outside the mammaltan host. Cattle 
harbor from 15 to 20 species of round worms, 
a number of whidi spend their entire life in 
one host and leave their progeny in the same 
for the next generation. Some therefore 
must be treated with vermifuges given fo H»e 
host, others may have their career cut short 
bv removing the intermediate host that harbors 
the immature ]^rasite, or the water which 
favors the survival of the young worm out- 
side. Great factories flourish on medicine 
intended to destroy the mature worm in its 
mammal host, which i^ tao often but a closure 
of the spigot to let the vessel gush at the bonfi^ 
hole. Worms resemble contagious diseases m 
tiiis, that they must be destroyed both outside 
and inside the host wherever found. Much 
depends on where iti the body the worm makes 
its habitat. If in the solid tissues or even 
in dte blood, it is less effectively reached by 
medicine; if in the Itmgs gases and vapors 
(non-^isonous to the host) are often the most 
. promising agents, and even ' in the case of 
worms living free in the bowels, the multiple 
stomach of cattle and other ruminants en- 
dangers the dUutlon and weakening of the drug 

to an extent that is not met with in the small 
simple stomach of horse, man and other noi>t 
ruminating animals. All round worms living 
in the ' alunentary tract impair digestion and 
absorption of the foodstuffs by meir move* 
ments amd the consequent irritation, as well 
as by consuming of nutriment needed by the 
host. The bloodsuckers irritate still more br 
the many punctures and undermine the health 
by the anount of blood extracted. Some even 
secrete poisons that destroy the blood func<- 
tions, or even break down blood globules and 
with them heahh and vigor. The eggs of 
manv worms fall with the excretions and liv« 
in tne soil or in water for a jrear, so that oa 
pastures they are liable to continuous increase^ 
unless all hosts of that worm are exduded 
for years, ot, better, unless ploughed np and 
put under cultivated crops for years, i^nong 
round wonns living in the. tissues of cattle 
may be named a hairworm inhabiting the 
eye and the serous ' cavity of the abdomen; the 
encysted trichina in muscles (rare in cattle); 
a hairworm in beautiful zigzag lines in the 
mucous membrane of the gullet and many em- 
bryo worms in the blood. Amon^ those living 
in the bowels i one whipworm in the! blind 
gut; one Ascaris (like an earthworm) in the 
small intestine ; five strongles (round) large 
and small, in the bowels (very irritating) and 
one hookworm (very injurious )_ : in the air 
passages, 2 strooglu giving rise to husky 
paroxysmal cough and much loss of conditiofi, 
with expectoratton containing worms: in or 
near the urinaiy org;ans the giant strangle 
(very harmful). 

Intestinal Worms are liable to cause irrc^a^ 
lar bowel . motions, costive or loose, untfarifQr 
sldn and a fur around the anus from dried- 
up nuicus. The worms can often be seen in 
me drofpings. As prevention chang^e herd in 
pasture (hoises or swine for cattle), change 
of I water if from . a rumiing stream with herd 
above; feed liberally of salt, give a course of 
finely poUidered copperas, areca mit, naphthalin, 
quassia waiter, wormsesd or odier vermifiuze. 
For hookworms give thymol and be careful 
to prevent the embryos entering through the 
sldn from &e infested soil.' 

Non-tontagions and Coaatitutional Dis- 
easea. — These are not self-propagating nor 
pestilential and l3nis makie less appeal to the 
puUic. They are dtie mainly to generally 
operating causes — climatic, dietetic, cheinicai 
mechaniod, electrical, pluvial or otlwrwise 
unh^enic They are to be prevented by sub- 
jecting each indi^ndual in sound health to tfae 
conditions that stimulate _ the healtlnr bodily 
functions so as to maintain a normal equilib- 
rium. This would include good air, ample but 
well-balanoed diet, regular exercise, never to 
extreme exbattstion, the avoidance of all chem- 
ical poisons whether originating inside or out- 
side the body, and of all mechanical injuries 
that would in any way impair bodily functions. 
Yet there may at any time occur a comtMnatian 
of contagious or parasitic disease on the one 
hand and a sporadic disease on the other, so as 
to demand a ' common consideration of the 
two. A bodily impairment - or debility restilt- 
ing from a contagion or a parasite may make 
a subject more susceptible to the injurious ac- 
tion of cold and heat, humidity or dryness, 
etectoc action «r impure air, than .woiiU. other- 

Digitized by 




wise bsve beeh the case, and on the other side 
an injury due to cold or heat, etc, mav un- 
balance the ftmctions and system so that a 
microbe may meet with less resistance when 
it attacks the enfeebled body. Thus it is often 
needful especially to guard a patient suffering 
from a sporadic disease from the danger of 
infection and the victim of a plague from aiur 
disorder due to defective hygiene or care. It 
becomes desirable to employ autotbers^ty in 
the complex malady, along with the standard 
treatment for the sporadic affection present 

Inflammation, is a vascular and nutrition re- 
action of any tissue to an irritant, and shows 
a contraction followed by a distension of the 
capillary vessels, an increased and somewhat 
d^raved action of the tissue cells and an ex- 
udation into the affected and adjacent struc- 
turMk or even into an internal cavity, of a 
liquid (lymph) and even blood, also a de- 
ranged nervous control. It may kill or it majr 
result in tissue changes of many kinds — death 
of the part from exclusion of blood, forma- 
tion of new tissue, the formation of pus 
(abscess) and various degenerations. 

Fever is a reaction, marked by an increase 
of body temperature, derangement of the nerv- 
ous heat-producing centres, and of secretions 
generally, scanty high-colored urine of in- 
creased densi^, costiveness, dry skin, etc. It 
attends on all acute extensive inflammations, 
rises and falls with them, and leads to many 
derangements and degenerations. 

Treatment of Fever and Inflammation.— Up 
to a given point a general system of treatment 
can be laid down. The profound changes in 
the blood, the excess of fibrin and its en- 
creasing coagulability, increase of white cells, 
ensymes and other poisons prodiKed in the 
inflammatory and febrile jirooesses, from the 
fermentations in the torpid bowels and else- 
where, and from the altered products and sttsr 
pended secretions of glands, especially of the 
kidneys and skin, and from the generally al- 
tered functions of the body cells, the system 
is charged with deleterious material. This can 
be to a large extent arrested or counteracted 
by a dose of laxative medicine (1 lb. Epsom 
salts) which will dear out the mass of f erment- 
kig n»terials from the bowels and of fer- 
mented product even from the blood and_ sys- 
tem at large. If the already-formed poisons 
have given rise to diarrhoea this may be omitted 
or given in smaller doses, until the bowels and 
system have become more normal. With the 
howels cleared, saltpetre may be usefully em- 
^o^ed _(J4 02. twice a day) to lower heart 
action, increase the discharge from the kid- 
neys and eliminate from the blood much injuri- 
ous morbid product. Short of this the free 
use of water to drink will do much to activate 
both kidneys and skin, lowering body heat, 
and expelling and diluting the poisons. When 
body heat remains very high (103° F. and +) 
aspirin (2-4 drams in ball) increases kidney 
secretion and is especially useful in rheumatism, 
acetanilid (1-2 drams) or phenacetin (2-4 
drams) may be given. A simple course is to 
l^ve pure cool air and water, clothing if chilly, 
and even damp compresses covering the af- 
fected region or even the whole trunk. The 
skin over the region of the affected throat, 
lung, kidney or other part becomes nervously 
susceptible and even tender, and the applica- 

tion of warmth relaxes and soodics the deep- 
seated, inflamed part Hie effect is stfil better 
if a damp compress is applied, warm if the 
animal is cold, but cold if the surface is burn- 
ing hot ; it should be well wrung out so as not to 
drip, and at once covered, closely at all points, 
by a dry blanket or bandage sufficiently thick 
to prevent too sudden evaporation of the water 
and chilling of the skin. It must be a mode 
of aralying warmth and thereby soothing. The 
good effect may be secured in other ways — 
b}[ active friction to the skin, bv rubbing actively 
with stimulating, essential oils, by an electric 
pad or by detaining the Uood for an hour 
m the skin and then setting it free again. This 
was formerly effected by cupping. Chase most 
of the air out of the inverted cup by heating 
it with a taper ; withdrawing the taper, suddenly 
apply the mouth of the empty cu^ on the skin 
over the affected part, and hold it there until 
it cools, increasing the partial vacuum, draw- 
ing the skin up into the cup, and the blood into 
the skin. Apply cups over an area correspond- 
ing to the size of the organ affected, and allow 
tliem to stay on for an hour. Then they can 
be taken off l^ separating the cup from the 
skin at one side and admitting air, when the 
blood will resume its original flow and pass 
out into the system. Biel's modem plan of 
enveloping an extended area of skin or a 
whole limb in a rig[id, close-fitting cover and 
exhausting the air is essentially the same in 
principle. Both alike avail of Uie autotherapy 
method, for the blood coming with a ready- 
prepared charge of toxins and defensive prod- 
ucts from a microbian, inflammatory and febrile 
source is held for a time semi-stagnant in 
direct contact with healthy, active body cells 
until even more fully charged with the defen- 
sive materials evolved from these under the 
most appropriate stimulus and is then sent back 
to carry out its recui)erative work in the sys- 
tem at large. Similarly, blistering uncon- 
sciously availed of this source of defense and 
often with excellent results. lu diseases of 
bones and joints even the hot iron judiciously 
applied will often work wonders. 

Softening of Bones (rickets), seen in calves 
of cows kept on soils rich in organic matter, 
but deficient in earthy salts, on high, cold, ex- 
posed areas and on damp, stormy, seashores, is 
essentially due to a fault of diet and nutrition 
and must be met by a richer ration, especially 
by change to land having an abundance of lime 
and other phosphates and salts. Tonics are 
usually necessary as well. 

Rheumatism, attacking bones, joints and 
other fibrous structures, also claims cold, wet 
and exposure as an immediate cause, but may 
be traced as well to an excess of add in the 
system or in the food, to defective nutrition, 
overfeeding with deranged digestion and even 
local injuries. Warm, dry buildings, dry soil, 
sunny pastures and more careful feeding are 
demancfed. As a direct anti-rheumatic, salicylic 
add or salicylate of soda in full doses daily is 
desirable, together with active friction over the 
part affected with a liniment of oil of turpen- 
tine and salicylate of soda. 

White Cell Blood, with or without Enlarged 
Lymph Glands (Leukemia; Lymphadenoma) .^ 
In this there is a marked increase of white or 
lymph cells in the blood, in the marrow of 
caaceUated bones, the spleen ?md the liver, and, 

Digitized by 




still more marked, by thf praence of abnor- 
mally large white ceUs with pale nuclei. Bone 
marrow and Igrinph and other glands are the 
great producers of white cells, and these ar^ 
uable to be enlarged ia one form of the disease 
(Lymphttdenoma),' sho'wing sodular swellmgs 
around the throat, in front of die shoulder and 
Btiile and back of the latter. The cattle lose 
condition and run steadily down. Other con* 
ditions (notoriously hookworms) leading, td 
enlargements of such glands may cause 'Leulce>- 
mia. Bitters (quassia, gentian, quinine) ' with 
iron uid aisenite of . soda solution will often 
have a good effect. 

Progressive Pernicious Anamia.— Tliis _ is 
seen in cattle on mndcf or otherwise 'def ectire 
soils, confined indoors or out in pooir pastures, 
and preferably from Aree-fourths- to one' year 
old. No visible microbe has been clearly dem> 
onstrated. Subject loses condition rapidly evett 
though liberally fed, has a dull yellow tinge of 
the ^elids or of white ears, ptdse 70 to 80 and 
a hissing (ansemic) murmur with the first 
sound of the heart. Blood globules are often 
modified or deformed. Temperature may be 
normal or stibnormal. Blood spots may ^>ow 
on the eye before death, in two or three weeks. 
May advance more quickly after calving. - Moir* 
tality 50 per cent. Treat- as in leukemia. . 

James' Law, 
Emeritus ' Professor of Vetennoiry Science, 
Cornell University. 

CATTLE FEEDING. See NtmnxioM at 
Fabm Amimals. 

CATTLE-PLAGUE, any plague by which 
large numbers of cattle are destroyed. Such 
plagues have existed at intervals, nwre or less, 
in all cotmtries and in all ages. Am6ng the 
severer visitations in centuries preceding the 
19th may be mentioned a great plague which 
arose in Hungary in 1711, whence it spread to 
other countries, destroying in the next threp 
years about 1.500,0(X) head of cattle. A second 
visitation, which affected England and the west 
of Europe between 1745 and 17S6 caused the 
death or3»000,000 cattle. See Rinderpest., 

Several of the diseases of cattle are due 
to insects, including that called *fpleuro-pneu- 
monia'* or "Texas cattle fever,* which is caused 
by a blood-inhabiting sporozoon that is carried 
by ticks from_ an infected animal to a healthy 
one, communicating the disease. Cattle bred 
in the Southern States have become practically 
immune, but the disease affects and kills north- 
em cattle. The natural limit of the tick con- 
cerned {Boophilus anmd(U%ts) nearly coincide^ 
with \fason & Dixon's line, and Federal law? 
prohibit the_ shipping north of any cattle from 
south of this line, except between 15 N^ovemr- 
ber and 15 February. Other species of • this 
same^^us of ticks transmit similar cattle dis- 
eases' in various parts of the world, especially 
the _ "blue tick" (jB. decoloratus) of South 
Africa. The remedy is to dip^ uie cattle vn 
vats of cotton-seed oil or some similar mixture. 
(See CATTIJ&-TICK). The appellation «cattl«>- 
plague" is also loosely given to another disease 
.among_ cattle in the United, States, which is 
■otherwbe known as "lumpy^aw," a most vir- 
ulent and incurable affection. . Experiments 
have been time and again ineffectually tried to 
fin^ a «;urt for t|iis,. though. Mrj^egoyejniiQ&iital 

encouragement has him offered. A rigid ex- 
iUB^ation of cattle is made by g<oyernment iiir 
-spectors at all receiving and shipping ports. 
See Cattu, Diseases or. 


TICK, an arachnid {Boophilus annulaius) ref- 
lated to the mites, and prevalent in the western 
and southwestern States. It is a reddish, 
coriaceous, flattened or swollen creature from 
^ quarter to half an inch in length. The cattle- 
.ticfc lays a great many eggs, nearly oval, dark- 
brown, coated with a hard secretion, the process 
of eg^'lsyins lasting for several days or a 
Week. The young tide, on hatching, is whitisk 
afterward turning brown; it has three pairs of 
legs. After molting it becomes a nymph, when 
the fourth pair of legs is added. During the 
nymph stage the reproductive organs develop. 
After another molt it becomes sexually mature. 
it completes its development from the larva to 
the aduk on cattle. After this second molt the 
couple pair^ and the male grows but little. The 
female^ voradously f eedin^r on the blood of her 
host, grows to a gigantic sue, her body swelling 
and becoming; gor^d with blood and eggs. The 
mdles can be easily detected by their smallet' 
size, and by the extension of the shield over 
,the. entire back. Ticks Uv« upon tbe blood of 
tlieir host. . The females, as they iocrease ja 
sizev store away quantities of the i^ested food 
in .an immiensc convoluted chamber or ap- 
pendage of. the- stomach. In soouner only three 
lOr four da^S after the final molt are necessaty 
for the ticks to become larger When fully 
gorged, and the eggs fertilised, the female 
loosens her hold in the skin of her host, and 
falls to the ground, where she lays her eggs, 
after which her body contracts, shrivels up 
and then dies.. The young ticks get access to 
cattle by climbing bushes, whence they reach 
out and attach themselves to passing animals. 

It has been proved that ticks: by sucking 
the blood of cattle infested with the Texas 
'fever germ, which is a sporozoon (Apfosbma 
4Hp«*»tnum), may communicate the disease (bo- 
vine malaria) to heaKhy cattle, just as' the 
sporozoon blood-parasite of yellow fever, or of 
malaria, is commUnicBted by a mosquito (Ano- 
pheles), In dealing with ticks it shonld be 
remembered that it breathes by spiracles, or 
-miqute holes in the sides of the bo^y, B^ the 
use of ojl, or any gresasy substance, thiose opes^ 
jngs may be covered, thus asphyxiating the 
creature. The ticks may tsus be killed by 
dippiM; or spraying the cattle with cotton-seed 
oil Cattle should be kept away from wodded 
or busily pastures. Rotation of pasture is also 
used by stock farmers, so that the tick may die 
of atarvatioa. The United States Department 
of Agriculture has conducted the work of 
eradicating the cattle tick from the southern 
States in co-operation with the States affected. 
A. total area of 275,782 square miles bad beeti . 
made free of this pest up to 1 July 1915. 

There are one or two forms very closely 
allied to the Texas cattle-tick, and named Boo- 
philus oHJtri^it; ihey are regarded by experts 
as either distinct varieties or species from B. 
atmuhlus. They transmit the cattle-fever in 
the countries above named. Another sub- 
species or variety, the blue tick (£. decoloratus) 
in South Africa transmits the same disease in 
■.t)^t.rAg>9>>. I ., 

Digitized by 




The Lone Star tick (AhAlyomma urn/- 
puncta) is, next to the cattle-ticl^ to be held 
responsible for the transmission of the Texas 
fever. It may be recognized by the simple 
britdit silver spot on the bade 

BlbUography.— Curtice, <The Cattle-Tick' 
( 'Journal of Comparative Medicine and Veteri' 
nary Archives' 1891-92) ; Salmon and Stiles, 
<Cattle-Ticks of the United States' (<l7th An- 
nual Report of the Bureau of Animal Indus- 
try, ' Washington 1902) ; Lav*', James, 'Text 
Book of Veterinary Medicine' (Ithaca 1911); 
Hutyra and Marek, 'Special Patholo^ and 
Therapeutics of the Diseases of Domestic Ani- 
mals' (Amer. ed., by Mohler and Eichhorn. 
Chicago 1912); and 'Special Report on Dis- 
eases of Cattle' of the United States Bureau 
of Animal Industry (rev. ed., WashingtoD 

CATTLBYA, a genus of orchids, including 
about 40 species, natives of tropical America. 
The species are the showiest of all orchids and 
are the plants best known under this name, be- 
ing widely grown by florists. In their native 
hannts they are epiphytic upon the trunks of 
trees. Innumerable hybrids and horticultural 
forms have been produced by plant breeders. 

CATTY, the name given by foreigners to 
the Chinese kin or pound and used also in the 
Malayan Archipelago. In China, the Straits 
Settlements, Java, British North Borneo, etc., 
it is approximately one and a third pounds. 
The Siamese catty is equal to 2.675 pounds. In 
Burma, it equals one and a ninth pounds. 

CATUBANGANES, ka-too-ban-gans', or 
CATABANGBNSS; warlike tribes settled in 
the mountains of Gmna^angjan, in the province 
of Tayibas (Luzon, Philippines). Nothing is 
known about their origin or habits, wheuer 
they be pure Malay or Negrito-Malay. They 
are probably Remontados mixed with Negrito 
blood and gone wild. 

CATUBIG. ka-too-bl^, Philippines, a small 
town in the island of Samar, 48 miles north 
of Catbolagan. The place is garrisoned by 
United States troops, who, in June 1900, witbr 
stood an attack by 600 insurgents. This epir 
sode was a stirring incident of the war. It ex- 
ports abaca: fabrics to Manila. Pop. 9,56S. 

CATULLUS, Gains Valerias, Roman poet: 
b. Verona 87 or 84 b.c ; d. probably 54 b.c He 
is deemed by some to be Rome's greatest lyric 
poet, by others to be second only to Horace. 
His family seems to have had social standing 
and at least moderate means; for his father 
often entertained Julius Caesar, and the poet 
a|>parently never had to earn his living, ^^^le 
still a youth he could go to Rome and there 
complete an excellent education. It was in the 
expensive metro^lis, too, that he chiefly re- 
sidedj although ms native town and his villa at 
Sirmio on the Lago di Garda, and another not 
far from fashionable Tivoli, would from time 
to time claim his presence. His one trip abroad 
may have been a financial venture, but it was 
pertiaps mainly to visit the storied cities of the 
East that he joined the staff of Memmius, who 
governed Bithynia in 57-56 B.a The provincials 
proved too poor to yield profit even to an un- 
scnipalotts official, much less to one of his suit«, 
and Catullus vented his spleen in lampoons that 
contrast strikingly with th$ (tilogies of ffae 

other great contemporary poet, Liieretias, who 
revered Memmius as his patron. Catullus' trip 
did, however, allow a visit to the grave in the 
Troad of his only brother. His expressions of 
inconsolable grief are among the most affecting 
in Latin literature. In lively contrast are the 
two inimitable poems that voice his joy at re- 
turning home. The year's absence had at least 
quenched the last embers of his i>assion for Les- 
bia, who had been for some years (he curae and 
inspiring genius of his life. .According to the 
generally accepted theory, Lesbia is his pseu> 
donjrm for perhaps the most remarkable woman 
of the day, Clodia, the sister of PubUos Qodins 
Puldier. She was at least 7, and pethaps 11, 
years older than Catullus^ and in 61 b.c., when 
he fell in love with her, was the wife of Metel- 
lus Celer. a consul-elect Apparently even 
Cicero did not wholly escape the fascination of 
this beautiful though utter^ dissolute queen of 
the Roman *fast set.* The course of the poet's 
liaison may be traced in a series of poems tint 
expose his inmost feelings with a power and 
vividness that critics deem almost unequaled. 
To the period of difficult courtship belong 
madly passionate lyrics and the dainty 'spar- 
row-songs.* Next a lovers' quarrel and recon- 
ciliation engMe our sympathies. Soon, how- 
ever, the poet s faith in Lesbia's fidelity wanes, 
and with it all purer love, although his passion 
grows only the wilder and more intense. The 
poems in which he assails successive rivals, be- 

8'nning with the brilliant but disreputable 
eUus Rufns, are marvels of invective. It is 
only after his return from Bithynia that Catul- 
lus seems fully to ap^eciate uie hopeless in- 
famy of his former mistress, when he sends a 
scalding reply ap^rently to a proffer of recon- 
ciliation. While it is this cycle of love poems 
that has immortalized (Catullus, he wrote ad- 
mirably on other subjects. In spite of a life 
of pleasure, he had energy to study thoroughly 
the early Greek lyric poets, and especially the 
technical achievements of the Alexandrine 
schooL which began now to have great influence 
upon Latin poetry. Although some direct trans- 
lations from the Greek also attest his interest 
in these models, Catullus remained peculiarly 
independent. No matter how much his lyrics 
may show the results of his studies, they were 
primarily an outlet for feelings that compelled 
utterance, and not, like Horace's odes, a purely 
intellectual performance. He is less original in 
some of his long poems. _ The longest is an 
epithalamium. ift Alexandrine style, upon the 
wedding of Peleus and Thetis, introduang also 
the story of Theseus and Ariadne. While 
Catullus' work in mythological epic no doubt 
made that of later writers, including Virgil, 
easier, his daring dithyramoic poem on Attfe 
has remained unique. On the other hand, his 
epithalamia are the forerunners of others in 
utin literature, as also of the marriage poems 
of Spenser, Jonson and Her rick. Horace also 
often appears in lus odes the older poet's 
debtor, though in artistic form his superior. In 
epigram Martial is ready to concede the paini 
to Catullus as well as Marsus, though himself 
the acknowledged master of that form. Fur- 
thermore, in the leading elegiac writers, Tibul- 
lus, Propertius and Ovid, we clearly see their 
obligations to Catullus and often read Ms 
praises. He enjoyed, too, the admiration of 
contemporaiy writers, and not alone those of 

Digitized by 




Us own sdiool of poetry, Hke Cahrus and 
Cinna; for th« histonan Nepos seems to have 
started him auspiciously in nis literary career. 
To him he gratefutW dedicated a partial edi- 
tion of his poems. Other famous Romans that 
receive kinoiy mention are Asinius PolEo, Hor- 
tensius, Cicero's great rival in oratory, and 
Cicero himself. Caesar, however, is attacked 
with a fearlessness as amazing as the langua([e 
is shocking. But in judging Catullus' obsceni- 
ties, his liaison with Clodia, and other even less 
creditable relations, modems are charitable in 
proportion to their knowledge of the standards 
'of that age. Even the severest are won to sym- 
pathy, if not affection, by happier ^itneses of 
the poet's diaracter. In an aee of insmcerity 
every word of his rings perfectly true. His 
gentler side appears in his verses on babies, 
Howers and the beauties of nature, in bis affec- 
tion for his iM-other and his friends, and even 
in the better aspects of his love for Lesbia. Be- 
sides the Enghsh poets already named. Prior, 
Gray, Byron, Landor and Tennyson have 
shown especial admiration of Catullus. Among 
numerous excellent editions of the poet, the 
text edition of Ellis (Oxford, Garendon Press, 
1904) may be named; also the editions oi 
Bihrens (Leipzig 1885) ; Merrill (Boston 1893) ; 
and Friedrich (Leipzig 190B) . Besides the com- 
mentary by HHs (second edition 1889), the 
English reader has the poetical translations of 
Theodore Martin (1861)^ those in prose by 
Francis W. Cornish (Cambridge Universiw 
Press 1912), and, perhaps, best of all, Hugh 
Macnag^ten's <The Story of Catulh]s.> 

Walton Brooks McDaivol, 
Professor of Latin, University of Pennsylvania. 

CATITLUS, the name of sereiat dbtin-. 
guished Romans. 1. Gaius Lutatius Catu* 
LUS, the admiral wiiose fleet defeated the Car> 
thapjniatts near the .£gates Insulte, off the 
Sicilian coast in 241 b.c., thus closing the First 
Punic War. 2. Qoiktos Lotattos Catolos, 
Roman general, historian and poet: b. abotit 
152 B.C ; d. 87 &a He was consul in 100 b.c. 
with Ckuus Marius, and in the following year 
was proconsul. During his proconsnlship he, 
with Marius, defeated die C;iffibri near Ver- 
celbe, the modem Vercelli, in northem Italy. 
As one of the aristocratic party and a partisan 
of Sulla, he was proscribed by Marius. With 
the excq>tion of two epigrams nothing of his 
work has survived. 3. Qotntob Lutattos 
CATUtos, son of the preceding, consul in 78 B.C., 
censor in 65.' He quelled the revolutionary up- 
rising of M. ^milius Lepidus, his cotteagne in 
the consulship (78^^, who had tried to over- 
throw Sulla's constitution, and assisted Cicero 
in the prosecution of Catiline. 

CAUCA, kow'ka, Colombia, one of the 
nine departments of the republic, bounded on 
the norUiwest by Panama; on the north by the 
Caribbean Sea; on the east by the departments 
of Bolivar, Antioquia, Tolima and Cundina- 
marca, and the republics of Venezuela and 
Brazil; on the south by Brazil and Ecuador; 
on the west by the Pacinc Ocean. The territory 
of Caqueta and the districts of Huila, Inza and 
P4ez are included in this department. The 
eastern part of Cauca is watered by the Amazon 
and some of the affluents of that river; the 
Guaviareand the CaMquaire flow into die Ori- 

noco; the Atrato ei^ties into' the Golf of 
Urabi ; while a dozen smaller rivers' flow into 
die Pacific. On both the Caribbean and Pacific 
coasts there are several ports. Its original area 
was 31,388 square miles, but in 1905 was re* 
duced to 20,403 square miles. The centre of 
population and cultivation is along the Cauca 
River 'V^l^, where com, siufar cane, cacao, 
tobacco, etc, are grown with success. The 
mineral wealth, especially gold and silver, is 
extensive. The forests, which cover a large 
section of the department, yield large quanti- 
ties of rubber and cinchona. Pop., including 
aborigines (1912), 211,756. The capital is 
Popayan, widi a popnbtion of 18,724. 

CAUCASIA, that divbion of European 
Russia lying in the extreme southeastern part 
of the empire (38°-46° 30* N), between the 
Black and Caspian seas, and bounded on the 
south by Asiatic Turkey and Persia and on the 
aordi hy the provinces of the Don Cossacks 
and Astrakhan. It covers an area of 180343 
sijuare miles and is divided into two separate 
divisions by the Caucasian Mountains, on the 
north by Cis-Caucasia, on the south Trans* 
Caucasia. 'The physical features are greatly di- 
versified and present an irregular succession of 
mountains and vadleys, table-lands and plains, 
making description extremely tfifficult. The cen- 
tral section of the country is one vast mountain- 
top, 700 miles in length and covering an area of 
over 1^000 square miles. From the range of 
niountains the plains of Cis-'Caocasia on th« 
north gently slope, ending in the Steppes, a 
tow, marshy country; throu^out Trans-Oiu- 
casta on the sbuth are chains of mountains 
running parallel to die central range. The 
Kuma and Terek rivers, flowing into the Cas- 
pian Sea, and die Kuban River, flowing into 
the Black Sea, <bain the northem section, while 
the southern rart is drained by the Kur and 
the Aras, its affluent, emptying into the (^pian, 
and the Rion, leading to the Black Sea. The 

?uch smaller Rion flows into the Black Sea. 
he water system of Caucasia belongs 
wholly to the Black and Caspian seas. Lakes 
are found only in Trans-CIaucasia. The chief 
of them is the Gotchka, or Sevanga, situated in 
Erivan. Agriculture is the most productive- 
occupation of the settied inhabitants of the 
soutnem section, the principal crops being 
wheat and other cereals, cotton and tobacco. 
In Cis-Caucasia catde-breeding is the principal 
industry and wheat, rye and other grains give 
large returns in the irrigated districts; while 
in the mountainous regions mining is carried 
on to a great extent, the mineral deposits 
being very rich, copper, silver, iron and mag- 
nese ores, cobalt, sulphur, quicksilver, naphtha 
and rock salt the most important. The region 
is especially rich in oil, the production of 
petroleum being very extensive and second only 
to that of the United States, (^al, of inferior 
quality. Is extracted. About 30t000;000 gallons 
of wine are produced yearly. Rugs, woolen 
goods and hamess are also made. The exports 
and imports are rapidly growing, the exports, 
vahud at $30,000,000, being about six times the 
value of imports. The transportation facilities 
are far from adequate. In many parts the pack 
horse is still used for transporting f reidit. The 
northem of the two chief lines of railway ex- 
tends along the Caspian coast fcom Baku to 
Petrovsk; thence iiuand and north into the 

Digitized by 




iHrovince of the Don CossaokB to' its termtna* 
tions at the Siea of Azov. A hraaich connect* 
the main line with Novorosiysli on the Blade 
Sea. The southern line connects Baku, on the 
Casinan, with Batum and Poti, on the Black 
Sea. For higher education there are about 200 
schools accommodating 27,000 pupils. There ar« 
5>443 primary schools with 90,000 pupils under 
the Mmistry of Education and 19 secondary and 
1,306 primary schools with 56,000 pv^ils under 
Cossack supervision, besides numerous relieions 
schools. The majority of the people attend the 
Greek Orthodox Chutt:h, but there are large 
numbers of Nonconformists, Gregorians, Lama> 
ists, Mohammedans, Buddhists, etc The terri> 
tory is governed by a general governor, acting 
for the emperor, and the local zemstvos acf 
minister the economic affairs of their respective 
districts. Caucasia is divided into 11 separate 
governments: on the north are Terek, Kuban 
and Stavropol ; on the south are Tiflis, Kara, 
Kutais, Erivan, Dagestan, Black Sea, Yelizar 
vetpol and Baku. Prior to 1770 historical in^ 
formation is vague, but by the end of the 18th 
century Russia had acquired Cis-Caucasia, and 
by 1829 the whole territory was nominally und6r 
Russian dominion. Not tmtil 1865^ however, 
could it be said that Russian power was iirmiy 
consolidated. The Ruaso-Turkish War of 1877- 
78 resulted in the annexation of a considerable 
portion of Turkish Armenia. In 1905 Caucasia 
was the scene of violent disturbances, racial 
and revolutionaiy. The inhabitants are mainly 
Russian Armenians, Tartars and Georgians, 
about 68 dialects being spoken. Pop. (1911) 
12,037,200. Consult Keane^ 'Man: Past and 
Present^ (1899); Ripley, < Races of Europe > 
(New York 1899); Erckert, <Der Kaukasus 
und seine Volkcr' (Leipzig 1887) ; Freshiiel^ 
*The Exploration of the Caucasus* (London 
1902) ; Wirtfa, 'Kaukasische Zusammenhange* 
(Leipzig 1907). 

CAUCASIAN, ko-ka'shan, RACE, a term 
introduced into ethnology by Blumenbach, in 
whose classification of mankind it was applied 
to one of the five great races into which all 
the different nations of the world were divided. 
Blumenbach believed this to be the original race 
from which the others were derived and he 

fave it the epithet of (Caucasian because he 
elieved, probably erroneously, that its most 
tjrpical form — which was also that of man in 
his highest physical perfection — was to be met 
with among the mountaineers of Caucasus. The 
Caucasian race comprises the most highly civ- 
ilized nations of the world, including most of 
the inhabitants of Europe (the Turks. Hun- 
garians and Finns being excluded) ; the Hindus, 
Persians, Arabs, ._ Hebrews and the ancient 
Phoenicians of Asia; and a large proportion of 
the inhabitants of northern Africa. See Eth- 

rugged range of mountains forming one of the 
natural barriers between Europe and Asia. It 
extends in a northwest and southeast direction 
from near the strait of Kerch on the Black Sea 
to near Baku on the Aspheron Peninsula pro- 
jecting into the Caspian Sea. The distance 
between these points in a straight line is 700 
miles, but following the main ridge of the 
mountains about 940 miles. The range vat^es 
in width from 60 to 130 miles and may be 

Hivided ihtcf thfee pai^. The Wedem> portion; 
extending from the. Strait of Kerch and the 
Sea of Azov to the peak of Elbruz, consists of 
a seities of parallel ridges of stratified rocks, 
the ridges apparently formed i^ huge, tilied 
fault blocks. The northern slopes of the 
northern ridges rise rather gently out of the 
plain of Caucasia; th^ southern slopes, along 
the fault planes, are abrupt; and die southern 
slope of the main ridge has in places almost 
vertical walls 2,000 to 3,000 feet high. There 
are few passes through this great barrier, and 
these are difficult. The snow line is at about 
9,000 feet., 

The highest peaks of the Caucasus are in 
the central part,, from Elbruz to the Adai- 
Khokh. , Here, as to the westward, is a series 
of parallel ridges, the higher summits all snow- 
da^ with deep longitudinal vallf^s; but some 
of the highest peaks, Elbruz afid Kazbek, are on 
spur; niore' or less isolated from the main range. 
In this central portion of the Caucasus, as 
yet but incompletely mapped, there are said to 
be fully 20 summits higher than Mont Blanc, 
the highest peaks being Elbruz, 18^470 feet; 
Dykhtau, 17,054 feet; Koshtantau. 16^881 feet: 
Janghitau, 16,564 feet; and Kazbdi^ 16^546 
ieet. The snow line is at about 1 1,500 feet, and 
the total number of glaciers of the first class is 
fully 175, while rounded rock surfaces and 
boulders m the valleys show that glaciation was 
much more extensive at no very distant time. 
East of Kazbek the range narrows and is nar- 
rowest south of Vladikarkaz, where it is crossed 
by the Russian military road to Georgia. This 
road runs over the Kobi Pass and through the 
great Da vial Gorge, one of the greatest moun- 
tain chasms in the world. The eastern part of 
the Caucasus, from Kazbek to. the Caspian, is 
of much more complicated ^ structure; the range 
widening and including a high plateau crossed 
bgr subordinate ranges having an east-northeast 
and west-southwest direction, thou^ what may 
be tenned the main axis continues its southeast 

The plains of Caucasia north of the moun- 
tains are tmderlaid by Tertiary and Quaternary 
strata. The foothills of the western Caucasus 
and the plateau of the eastern Caucasus show 
rocks of Cretaceous and Jurassic Age, and 
nearer, the main axis of the range are Palxozoic 
formations. The main axis shows schists and 
gneisses with granite and syenite. Trachyte and 
similar rocks occur, and some of the peaks, 
Kazbek, are probably in part of volcanic origin. 

The scenery of the Caucasus' is wild and 
gloomy rather than beautiful. The lower slopes 
are thickly wooded, but there is not the com- 
bination of dark forests, beautiful lakes and 
graceful snow-crowned summits that makes 
some ranges — for instance the Sclkirks io Brit- 
ish Columbia — so attractive to the mountain- 

The mineral wealth of the Caucasus is very 
great; in fact, in this respect the range is one 
of the most noteworthy in the world, but owing 
in part to the very rugged topography much 
of this wealth is still undeveloped. Among the 
valuable resources may be named the coal Belds 
near Ochemchiri and at Kuban and Kutats, the 
copper mines of Tiflis and Elizabethpol and the 
silver ores of Terek and Kutais. More import- 
ant are the manganese mines near Kutais, 
whence some 500,000 tons of ore are exported 

Digitized by 




MuuMkHy t6 various Ei^toptin coimtne* and the 
United States, lloft inpOTtant of all are tbe 
oil wells of the Aspheron Peainsula, the most 
remarkable in the world, whence some $12^)00,* 
000 worth of petroleum, benzine, etc, are 
shiiiped to forei^i countries every year. Con* 
suit Bodenstedt, 'The People of the CaucasMs> ; 
Deniker, ^Races of Man'; Keane, 'Man, Fait 
and Present' ; Ripley, <Races of Europe.' 

CAUCHY, IcOTshS', AngQStin Louis, Frendi 
maiibematidan : b. Paris, 21 Aug. 1789 r d. 
Sceaux, 23 May 1857. Entering the polytechnic 
sdiool in 1605, he distinguished himself by the 
solution of difficult problems. In 1816 be won 
the grand prix of the Institute bv his paper on 
* Wave-propagation.' He qualified as a dvil 
eni^eer, but selected science for his chief work, 
owing to health conditions. His political bias 
barred him from the higher college positions 
which were his due. He was created a baron 
by Charles X and in 1848 he became professor 
of mathematical astronomy until his death, at 
the Sorbonne. His politico-religious writings 
attest both his faith in the le^timacy of king- 
ship and in the CathoKc rehgion, one of his 
characteristic works in this line bemg the poem 
•Charles V en Esjiagne' (1^). He contrib- 
uted to almost every branch of mttheiliatics 
whidi he perfected oy his discoveries, notably 
residua] and imaginary calculus. Among his 
mmierous works are H^un d'analyse' (Paris 
1821) ; * Lemons sur !es appKcations du calcul 
infinitesimal i la gfometrie* (2 vols., 1826-28) ; 
<&tercices mathematiques' (1826-29) ; <Sur 
I'application du calcul de risidus' (1827); 
*Le«ons sur le talcul differentiel' (1829)' 
♦Mimoire sur fa dispersion de la lumiire' 
(1839) ; 'Exercices d'analyse et del physique 
mathimatique' (3 vols., 1839). The Academy 
of Sdences pobfished *Les ceirvres completes 
d'Augustin Cauchy' (27 vols., Paris 1882- 
1901). Consult Tertpiem, < Analyse des travaux 
de (jauchy' (Paris 1857); Valson, C. A, <Le 
Baron Angustin Cauchy: sa -we et scs tra- 
vaux* (Paris 1868). 

CAUCUS (short for "caucus dub»), a po- 
litical party gatherinfT- for nominations or con- 
ference on party policy, as distinguished from 
a merely hortatory one. It may be a town or 
ward meeting, to nominate local candidates or 
delegates to higher nominating conventions (the 
latter sort are also called "primaries') ; or a 
party ooafereace of members of Congress or a 
legislaturct to decide oa members or oonfinnar 
tions to office. Originally, a secret gathering on 
the model of the Caucus Club of Boston, whose 
leading business was the making of "slates' for 
local offices it inddentaltv came to be the 
molding of a policy of local autonomy in oppo- 
sition to British influence. The etymology of 
the name u pure guesswork. The usual deri- 
vation from "caulkers' (sc. dub), or an imag- 
inary "caulk-bouse,? is most improbable. More 
^u^ible would he that from Lat. cemcMS, Gr, 
kaukoi, a cup, as originally a convivial soctett; 
most secret societies of that day having dasslcal 
names or initials ; the words, however, are not 
classical, but mediaeval, and so are less lUcdy 
to have come under their notice. Possibly, 
though not probably, it is mere alliterative comic 
jargon. Most protxible of all is the adoption 
of an Algonkin word, kaw-kaw-viuj, to consult: 
— if the wo»d is real: cf. «pow-wow.» At all 

eveniisi the chd) Mtd th<j dements of the.qrstota 
originated, in Boston during the 18tb oenttwy. 
Samuel Adams' father was accredited as a 
founder and eminent master of the art, in which 
his son became immortal, and to which be owed 
his first election to due legislature. The prep- 
aration and distribution of ballots before the 
(election was one ol its chief instrumentatitks. 
The first mention of the original dub is in John 
Adams' diaiiy, February 1763: he says the town 
oSaaers are "regularly chosen there before they 
are diosen in the town,* and intimates that the 
distribution of business favors as a quid pro 
quo was not absent, which mig^t be assumed. 

The system nmidly ,grew ; indeed, in some 
form it is part of the inevitable machinery of 
majority rule, which in constitutional coun- 
tries has stqiplanted the primitive dedsion of 
battle by merely coimting the opposing host& 
it bdng assumed as a basis that the larger coula 
outfight the sBialler. But for common action of 
that majoritjr there must be some method of 
determining its will before the dcctioiu, as to 
both measures and men ; and all countries -with 
any measure of popular control have some 
diaping and testing mechanism of the sort. la 
England it has been formally established since 
ISSi, by the so-called. "Birmingham system'; 
but in the higher lines of policy,, even before 
that, the two great political clubs of London, 
the Carlton ana the Reform, Conservative and 
liberal, discharged many of the functions of 
informal caucuses. Nevertheless, the i>ower of 
the_ caucus is greatly affected by local and 
national circumstances. _ In England and most 
Continental .cotmtries, it is restrained by tfte 
Still powerful aristocratic system, which forms 
a counterpoise and provides natural leaders; 
in France, by the centralized government sys- 
tem.^ In no other country has it the same au- 
thoritative power as in the United States. Earjbr 
in our history it became universal. Said 
Adams in 1^14: "We have Congressional cau- 
cuses, State, caucuses, county caucuses, dty 
caucuses, district caucuses, town caucuses, 
parish caucuses, and Sunday-school caucuses 
at the church doors.' This is primarily due 
to the entire legal equality of all dassesj that 
absence of prescripUve privileges furnishing 
a shelter for minorities and independent actioiL 
which is considered the chief g^oiy or the chief 
danger of democracy, according to the point of 
view. "The gradations of the American political 
system into national. State, district and munici- 
pal powers have produced a corresponding 
hierarchy of caucuses, each sending delegates 
to the next higher caucus or convention, and 
constituting a %iachine' of great effidency and 

But it has been made at once practically ir- 
resistible, and laively worthless for its osten- 
sible purpose of determining the general senti- 
ment of the party, by the "spoils system,' which 
throws the organization and management of the 
caucuses into the hands of those who can give 
thdr whole time to political work, because paid 
for this service (in reality though not in name) 
out of the public treasury. Thus managed, the 
caiKUS in the larger places does not necessarily 
represent the views of the majority, and very 
often the leading object is to prevent the ma- 
jority from meddlinjs with the machine. In 
theory, the caucus being a voluntary association 
of the memhcfs of a voluntary association, to 

Digitized by 




deliberate as to. its jiolicy smd agents, all arc 
fairly bound by its decisions, and aavb no right 
to 'bok^ afterward; otherwise there is an end 
of all common action. It is of course to the 
interest of die managers to cultivate this the* 
ory, and the military similes of 'campaigns* 
and ^forces'* and 'tkserters* and "dosing up 
ranks,* etc., and to stigmatize all individual 
courses as equivalent to treachery and insubor- 
dination; and no matter how spurious this 
technical majority may be, or by what meth* 
ods a real minority may have attained a seem- 
ing vote of confidence, a *regiilai* nonHnatioa 
will always have enormous weij^t. In part, it 
is true, this is because the vast majori^ have 
no common wish or purpose, and are destitute 
of constructive political ideas: and any pro- 
nouncement of die constituted party authori- 
ties is really their will, which is sknply to ob- 
tain such a mandate. Hence, 'regularity* is 
the test of merit ; and this wiUingness to acconl 
to the show what belongs to the substance is 
the almost invincible bulwark of political cor- 

This has generated in the last few jrearS a 
host ' of efforts, public and private, to break 
down the monc^oly of the caucus and substi- 
tute a real and direet control of nominadons 
by the party; contrcJ of policy cannot thus be 
shifted, but corrupdon is the work of men, not 
of measures. It cannot be said that any of 
these movements as yet ate very successful or 
promising, largely owing to the consideration 
just mentioned that the initial possession of 
political ideas is a condition precedent to ex- 
pressing them. One scheme is to have nomi- 
nations made by direct popular vote instead of 
by primaries; but this simply shifts the fimc- 
tion of the caucus one sta^ back, to decide on 
the votes for nomination instead of the votes 
for offices. More elaborate, and in som6 di- 
rections more efficient, are die legislative pro- 
Visions made in several States for taking the 
primary caucuses themselves undpr the con- 
trol of the law, as elections have always been. 
In this case, all persons who wish to vote in a 
party caucus must re«aster themselves as mem- 
bers of that party. The effects of this meas- 
ure have been a singular mixture of good and 
evil, and probably reflect in this regard the 
motives of the enactment. On one hand,, fac- 
tion leaders can no longer swamp a caucus 
with a rabble of purchased voters from the 
lowest element of the other party. In theory 
a check list was always used ; but as it had no 
legal validity, it was scouted whenever a ma- 
jority, real or spurious, was interested in evad- 
mg it. The check list imder the law cannot be 
so treated. On the other hand, an obvious ef- 
fect of the law, probabljr not absent from the 
minds of the framers, is to extinguish as a 
party force the independent or 'mugwump* 
element of both parties, who try to reform 
their own party by a leverage obtained from 
the other; and are therefore excluded from 
either, as they cannot keep changing registra- 
tion. ' If this was a motive, the Nemesis has 
been speedy. The party managers in various 
places are greatly disappointed and alarmed to 
find that only a fraction even of their normal 
and calculable voting strength will register at 
all, and therefore they are nominating in the 
daric, without knowing what the par^ senti- 
ment is. When they honestly wish to ascertain 

the party fecliin they have gnat difficnlty in 
doing it. The mslike to sponing a registered, 
public and unchangeable party label is not con- 
fined to the more lateUeciual independmts, but 
is strong in the general mass; and the attend- 
ance at primaries is a much less sure guide 
than of old (o what the party will siq>port at 
the poUs. The precise tuture of die caucus 
cannot be forecast; but there is little evidence 
thus far of a loosening of its hold. 

Congretnonal CaiKuaes for President and 
Vice-President— These grew out of the Elec- 
toral system (see Electoral College), and 
perished, significantly, at the same time that 
the old theories of an educated official class and 
professional trained office-holders gave place to 
the inrush of the untnuned democracv and ro- 
tation in office. It is no mere coincidence that 
the last Con^ssional caucus was held to nomi- 
nate a candidate in the last election that re- 
turned a President of the old school. The 
masses were taking everything into dieir own 
hands; lackson and popular nominations came 
in together, though there was one intermediate 
link when the people acted through the State 
legislatures. The theory of the electoral sys- 
tem was that the electors, themselves the 
chosen sages of the people, should make free 
choice of the best men in the country for the 
chief executive offices; but from the iBrst their 
choice was pointed out in advance. While 
Washington lived and would take office, no 
other candidate for President was possible; 
and for his first Vice-President, John Adams 
was the choice of New England, and the other 
States had either their ''favorite sons* or no 
special wish. In 179^ the same circumstances 
controlled ; though New York's favorite, George 
Ointon, won the support of several southern 
States. The electors deferred to the notorious 
public feeling; but their action was nominally 
mdependent. In 1796 this was still true of 
the Federalists, who made a combination of 
North and South on Adams and Pinckney; it 
was substantially true of the Republicans, for 
Jefferson was the undisputed leader, and while 
the Rqiublican members of Congress infor- 
mally agreed to support Burr, there was no set 
ticket for the electors to support at party peril. 
But in 1800 both parties hdd regular but se- 
cret caucuses and adopted tickets which the 
electors voted soUdly and even stupidly, with 
results still memorable. The Federalists voted 
that Adams and Pinckney should be supported 
alike: The point of this was that itt> to that 
date, there was no distinct candidate tor Presi- 
dent and Vice-President, the one who received 
the largest electoral vote being Pnesident and 
fbe next one Vice-President. Adams was cer- 
tain to receive no Republican votes, but if all 
the Northern Federalists voted for Pinckney, he 
as a popular Southerner would probably receive 
some stray votes from that section, and so be 
elected President over Adams, whom the Fed- 
eralists hated but did not wish to bolt Thus 
they would defeat him by aMtearing to keep 
Btnct party faith. The Republicans on their 
part held a caucus, and made a similar agree- 
ment with regard to Jefferson and Burr; not 
with similar designs, Mit to placate New York, 
which complained that her candidates 'were 
*knifed* in the Sooth. Of coarse in both 
caseSj if the whole electoral body voted 
'straight,* there would be a tie and no election. 

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This actually haMiened in the case of Jefferson 
and Burr, and the struggle was only settled 
after 36 votes. The results were the adoption 
of the 12th amendment to the constitution, 
regfulating presidential elections and compelling 
electors to state which candidate was to have 
which office ; the implacable hostility of Jeffer- 
son to Burr, which killed the chance of the 
latter to rise further in his party, drove him 
into the arms of Federalists and ultimately 
ended in the murder of Hamilton; and as the 
presidential electors had simply voted the tic- 
kets dictated by the party representation in 
Congress, they mstantly became, as they have 
ever since remained, nullities. .The second oc- 
casion was on 29 Feb. 1804, when the Repub- 
licans (in open, not secret caucus) renomi- 
nated JeflFerson; they dropped Burr for 
George Clinton (New York still keeping the 
place), by 67 votes to 20 for Hugh H. Breck- 
inridge of Pennsylvania, and some scattering. 
The Federalists held no ostensible caucus; but 
as they were scheming to support Burr for 
governor of New York, and wim that prestige 
nominate him for President, the plan must ob- 
viously have been agreed on in what served 
tbeptufose of caucuses. Barr's kilKAir of Ham- 
ilton spoiled thi» scheme, however; they nomi- 
nated Pinckninr and King, and were almost 
annihilated. The third caucus was on 23 Jan. 
\80S, also by the RcjMiblicans; but only, two- 
thirds of the party members attended, as the 
conclusion was foregone. Madison and CUnton 
were nominated. Meantime the Virginia legisr 
lature had split into Madison and Cunton fac- 
tions, the former much the stronger; nomi- 
nated separate sets of electors and carried the 
quarrel mto Congress, where Monroe's par^ 
issued a manifesto protesting against both Madi- 
son and Congressional caucuses. The Federal- 
ists held none^ and renominated their previous 
candidates. On 18 Mav 1812 the Republican or 
Democratic, party hela its fourth caucus, and 
renominated Madison on his express agreement 
to declare war against Great Britain ; also nomr 
inating Elbridge Gerry for Vice-President. This 
time &ey appointed a national committee to see 
that the nomination was respected. The New 
York Democrats, however, were very restive 
under the 'Virginia dynasty" and the "secre- 
tary of state dynasty*; and their members of 
the legislature held a caucus, nominated George 
Clinton and protested against the Congres- 
sional caucus as always nominating a Virginia 
candidate. A secret caucus or convention of 
Federalists was held in New York in Septem- 
bers, adopted the Clinton nomination and nomr 
inated Jared IngersoU for Vice-President. On 
29 March 1816 the Democrats, now practically 
the_ only existent party, held the last caucus 
which accomplished anything. Henry Gay 
and another member introducedresolutions that 
the caucus nominations be abolished,^ but were 
voted down; and Monroe was nominated, by 
no great margin, over William H. Crawford o{ 
Georgia. Daniel D. Tompkins of New York 
was nominated for Vice-President. In 1820 Z 
caucus . was summoned, but only about 50 mem- 
bers responded, and th^r tedc no action. The 
general feeling was now strong against the sysr 
tem, as there was but one party, and a nomina.- 
don by Congressional .caucus was equivalent 
t9..alIowing Congress to MiPiWit. the. President 

VOL. 6 — 9 

and Vice-President In 1824 several State leg- 
islatures passed resolutions forbidding the 
State representation in Congress to attend a 
caucus if one_ were called. But the Crawford 
party, who wished to give his nomination the 
prestige of a national verdict, held one at 
which about a fourth of the members attended, 
and nominated him and Albert Gallatin. It 
can har<Hy have gained him much support, 
however, and a paralytic stroke finished what- 
ever chance he might have had. In the next 
n828) campaign, the State legislatures made 
tne nominations J and in 1832 the nominating 
convention was introduced. 

In recent years an adaptation of the Senate 
caucus, known as Aldricnism, was revived in 
1910, to replace Cannonism which had become 
of ill repute among the voters, and had been 
partly overthrown m the 61st session of Con- 
gress. The essence of Cannonism had been 
the control of the House by the speaker, 
through his power of appointment of commit- 
tees and his domination of the rules commit- 
tee, backed by the power of the majority cau- 
cus. The essence of the new system adopted 
by the Democrats for the 62d, 63d and o4th 
Congresses was direct control of legislative ac- 
tion by the caucus itself. As at present con- 
stituted, the Democratic caucus is composed of 
all members of the_ majority party in die 
House. For the election of caucus omcers and 
fo;- the nomination of candidates for House 
officers, a majority of those voting binds the 
entire caucus. _ In deciding upon action in the 
House involving party policy or principle, a 
two-thirds vote of those present and voting at 
a caucus meeting binds all members of the cau- 
cus; provided, the said two-thirds vote is a 
ntajonty of the full Democratic membership 
of the House, and provided further, that no 
member shall be bound upon questions involv- 
ing a construction of the constitution oi the 
United States or upon which he made con- 
trary pledges to his constituents prior to his 
election or received contrary instructions by 
resolutions or platform from his nominating 
authority. If a menriber decides not to be 
bound hv the caucus on any question, he must 
notify Ine caucus in advance. See UNrrsD 
State* — BBciNinNcs of PAtmr Osoanization. 
Consult Haines, W. H., *The Congressional 
Caucus of To-Day' (Baltimore 1915); 
Lamed, J. N., <The Caucus System; Its Fail- 
nre and the Remedy > (Buffalo 1681); Lawton, 
G. W., 'The Amencan Caucus System' (New 
York 1885) ; Trumfaall, B., <The Mischiefs of 
Ln^islative Caucuses' (Hartford 1819); 
Whitridge, F. W., <Caucus System' (New 
York 1883); Ostnigorski, M., <The Rise and 
Fall of the Nominating Caucus, Legislative 
and Congressional' (New York 1900): Hal- 
stead, M., 'Caucuses of I860' (Columbus 


SHALE, one of the basement members of die 
Devonian System in New York and New Jer- 
sey. TTie name ('cock's tail') is from a char- 
acterisdc fossil, supposed to be a seaweed. 

CAUDSX, in botany, the stem of a tree, 
more especiall]^ the scaly trunk of palms and 
tree-f«ms bearing the scars of leaves. It often 
Appears as. a Hiuome running along llie sur- 

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face of Hie earth or underground, as in Lyco- 

CAUDINE FORKS, a pass of southern 
Italy, in the form of two lofty fork-shaped de- 
files, in the Apennines (now called the valley 
of Arpaia), into which a Roman army was en- 
ticed by the Samnites, 321 B.C., and being 
hemmed in was forced to surrender. 

' Mrs., a series of humorous sketches, by Doug- 
las Jerrold (q.v.). 

CAUER, kow'er, EmQ, German sculptor: 
b. Dresden, 29 Nov. 1800; d. Kreuznach, 4 Aug. 
18^. He studied at Berlin under Rauch and 
at Munich under Haller; in 1825 he went to 
Bonn where he was instructor in art atthe uni- 
versity; in 1832 he was appointed drawing mas^ 
ter at the prmnasium at Kreuznach. His fame 
rests on his invention of the so-called *Cauer- 
sche Masse," a superior substitute for plaster. 
Among his best works are 'Sickingen'; 
'Charles V; 'Melanchthon' ■ and the repre- 
sentations of Red Ridinghooa and other fairy 
tale characters. He also restored the antiques 
in the museum at Dresden. 

CAUER, Karl, German sculptor: b. Bonn, 
14 Feb. 1828; d. Kreuznach, 17 April 1885. He 
studied with his father, Emil. Cauer (q.v.), and 
with Wolff in Berlin; he also visited London 
several times in order to study the Parthenon 
friezes. Among his works are the Schiller 
monuinent at Mannheim, 'The Witch* and a 
number of portrait busts. In his later life h^ 
became interested in the question of coloring 
sculptures, and made a number of experiments 
in that line. He also designed the tomb of 
President Garfield at Cleveland. 

CAUER, Robert, a younger brother of 
Karl Cauer (q.v.): b. Dresden 1831; d. 1893. 
He studied at Dtisseldorf, and then with his 
father at Kreuznach and then at Rome. He 
made hundreds of little statuettes, charming 
in execution, the motifs of which are taken 
from romantic or classic tales and poems, such 
as 'The Sleeping Beauty,' 'Hermann and 
Dorothea,' 'Puss in Boots,' 'Paul and Vir- 
ginia.' He and his brother Karl were com- 
missioned by the Prussian Ministry of Public 
Instruction to superintend the r^roduction in 
plaster casts of the principal strtKtures of 
Italy. Emil the Younges, Hugo, Ludwig and 
Robert the Younger, sons of Karl .Cauer, and 
Stanislas, son of Robert the Elpbr are all 

CAUGHNAWAGA, ko-na-wa'gf, Canada, 
town in the province of Quebec, situated on 
the Saint Lawrence River at the head of the 
Lachinc Rapids, 10 miles west of Montreal. It 
is an Indian town and was established by the 
Jesuit missionaries in 1676 as a colony for the 
Indians who were converted to Christianity. 
The converts were Iroquois, mostly MohawlH, 
and remained loyal to the French during their 

?uarrels with other Indians and the English. 
n the Lower Canada insurrection of 1^8 
Caughnaw&ga was the first place to be at- 
tacked by the rebels, who were repulsed by the 
Indians and a number of them taken prisoner. 
There were 2,240 Indians in the reservation in 

CAUL, a membrane endosmg the viscera, 
snch as the peritonenm or part of it, or the 

pericardium; also the amaotic membrane that 
surrounds all foetal structures and sometimes 
becomes caught by the head of a child at birth. 
Many superstitions have been connected in the 
past with cauls. The child that happened to 
be bom with one was esteemed particularly for- 
tunate; and the possession of it afterward, 
however obtained, was hi^Uy prized, as of a 
charm of great virtue. The superstition _ is 
thou^t to have come from the East With 
the French, etre ni coiffi was an ancient 
proverb, indicative of the good fortune of the 
individual. The alchemists ascribed magical 
virtues to it; and, accor^ng to Grose, the 
health of the person bom with it could, in after 
life, be judged of by its condition, whether 
dry and crispy or relaxed and flaccid. Medic- 
inal virtues were imputed to it by the ignorant, 
as well as the property of preserving the owner 
of it from drowmng. It has_ been bought and 
sold occasionally at a high price, sailors having 
been known to give as much as $150 for_ a 
single cauL Consult Brand, 'Popular Antiq- 
uities' (London 1870) ; 'Notes and Queries' 
(Vol. Vn, London 1849 et seq.) ; Jones, "Credu- 
lities, Past and Present' (London 1898). 

CAULAINCOURT, kS-l&A-koor, Amuund 
(Sr-mSA) AugnBtin Louis de, Duke of Vi- 
CENZA, French statesman: b. Caulaincourt 
(Aisne), 9 Dec. 1772; d. Paris, 19 Feb. 1827. 
He early distinguished himself as an ofiicer. 
was made a general of division in 1805 and 
shortly after created Duke of Vicenza. In 
1807 be received the appointment of Ambassa- 
dor to Saint Petersburg. There he tried to main- 
tain the alliance of Tilsit, and was successful un- 
til, in 1811, hostilities broke out between France 
and Russia, and he resigned his post. Faithful 
to the last to Napoleon, he was made Minister 
for Foreign Affairs in 1813, and durinj[ the 
Hundred Days resumed the office, receiving 
a peerage of France, of which he was deprived 
after the Restoration. He was then among 
those proscribed but his name was erased from 
the list on the interveqtion of the Russian 

CAULIFLOWER, a member (Brasnco 
oleracea yar. hotrytis) of the cabbage tribe, 
derived from the same origpnal species as cab- 
bage (q.v.), from which it differs in having a 
more or less compact head of metamorphosed 
flowers and adjacent parts instead of a bud- 
like head of densely packed leaves. Broccoli is 
a late hardy form of cauliflower not widely 
^own in AJmerica. Cauliflower is more del- 
icately flavored than cabbage, like which it may 
be cultivated and prepared for the table. In 
its cultivation, however, it seems to be more 
difficult to bring to perfection unless conditions, 
especially moisture and temperature, are just 
right. The essentials of its cultivation are 
hipfhiy fertile soil well drained, but well' sup- 
plied with moisture, a moist climate or season, 
and shelter from the direct rays of the sun, as 
on a northern slope, or reduction of the inten- 
sity of the sun's heat by planting either very 
early so as to mature in spring, or late so as 
to mature after mid-autumn. The heads pro- 
duced in mid-summer are generally inferior in 
both size and quality. When the heads begin 
to develop, the leaves are ded above them so 
as to keep out foreign materials, but mainly 
to make ue beads whiter and more attractive 

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to the purchaser. In preparing for the table 
the finer heads are usually served with a cream 
sauce ; the poorer 'ones being pickled. In com- 
parison with cabbage seed, the seed of cauli- 
flower is very expensive because of the diffi- 
culty of maintaining its high quality. For- 
merly the seed was imported from Denmark and 
Germaiiy, but Wasfaii^ton and British Colum- 
bia have been gaining m the market with their 
cauliflower, cabbage and other related seeds. _ 

Cauliflower suffers from tbe same enemies 
that attack cabbage. Consult Bailey, L. H., 
^Standard Cyclopedia of American Horticul- 
ture> (New York 1914); Allen, (Cabbages^ 
Cauliflower, etc' 


the act of rendering the seams of a ship water- 
tight by driving oakum, cotton or the like, be- 
tween the planks in the ship's decks or sides, 
in order to prevent the entrance of water. 
After the oakum is driven hard into the seams 
it is cohered with hot melted pitch, to keep th? 
water from rotting it. 

CAULOPTERIS, a genus of fossil tree- 
ferns found in the_ coal-measures. The outer 
surface is diaracterized by four or more longi- 
tudinal rows of oval or roundish impressions 
or foliar scars. ^ Each scar contains a linear 
cicatrix concentrically disposed either in horse- 
shoe form, with the ends curved inward, or a 
complete ellipse, the upper portion of which 
surrounds a transverse trace somewhat like an 
inverted U. The inner scars mark the exit of 
the vascular bands of the petioles. Caulopteris 
is distantly related to the Marathacese. It is 
characteristic of the Carboniferous. 

CAURA, kow'r^, a river of Venezuela, trib- 
utary to the Orinoco which rises in the southern 
Mrt of Venezuela on the northern slopes of the 
Sierra Pacaraima, and flows north-northwest 
through the department of Bolivar. It is 
over 400 miles long. On both sides stretches 
the territory of Caura (22.4S5 square miles), 
with immense forests of valuable woods. 

CAUS, kS, or CAULX, Salomon de, 
French engineer: b. Dieppe 1576; d. Paris, 6 
June 1626. He was in the service of the Prince 
of Wales in 1612, and of the Elector Palatini 
at Heidelberg, 1614-20, but by 1623 returned to 
France, and became engineer and archttecit to 
the King. At Frankfort, in 1615, appeared his 
'Causes of Kinetic Energy,' a work in which 
is described an ap^ratus for forcing up water 
by a steam fountain, differing onlyin one. de- 
tail from that of Delia Porta. There is no 
reason to suppose that the apparatus ever was 
constructed, but on the strength of the descrip- 
tion, Arago has (iaimed for De Caus the in- 
vention of the steam-engine. 

CAUSE, that which brings about any 
change in the state, condition, circumstances, 
etc., of things; that which produces an effect. 

In philosophy, that by which something 
known as the effect is produced and without 
which it could not have existed. To give a 
satisfactory notion of all_ the senses in which 
this word has been used it would be necessary 
to review all the teachings of metaphysics from 
the time of Aristotle downward. The variotis 
positions of the conflicting philosophers can 
here be only very briefly mdicated. Aristotle 
states causes to be of four kinds: efitdent, 

formal, material and final. The efficient is the 
force or agency by which a result or effect is 
produced; the formal the means or instrument 
by which it is produced; the material, the sub- 
stance from which it is produced; the final, the 
purpose or end for which it is produced. A 
scientific cause demands the recognition of _aU 
the essential conditions, any one of which being 
absent the effect coula not take place. Locke 
finds the origin of the notion of cause in sensa- 
tion. Assimiing diat bodies have the property 
of mo(fifying each other, it is only necessary 
to observe them to perceive and be driven to 
admit the principle of causality. Humedeclares 
the power which we attribute to one object over 
another to be a chimera; such a power does 
not exist, or if it does we can have no idea of 
it. What we call cause and effect is merely two 
phenomena alwavs following in the same order 
and which we have fallen into the habit of 
associating in our minds in such a way that 
on perceiving the first we Inevitably expect the 
second. According to Leibnitz there is no 
existence, however humble, but is a force, that 
is, a real cause. The notion of force is the base 
even of the notion of existence; all that which 
is has a certain virtuality, a certain causative 
^wer. The htunan soul, like all the other 
limited forces in tliis world, is but a monad 
isolated in itself, but yet in whose inner being 
the whole creatioti is reflected, and whose move- 
ments have been from the beginning co-ordained 
by Divine Wisdom with the harmonious move- 
ment of the universe. Kant's doctrine is that 
die notion of cause and the principle of causality 
certainly exist in our minds; but they are only 
simple forms of our understanding, or the en- ' 
tirdy subjective, albeit inevitable, conditions of 
thought We are compelled by a law or a form 
pre-existing in our intellect to dispose all the 
objecte our imagination represents, or all the 
phenomena our experience can chscover, ac- 
cording to the relation of cause and effect ; but 
we do not know if anything really exists, in- 
dependent from our intellect, whidi resembles 
a cause, a force or effective power. Against 
the doctrines of the intoitionalists it has been 
urged that the_ mere statement that the mind 
possesses a belief in causation proves nothing; 
s<Mne, men_ believe in it, others do not, and 
unanimity is necessary to the establishment of a 
universal belief. Nay, mor& the mere, univer- 
sality of a belief is no conclusive proof of its 
correctness, as put in the words of the late John 
Stuart Mill — 'A mere disposition to believe, 
even if supposed instinctive, is no guarantee for 
the truth of the thing believed. If, indeed, the 
belief amounted to an irresistible necessiw, diere 
would be no use in appealing frohi it, because 
there. .would be no possibihty of altering it. 
But even then the truth of the belief would 
not follow: it would only follow thafmankind 
were under a permanent necessity of believing 
what might possibly not be true; just as they 
were under a temporary necessihr, — quite as ir- 
resistible while it lasted — of believing that the 
heavens moved and the earth stood stin. The 
things which it has been supposed that nobody 
could help believing are innumerable, but no 
two generations would give the same catalogue 
of them.» The theological question of a First 
Cause is debated on the ground that matter of 
itself is inert, that spirit is active, that in order 
of existence one spirit or active force must be 

Digitized by 




the first and uncaused cause. This is based 
on the common fallacy which demands a first 
tenn for every series, even though series with- 
out first terms are common and consistent 

The notion of cause used to be counted 
among the primary concepts of natural science, 
but there is a notable tendency nowadays to 
cut loose from a causal term, and to render the 
function of science one of description rather 
than one 'of causal explanation. This is not 
merely a desideratum or a program, but repre- 
sents the attitude really taken by modem sci- 
entists in their work. A causal explanation 
of an occurrence X consists in a statement of 
certain events, A, B, C, etc., which, if preseni^ 
will always evoke a as a temporal consequent. 
This causal explanation of X, then, involves 
the statement of a law according to which X 
occurs, but not _ every descriptive law lends 
itself to expression in causal terms. In the 
first place, a causal law in the strict sense 
involves a definite, irreversible, temporal order 
between the events it connects; in the second 
place, the antecedents. A, B, etc, are definite 
evenu, which either are there or are not there. 
Now, the laws which have been most fruitful 
in_ the expression of scientific data and the 
stimulation of scientific research have usually 
been quantitative correlations, in which the cor- 
related terms have not necessarily stood in a 
unidirectional temporal relation to one another, 
or indeed in any temporal relation whatever. 
The law of gravitation says that the accelera- 
tion of a body of mass m with respect 
to a body of mass m' at a distance d from it, 
if the bodies start from rest and are acted on 

by no external forces, will vary as -^ Here 

the acceleration, m', and d are all contempora- 
neous, and are all more-or-iess facts, not yes^ 
or-no facts. As far as the physicist is con- 
cemed, it is utterly meaningless to say that 
the cause of the attraction ritsides in the mass 
m, or the mass m', or in anything else whatever. 
In spite of these facts, the unfortunate tradition 
which finds its typical exponent in Mill still 
makes, many a metaphysician lapse into causal 
language in his treatment of natural science. 

In law, a cause is a right of suit or action; 
it is something for which suit may be brought 
by someone against another; it includes the 
nght of action. In practice, a cause of action 
comes into existence when there is such a state 
of facts or circumstances as will enable a per- 
son or party having certain relations with 
particular persons or property to commence a 

CAUSE C^Ll^BRE, koz silabr', from the 
French signifying 'celebrated case,^ a_ term 
generally applied to any criminal or civil case 
of special legal importance or interest, national 
or international. Of such are celebrated trials 
for political crimes, for treason, of judicial 
errors, of impostors, poisoners, assassins, mur- 
derers, etc. Among causes cilihres of modem 
days may be cited the Dreyfus case 1896-1903, 
the Steinheil 191^ the Catllaux 1914, in Paris; 
the Sickles-Key case 1859-60, the Stokes-Fiske 
case 1872, the Thaw 1906-14, the Becker-Rosen- 
thal 1912-14, in New York; the Bielis-Mendel 
ritual murder case in Russia 1912-13, and 
in England the Tichbome case 1871. when 
an impostor laid claim to an ancient title and 

rich estates. A French ritual murder case in 
which Voltaire championed the cause of the 
victim was that of Calas broken on the wheel 
in 1762. The biliography of French causes 
cilibres is voliuninous. Consult Gayot de 
Pitaval, 'Causes celibres et interes£antes> (3d 
ed., 22 vols., Amsterdam 1772-88). 

CHATS, was the title given by Sainte-Beuve 
to the articles which he contributed every Mon- 
day for nearly 20 years, bMjinning with 
1849, to the daily newspapers Le Constitutionnel 
and (after 1852) Le Momteur. Their 15 vol- 
umes, together with the three volumes of the 
'Premiers Lundis> and the 13 volumes of the 
'Nouveaux Lundis,' whkh are not to be sepa- 
rated from them, form an unmatched series 
of critical studies, of which literature is the 
central but by no means exclusive interest, and 
present a gallery of portraits in which poets 
and philosophers, statesmen and savants, artists 
and actresses, great wits and charming and 
beautiful women, are painted with a wonder- 
fully animating and revealing touch. The 
range and variety of the subject matter are 
surprising. Few figures of significance in 
French life and letters of the last three cen- 
turies fail to find a place in the collection. Nor 
was Sainte-Beuve's view confined to his own 
country. He was widely read in foreign litera- 
tures, particularly EngUsh. His curiosity was 
insatiable and his mind singularly mobife and 
insinuating. For such a mind criticism had 
to be something quite different from what it 
had traditionally been,-^a classifying and judg- 
ing of literary compositions according to some 
definite accepted canon of taste. Its task was 
primarily to understand a work and a person 
m the light of their intention rather than to 
measure them by some conventional standard. 
Literary works were viewed but as a partial 
expression of individualities, to be fully com- 
prehended only when illumined by the light 
thrown upon them by complete knowledge of 
their author's life, times, family, friends, sur- 
roundings, drcuDistances and character. The 
preliminary reading that went to the making 
of each of these articles was prodigious. Tlie 
critic could neglect nothing that could add to 
his knowledge of the man or woman whose woHc 
he was assessing. Sainte-Beuve did not, how- 
ever, abandon standards of jud^ent and give 
himself up, like Taine, to explaining literature 
in terms of race, environment and moment 
He. maintained, with increasing insistence as he 
grew older, the tradition of a cultivated and 
disciplined taste. He furthermore added to 
his rare qualities of intelligence and discrimina- 
tion the command of an entirely adequate style, 
of great delicacy, brilliancy and charm, so that 
the 'Causeries' delight us no less than th^ 
instruct. Taken all in all they constitute, with 
the companion series of 'Portraits,' as impos- 
ing a body of criticism as any literature can 
show, and justify the almost unanimous en- 
dorsement of Matthew Arnold's estimate of 
their author as *the finest critical spirit of our 
time.* Of English translations of some of 
the Causeries, that by W. B. Matthews, 'Sainte- 
Beuve's Monday-Chats' (Chicago 1877), offers 
especially ess^s dealing with great French 
writers, while^ that of A. J. Butler, 'Select 
Essays of Sainte-Beuve' (London), confines 

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hsdf to dwse of interest to students of Eng- 
lidt letters. 

Abthus G. CAwnxut, 
Professor of Ronumte Languoffes, Univerjity 
of Mithiffon. 

CAUSTIC, in medicine, any asent which 
causes a 'destruction of the parts by local appli- 
cation. Caustics act by withdrawing water 
from the skin, by coagulation of the albumen 
or by other chemical change. Thus caustic 
soda and caustic potash act by the abstraction 
of water. They further act on fats, saponify- 
ing them, and are particularly serviceable as 
caustics if penetration is 'desirable. Sulphuric 
add acts in mudi the same way, but it is very 
difficult to control its caustic action. Others 
of the adds are used as caustics, nitric, glacial 
acetic, tri-chlor-acetic, etc. Many mineral salts, 
silver nitrate, zinc sulphate, zinc diloride, cop- 
per svdphate, arsenic, etc., are valuable caustics. 
The most reliable caustic is the actual cautery 
using a dull red flame. Otustics are used to 
stinnlate the growth of granulating wounds, to 
remove warts, condylomata, etc, to deanse 
ulcers, remove canceroas growths, to prevent 
pMsoning by dog-bites, etc. 

In nuttkemattes, the curve to which rays of 
li^it are tangent after reflection from a surface 
or refraction by a lens. Optidans endeavor so 
to shape thdr mirrors and lenses as to make 
Ihe caustic two intersectuig straight lines. 
When this is achieved, the *spheri(al aberra- 
tion* disappears. Caustic curves may often be 
seen on the bottom of a cup, produced by re- 
flection from the curved wall of the cup. See 
also Light. 

CAUSTIC AND SODA, Electrolytic Pre 
doction of. See Electrochemical Industeies. 

CAUTBRETS, ko-te-ra, a watering-place 
of southwest France, in the dqartment of 
Hautes-Pyr6nees, 3,250 feet above sca-levd, in 
the valley of the Laverdan, 42 miles south- 
southeast of Pau. The stationary jpojmlation 
of the place b only about 1,550^ but it is annu- 
ally swelled in summer by some 50,000 visitors, 
for whose accommodation numerous somptuous 
hotels and bathing establishments have been 
built It is a good centre and guide^tation 
for ascents among the Pyrenees. The sulphur- 
ous springs, 24 in number, and varying in tem- 
perature from 75° to 137' F., are the most 
abundant in the Pyrenees, and have been known 
from Roman times: though their modem repu- 
tation dates from the 16tn century, when Mar- 
garet, sister of Francis I, held her literary court 
and wrote much of lier 'Hcptameron* at 

CAUTERY. See Caustic 

CAUTIN, kow'ten, Chile, a province di- 
vided into the departments of Temuco and Im- 
perial. It is bounded by the Pacific on the 
west, Argentine on the east, Malleca and Val- 
divia on the north and south, respectively. It 
has an area of 5,832 square miles, and a popu- 
lation of 161,000. The dty of Temuco (pop. 
11,000) is the capital. Principal towns are 
Nueva, Imperial, Lautaro and the port of Cara- 
hue. There is a regular line of steamers be- 
tween Carahue and Valparaiso. In the prov- 
ince are numerous lakes, one of which, Vil- 
larica, with a surface of 100 square miles, lies 
at die base of a volcano of the same name. 

The Central Railway connects the capital with 
other cities of the republic. The soil of the 
province is fertile. Wheat, fruit and lumber 
are produced. 

CAUTIN, a river in Chile; flows west 
through a province named after ii, and empties 
into the Pacific Oceaa Its ieiulh is about 
20O miles. 

CAUTIONARY, a term used in Scotch 
law and signifying the 'promise or contract 
of one, not for luimself, but for another.* A 
simpl« cautioner is one wlio binds himsdf con- 
jointly with the debtor or prindpctl for the 
greater security of the creditor. 'The creditor 
may proceed against the principal debtor and. 
rautioner, or against either of them. The cau- 
tioner majr, however, stipulate on the docu- 
ment constituting the cautionary obligation that 
the creditor Shall take legal measures against 
the debtor or prindpal. Cautioners are fre- 
quently taken, bound, conjointly and severally, 
or as fun debtors, with the pnndpal, in whidi 
case both parties are liable for the whole dd>t. 
It follows, from' the nature of the obligation, 
that a cautioner who has paid tlie debt has an 
aetiott against tlie prindpal for relief. All 
cautionary obligations must be in writing, and 
have the signature of the cautioner attached; 
the conditions of contract must be clearly stated, 
which must be strictly observed, otherwise die 
cautionBT is freed. 

CAUTIONARY TOWNS, four towns in 
Holland, Briel, Flushing, Rammakens and Wal- 
cheren, so named because they were given to 
Queen Elizabeth in 1S8S as security for their 
repaying her for assistance in their struggle 
with Spain. They were restored to the Dutch 
Republic by Tames I in 1616, although only a 
portion of the sum advanced was refunded. 
Consult Cheyne, *A History of England' (Vol. 
I, pp. 195, 212, 243). 

CAUVERY. ko'yir-I, CAVERY, or KX- 
VERI, a river of Hindustan, to the waters of 
which Irfysore and the Camatic owe much of 
thdr agricultural wealth. It rises from several 
head streams in Cx>org and Mysore, near the 
coast of Malabar, flows southeast through My- 
sore and the Madras Presidency, and after a 
winding course of about 470 miles falls into 
the Bay of Bengal by numerous mouths, the 
largest bein^ the Coleroon. Where it separates 
Mysore from Coimbatore the Cavety forms an 
island called Sivasamudram, near which are 
two magnificent cataracts, each about 200 feet 
hi^ and more or less broken into cascades 
according to the volume of water. In connec- 
tion with this river and its tributaries import- 
ant canals and,dams have been constructed for 
purposes of irrigation, with the effect of render- 
ing the country on either side highly productive. 
"The Caverv is filled by the monsoon rains in 
May and Juty, but is not navigable except by 
small boats. Tlte irrigation system of its delta, 
dating from the 2d century, is the most andent 
in India. 

CAVA, ka'va, DEI TIRRENI, Italy, dty 
in the southern province of Salerno, situated 
in the valley of Fenestra, three miles northwest 
of Salerno. It is the seat of a bishop, suSragan 
to the Pope^ and contains a cathedral, three 
other churches, a convent, a house of refuge. 
a bosfutal and a senunary. Sill^ cotton and 

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linen are manufactured here, and in the numer- 
ous small villages that surround the town. The 
district is extremely unproductive, but the in- 
habitants have become wealthy by their industry 
and commerce. About one mile from Cava is 
the magnificent Benedictine convent of the 
Trinity founded, in 1025, by Saint Alferius 
over the cavern he had occupied, which for- 
merly contained an excellent lioraiy, now trans- 
ferred to Naples. This convent is now national 
property and contains a lyceum and boarding- 
school. It is a resort for Neapolitans in sum- 
mer and for foreigners in spnng and autumn. 
Pop. (1911) 23,817. 

CAVAGNAL, Marquis de. See Vau- 


.C AVAIGNAC, ka-v&-nyak', El£onore-Louis 
Godefroy, French journalist and politician, son 
of Jean Baptiste Cavaignac (q.v.). He op- 
posed Louis Philippe, and was one of the 
founders of the Societi des Amis dn Peuple 
and of the Society des Droits de THommc 
(1832), of which he was president in 1843- 
He took an active part in the various uprisings 
of the time, and in 1835 esca4>ed to England. 
Returning to Paris in 1841, he became one of 
the editors of La Riforme, an opposition news- 
paper. An excellent statue by Rode is dedicated 
to him at Montmarte. 

CAVAIGNAC, Jacques Marie Bogtae 
Godcfroy, French politician, son of Louis 
Eujg^e C^ivaignac (q.v.) : b. 22 May 1853; d. 
Saint Calais, department of the Sartfae, 25 Sept 
1905. He studied at the Lycee C^ariemagn^ 
Lycce Louis le Grand £cole Polytechnique and 
£cole des Fonts et Clhauss^es, interruptmg his 
studies long enough to serve in the Franco- 
Prussian War. In 1882 he was elected to the 
Chamber of Deputies, and in 1885 was ap- 
pointed under-secretary of state. In the 
Panama revelations of 1892 he bore a conspicu- 
ous part On the organization of the Bourgeois 
Cabmet 30 Oct 1895, he was appointed Minis- 
ter of War. In August 1898, he added to the 
excitement over the Dreyfus prosecution by 
forcing Lieutenant-Colonel Henry to confess 
to a forgery of certain letters bearing on the 
Dreyfus case, and, the accused officer com- 
mitted suicide within a few hours. In the fol- 
lowing month Cavaignac resided his office. He 
was author of <La formation Prusse 
contemporaine> (1897-98). 

CAVAIGNAC, Jean Baptiste, French rev- 
olutionist: b. Gourdon 1762; d. Brussels, 24 
March 1829. He became an advocate at the 
Parliament of Toulouse; and in the Natio^l 
Convention acted as deputy from the depart- 
ment of Lot. He rose to be one of the leaders 
of the Mountain (Extreme Republicans), and, 
on his various dictatorial missions to the armies 
of the Republic, displayed the greatest energy, 
tact and incorruptibility. He was a member 
of the Cx>uncil of Five Hundred; and after- 
ward became a councillor of state in Murat's 
kingdom of Naples. During the Hundred Days 
he acted as prefect of the Somme. He wu 
banished as a regicide, at the second Restora^ 

CAVAIGNAC, Louis Bngtoe, French gen- 
eral: b. Paris, 15 Oct 1802; d. 28 Oct 1857. 
His father, Jean Baptiste Cavaignac (q.v.), was 

a furious revolutionist, and member of the 
Council of Five Hundred. Young (Cavaignac 
entered the £cole Polytechnique in 1820, and 
afterward the military school at Metz, and in 
1824 joined the 2d regiment of engineers. He 
served in the campaign in the Morea, and in 
1829 was appointed captain. Being at Arras on 
the outbreak of the revolution of 1830 he was 
the first officer in his regiment to declare for 
the new order of things. In 1832 he was sent 
to Africa, where he remained for several years, 
and greatly distinguished himself in defending 
the French settlement against the Arabs and by 
his judicious organization of militaiy hospitals, 
barracks and works of defense. In 1844 he 
received the appointment of brigadier-general, 
with the government of the province of Oran 
in Algeria, (^vaignac was in Africa when the 
revolution of February 1848 took place. In 
March of that year he was created by the pro- 
visional government general of division and 
governor of Algeria. Shortly aftxrward the 
office of Minister of War was offered to him, 
but declined. On 23 April he was chosen jrepre- 
sentative of the department of Lot in the Na- 
tional Assembly, and proceeding to Paris to 
take his seat arrived tnere on 17 May. The 
capital was then in a state of great excite* 
ment from an attempt on the assembly by the 
Red Republicans two days before. Ciavai|[nac 
was offered again the portfolio of the Minister 
of War, and this time accepted it. The meas- 
ures which he adopted to guard a^nst the 
crisis which was evidently approaching were 
prompt and decisive. In a few days an army 
of nearly 30,000 men was assembled in and 
around Paris, and this precaution was speedily 
justified by the events which followed. On 
23 June, at 11 o'clock a.m., the terrible (Com- 
munist insurrection burst forth, and for three 
days Paris presented the most dreadful scene 
of tumult and bloodshed which had been wit- 
nessed there since the massacre of Saint Bar- 
tholomew. About 15,000 persons perished, and 
property was destroyed to the value of upward 
of $1,000,000. By the energy of General Cavaig- 
na^ aided by the lojralty of_ the army and the 
national guard, the insurrection was suppressed 
on 26 June. On that day the National Assembly 
deleg^ated the entire executive power to Cavaig- 
nac as dictator, who resigned it again into its 
hands on the 29th, and received it anew on the 
same day, with an acknowledgment by the 
legislative body of the services rendered by him 
to his cotmtrv. Notwithstanding these he was 
defeated in the elections for the presidency in 
the month of December following, and Louis 
Napoleon was preferred to the office. On 20 
December he resigned his dictatorship. After 
the coup d'itat of 2 Dec. 1851, he was arrested 
and conveyed to the fortress of Ham, but was 
liberated after about a month's detention. In 
1852 and in 1857 he was elected member for 
Paris of the legislative body, but on both oc- 
casions was incapacitated from taking his seat 
by refusing to take the oath of allegiance to 
the Emperor. The last years of his life were 
spent at his country-seat in the department of 
Sarthe. Consult Montfort, 'Biographic du gin- 
in\ (livaignac' (1848); Deschamps, *Vie de 
CaYMgnac> (1870). 

CAVAILL£.C0LL, ki'vi-yaTcol', Aria- 
tide, French otgan builder: b. Montpdlier, 2 

Digitized by 




Feb. 1811 ; d. Paris. 13 Oct. 1899. He bmlt the 
organs in the Parisian churches of Saint Sulpice, 
the Madeleine, etc, and invented the pressure 
method for sounding tones of different depths 
and heists. His writings include a ^Projet 
d'orgue monumental pour la basilique de Saintt 
Pierre de Rome* (1875). Consult Lefebvre^ 
*Le grand orgue de I'^Hse Saint-Micbd dn 
Havre* (Havre 1888), an account of a work' 
executed by Cavaill^Coll in 1887-89. 

CAVAILLON, ki-va-yoA (ancient Cabel- 
Lio), France, a town of southeast France in the 
department of Vaucluse, 20 miles southeast of 
Avignon by rail. It is an ancient place, and 
has a cathedral dating from tiie 12th cen- 
tury. The surrounding district is one vast 
garden, producing excellent fruit, especially 
melons and peaches. A considerable trade 
is carried on in silk, olive-oil, fruit, early 
vegetables and wool. The industries com- 
prise straw hats, edge-tools, tanning, the pre- 
serving of fniits and vegetables, etc. The Ro- 
mans had an important colony here, and erected 
many edifices, of which ahnost the only remains 
are some tombs and the fragment of a triumphal 
arch. It was an episcopal city as early as the 
Sth century. Pop. 9,416. 

CAVALCANTI, ki-val-kan't^ Gtiido,poet : 
b. probably in Florence about 1252; d. there, 28 
or 29 Au§. 1300. He was the friend of Dante, 
in whose jud^ent he excelled all in lyric verse 
(Purg. xi, 97) ; and like him a zealous Ghibel- 
hne. When the dissensions of the Guelfs and 
GhibeHines disturbed the public peace of Flor- 
ence the citizens banished the chiefs of both 
parties. The Ghibellines were exiled to Sar- 
zana. On account of the unhealthful air of 
that place they were permitted to return; but 
Cavalcanti had contracted a disease of which he 
died at Florence. In his youth he made a pil- 

frimage to Saint Jago de CTompostella in Galida. 
Returning home through France he fell in love 
at Toulouse with a young lady by the name of 
Mandetta. To her most of his verses which 
we possess are addressed. They are remark- 
able, considering the period at which they were 
written, for thetr beautiful style. His 'Canzone 
d'Amor* have gained him the most fame. The 
learned Cardinal Egidio Ck>lonna and some 
others have made commentaries on it. Various 

editions of his works have appcafed, those of 
Arnone (Florence 1881) ; of Ercole (Lediom 
1885) ; of Rivalta (Bologna 1902), and ofE. C. 

(Lanciono 1910). Translations have been 
made by Ezra Pound (Boston 1912) ; by 
Fletcher (in Modem Philology 1910). Consult 
Ercole, <Guido Cavalcanti e le sue Rime* 
(1885); Fletcher, J. B., <The Religion of 
Beauty in Women* (New York 1911). 

CAVALCASELLB, ka-val-ka-selli, Gio- 
vanni Battista, Italian art historian: b. Leg- 
nano, 22 Jan. 1820; d. Rome, November 1897. 
He studied painting at the Academy of Venice 
suid at Munich. He was active in the revolu- 
tion of 1848 and was forced to escape to Eng- 
land. He became the literary associate of T. A. 
Crowe (q.v.), with whom he producea the 
epoch-malang 'History of Paintmg in Italy* 
(1864-71), the most complete work on the sub- 
ject; <EarIy Flemish Painters* (1857-72); 
'Life of Titian' (1877); 'Raphad* (1883). 
He was inspector of tihe National Mase«ftn m 
Florence and director-general of fine arts in 

Rome. A sew edition of his 'History* ap- 
peared by Edward Hutton (3 vols., 1909), A 
revision was begim by Crowe and continued by 
S. A. Strong and Langdon Douglas (6 vols.). 

CAVALIBR, kJL-val-ya, Jean, French sol- 
dier, chief leader of the Camisards in the wars 
of the Cevennes : b. Ribaute, near Anduze, 1681 ; 
d. Chelsea, England, 17 May 1740. He was at 
Geneva when the severe measures of Louis 
XIV against the fanatical Camisards induced 
him to return home. Several insurrections had 
already brokenout, but he soon so distinguished 
himself by his cpurage and success, that,- 
though only at the age of 24, he became the 
adcnowledged hiad of the insurgents. Not- 
withstanding their gallantry they were obliged 
to carry on the war on such unequal terms that 
the impossibility of success became apparent, 
and Cavalier entered into a capitulation with 
Marshal yillars, by which be obtained a pension 
of 1,200 livres, a colonel's commission and per- 
mission to raise a regiment of his own for the 
King's service. He was summoned, however, 
to Versailles, and, finding himself looked upon 
with susj^icion, made his escape and soon after 
visited Sngland. In the Spanish War, being 
supported oy the English and Dutch, he com- 
manded a regiment raised by himself and partly 
consisting ol refugee Camisard^ and distin- 
guished himself greatly at the battle of Al- 
manza in 1707, where he was severely wounded. 
He was afterward pensioned by the British 
government appointed governor of Jersey and 
made a major-general. 

CAVALIER, (1) a horse-soldier; an 
armed horseman; a knight; the name given to' 
the supporters of King Charles I, during the 
great Ovtl War in England, from their gay 
aress and demeanor, as contrasted with the 
austerity of the Parliamentary party, who 
were s^led Roundheads, from the mode in 
which the more puritanical of that body wore 
their hair closely cropped. (2) In fortifications, 
a kind of interior bastion, several feet more 
devated than the principal bastion of the for- 
tress in which it is formed. TTie use of the 
cavalier is two- fold: It serves defilade 
the works from the fire of an enemy or an 
adjacent height, or to command the trenches of 
the besiegers. Cavaliefs arc sometimes con- 
structed in the gorges, or on the middle of the 
curtain, and their form is semi-circular; but 
when they are within the bastion they are now 
built widi straight faces and flanks parallel to 
those of the work in which they are placed. 
French cavaliers are works raised by besiegers 
on the glacis of a fortress for the purpose of 
enabling them to direct a fire of musketry into 
the covered way. 

, CAVALIER POETS, a term properly ap- 
(died to the group of lyrists among the follow- 
ers of (Charles I and of his exiled son, from 
the first actual warfare with the Commonwealtli 
imtil the Restoration. The term is also applied 
More broadly to other poets of the time such 
aa Herrick (q.v.) or Dotine (q.v.) who wrote 
in the same style; but the distinction of the 
manner is due to Oiose loyalists who were prer 
eminently court gentlemen and fighters for the 

In literary tradition the Cavalier poets took 
their descent from Wyatt and- Surrey, Sidney 

Digitized by 




and Raldgli, and those other cultured and wdl- 
traveled 'makers* of the Tudor and Eliza- 
bethan courts, who naturalized the Proven^l 
lyric and its love-system on Enj^sb soiL This 
influence, of course, had been strong in Chau- 
cer's time, but only with tUs later group did 
lyric poetry as an accomplishment become well 
established among tht gentlemen around the 
^glish sovereign, and take on a native manner, 
trub^ expressive of the historical moment. 

The early Elizabethan court poets, even in. 
their narrowest imitations of the French son- 
neteers, had some of the largeness of the age 
in their manner; they spoke consciously to an 
audience. At the end of the reign the Renais- 
sance wealth of scholarship and culture had 
spread through the nation, in a wide circle from 
the court. What remained the peculiar inher- 
itance of the courtly poet was undergoing a re- 
finement such as the novel shows in the second 
part of <Euphues,> in which the story _is_ taken 
mto the drawing-room, where the feminine in- 
fluence is dominant, imposing in a modem way 
the exquisiteness which is the end of all courts 
of love. By a similar transition the courtly 
poets, letting go the larger subjects and the 
public manner, made the quality of thrir verse 
the very qualities of graceful society — the per- 
sonal compliment; the brief sallies that general 
conversation demands ; the quick turns in which 
grace and wit count; that method of society 
verse which restrains beneath an even manner 
all feeling that is too ^rsonal or too deep. The 
presence of the ladies is felt — not oi one 
woman alone; as in the garden scene in the 
second part of 'Euphues,' the lover most find 
ways to woo his lady under the very eyes of her 
teasing comrades. 

This development of the court poetry was 
occasioned, no doubt, by the natural growth of 
culture and the perfecting of manners in Eng- 
lish society, as well as at the court. Some im- 
pression, howeven was made upon the court by 
the chauKe from Elizabeth's manlike rule to the 
gentle influence of Charles' refined Queen. The 
influence of Henrietta Maria, however, was not 
altogether admirable. Refininjg though it was, it 
took the direction of effeminacy, and in the 
precieuse fashion which is fostered of insincere 
pedantry. William Harbington (1605-54) in 
bis <CasUra> (1634) illustrates the over-refine^ 
ment of theme to which the graceful court 
verse at this moment might have seemed 

The personality of Charles, however, which 
enlisted the loyalty of the courtiers, his tragic 
end, and the exile of his family and his follow- 
ers, gave back to die courtly verse the vitality 
it was losing, and in addition some new char- 
acteristics, which distinguished it as Cavalier 
poetiY. Loyalty to Charles and to Ms son, un- 
like loyalty to ElizabetlL was personal more 
than patriotic; it serveo to revive therefore 
some of the most ideal conditions of chivalry. 
Charles became not so much the sovereign of a 
country as the head of an- order of knights ; 
hb exiled son became their leader under all 
sides. The sufferings that were the cost of their 
loyal^, their sense of a lost cause and the long 
tradition of proud breeding that would bear all 
with outMrard lightness, made the pathos and the 
grace of the best Cavalier poets. The Eliaa- 
bethan largeness of manner never quite re- 
turned, though the Marquis of Montrose (1612> 

50) echoed it nobly in hiB lines on the death 
of Charles I, and in those on Us own execution ; 
but in general the lighter gracefulness continued 
to be a mark of the Cavaliers, as in Montrose's 
most famous lyric, 'My dear and only feve.* 
In sing^ess and loftiness of devotion, in the 
actual sacrifice of his life for the caus^ and in 
the natural, incidental place of literature in his 
career, Mwitrose is perhaps the ideal Cavalier 

Richard Lovelace (1618-5$), author of the 
best known Cavalier lyric, 'Tell me not, sweet, 
I am unkind^ and of the only less perfect 
*To Althea, From Prison,' illustrates in his 
Iif<^ as does Montrose, the tragedy that often. 
underlay this graceful verse, but the tragedy 
is here one of sentiment He impoverished him- 
self to give his fortune to the King. On return- 
ing from the wars abroad be was imprisoned, 
and his 'Lucasta,' Lucy Sacheverall, believing 
him dead, married some one dse. Lovelace 
died, worn out by suffering and povertjr, 

A similarly typical fate was that of Sir John 
Suckling (1609?-42), who spent his fortune for 
the King, became an exile and died abroad. 
He wrote several plays, and the clever 'Sesuon 
of the Poets,' the model of much later criticism 
in li^t verse; his fame, however, is founded 
on his Cavalier poems. In his life and in his 
writing he is neither so noble nor so pathetic as 
Montrose and Lovelace; he is a roisterer at 
heart, as can clearly be seen even in the ex- 
quisite 'Ballad upon a Wedding.' But he is 
master of the reckless tone that finally charac- 
terized the school, the tone that had been caught 
so finely by George Wither (1588-1667)— who 
strangev enough lived to be a Roundhead — in 
his 'Shall I, wasting in despair?' In such lines 
as 'Out upon it I have loved three whole days 
together,' Suckling turns the bravado note into 
a pretty compliment ; in his best lyric, the song 
from 'Aglaura' — ^*Why so pale and wan, fond 
lover?* he carries it to its logical conclusion of 

Among the numerous poets who. wrote in the 
Cavalier manner, though not under strict Cav- 
alier conditions, besides Herrick and Donn& 
already noticed, should be mentioned Edmund 
Waller, for his two perfect lyrics of compliment, 
'On a Girdle,' and 'Go, lovely rose.' But far 
more important is Thomas Carew (1598?- 
16397), probably the most gifted minor poet of 
the time, with the exception of Herrick. He 
came of good family, enjoyed an excellent edu- 
cation and, it seems, led a reckless life. In 
his verse the Cavalier com^iliment is most elab- 
orate and most noble, as in the incomparable 
'Ask me no more^' and in the epitaphs on 
Lady Mary Villers, where he is indeed more the 
scholar than the Qtvalier. 'Give me more love 
or more disdain,' and <ttc that loves a rosy 
chedc,' are other familiar examples of his' 
felicity. He had in full measure the rhetorical 
grace of the true Cavalier, the secret of splen- 
did openings and cadences — an unacademic art 
that began not in literary imitation but |n 
courtly conversation, in the fine compliment psud 
to beauty that need not be abashed by praise. 

John Erskike, 
AdiuHct Professor of English, Columbia Uni- 

CAVALIBRB SBRV8NTB, ki-va-tS-ir'e 
air-rin'tii. See Ocnnn. 

Digitized by 




cerco Bomrventnni, Italian mathematician: b. 
Milan 1596; d. Bologna, 3 Dec. 1647. He studied 
mathematics at Pisa under B. Castelli, a dis- 
ciple of Galileo, officiated as professor in Bo- 
logna, and was author oi several mathematical 
works, the most prominent of which was en- 
titled ^Geometria Indivisibilium continuorum 
nova auadam ratione promota.^ Having ex- 
pressed in this woik some original ideas con- 
cerning the abstruse sciences, the Italians claim 
him to be the inventor of the infinitesimal cal- 
culus (q.v.). It is indeed true that his method 
of indivisibles enabled him to attain certain 
results which we now reach by the integral 
calculus, but Cavalieri made the false step of 
regarding a plane figure as the sum of a finite 
number of narrow rectangular strips and a solid 
figure as the sum of a finite number of cylindri- 
cal laminae, instead of considering the figures 
in question as limits of sttch sums. 

CA VALLA. See KiNcnsH. 

Chivalry*). The title of a famous short 
sketch of how an 'affair of honor* was settled 
in a country place in Sicily, by Giovanni 
Verga. The stoty first appeared in 1880 in a 
collection of tales entitled <Vita dei camiM^ 
('Life in the Fields*) and subsequently whea 
uie stories were reprinted gave its name to the 
collection. The direct way the story^ is told, 
without any elaboration, leaving to the imagina- 
tion precisely what is necessary, makes the 
tragedy a model of this kind of realistic writ- 
ing, a kind, which has given Verga a very high 
rank among modern Italian writers. Turiddu, 
a young soldier, returns from military duty to 
find that his sweetheart, Lola, during his 
absence has given her hand to a well-to-do 
villager, Alfio. To revenge himself Turidda 
wins the affection of a young girl, Santa, living 
directly opposite Lola, and then endeavors to 
make the latter jealous. He succeeds, abandons 
Santa, wins back Lola and pays for his 
treachery with his life in a duel with Alfio. 
Such are the bare facts. The way they are 
presented in rapid succession leading up to the 
tragedy is realism of the highest order. More- 
over, the local coloring is so strong as to give 
the sketch a flavor that is peculiarly Italian and 
which characterizes thoroughly everything that 
is presented in the tragedy: Tnriddu's tmiform 
and red can with the tassel worn by the 
Bersaglieri uat strangely agitate the young girls 
and attract the smiQl boys; his reproach in 
Sicilian dialect to Lola, just before her mar- 
riage; the ostentation of the latter after her 
marriage, of her jewels and ornaments at the 
balcony of her house in order to proclaim her 
wealth; the courtship of Turiddu and Santa, 
broken by Lola's jealousy, and the resulting 
consequences, that is the challenge of Alfio to 
Turiddu; the binding of the promise to fipht 
the duel by embracing and by Turiddu's biting 
Alfio's ear; the duel at sunrise in the Indian _ fig 
field, where Alfio, wounded, stoops down, picks 
up a handful of dust, throws it into his op- 
ponent's eyes, thus blinding Turiddu, making it 
possible for Alfio to wreak his revenge' by dis- 
patching the betrayer of his honor. In 1884 
Vergtt dramatized 'Cavalleria rusticana' as a 
. one-act play containing nine scenes. Several 

minor characters appeac and Saata is called 
Santuzza. The whole action takes place Easter 
morning in the village piatsetta, where the wine 
shop of Turiddu's mother, Nunzia, is seen and 
the . village church. Although Verga's 
dramatized version is effective, the drama is 
hardly the equal of the novella, the charm of 
which in no small degree lies in the merely 
suggested background. Undoubtedly much of 
the celebrity of 'Cavalleria rusticana^ is due to 
Pietro Mascagni's opera of the same name, the 
libretto for which was written by Targioni- 
Tozzetti and Guido Menasd, shortly before 
1890. Although the original version of the 
storjr is followed (^uite closely, several lyrics 
are introduced serving as texts for arias and 
choruses, which, admirable as they are in their 
way, by reason of their development, rather 
detract from the original dramatic effect. A 
readily available text of ^Cavalleria rusticana,*- 
with English notes and commentary, by Pro- 
fessors Wilkins and Altrocchi of Chicago Uni- 
versity, wQl be found in a collection: 'Italian 
Short _Stories> (Boston 1912). An English 
translation by Alma Stretell appeared in Eng- 
land in 'Cavalleria Rusticana and Other Tales 
of Sicilian Life' (London 1893), and in this 
country t^ Nathan Haskell Dole, in a volume 
entitled 'Under the Shadow of Etna> (Bos- 
ton 1896). 

James Geddes, Js. 
Professor of Romance Languages, Boston 

opera in one act by Pietro Mascagni (lib-, 
retto by "Targioni-Tozzetti and Menasci, 
founded on a tale WVerga), first produced 
at Rome, 17 May 1890. Awarded the prize 
in a competition for one-act operas offered by 
the publisher Sozogno, <OvaUeria Rusticana> 
latmched its composer into world-wide promi- 
nence and founded a school of well-defined 
proportions. All Italy went wild over the work 
and Mascagni was hailed as the legitimate 
successor of Verdi. Evenrwhere the opera 
created a furore. In New York two managers 
vied with each other to be the first in the field, 
with the result that two productions were given 
in New York on 1 Oct. 1891 and the question 
of priority rights had to be settled b^ the 
courts. In the meantime, both Philadelphia and 
(Chicago had heard it. The compressed emo- 
tional appeal of the work swept critical judg- 
ment off its feet. The hot-blooded passion of 
the story was raised to a higher power by the 
music, turbulent, theatrical, but persuasive. The 
vein tapped by the composer was not all pre- 
cious metal and it petered out suddenly; but 
while it lasted, the rewards were rich. The 
Intermezzo atone, an eloquent advance a^nt 
of die opera, must have poured a fortune into 
the composer's pockets. The SiciKana sung 
by Turridu, Santuzza's romance, the Drinking 
Song and Lola's aria are all melodious and 
easiW remembered. The orchestration is often 
crude and bhttant, but not unsuited as a vehicle 
for the *veristic* and melodramatic musical ex- 
pression. Operatic annals contain few such 
sensational and meteoric careers as that of 
<C4kvalleria Rusticana, > widi the fortunes of 
which its composer's fame has been inextric- 
ably bound lip. Emma Calve's impersonation 
of Santiuza is one of the outstanding histrionic 

Digitized by 




features of modern operatic history. For the 
outline of the story see Cavaixeria Rusticana. 
Lewis M. Isaacs. 

CAVALLI, ka-v&l£, Pietro Francesco, 
Italian composer: b. Crema about 1600; d. 
Venice, 14 Jan. 1676. The name by which he 
is known was assumed by him in honor of his 

eitron, Federigo Cavalh, podesti of Crema. 
is real name was Pietro Francesco Caletti 
Bruni. He studied under Monteverde whose 
style he continued. In 1665, he became organ- 
ist at San Marco, and in 1668, Maestro di 
capella, or 'chapelmaster^* which office he 
held for the rest of his life. He is best re- 
membered for his work in dramatic operas. 
He introduced solos, freer rhythm and 
widened the scope of dramatic possibilities. In 
all of this he was the direct forerunner o£ 
Scarlatti who developed opera along these 
lines. In spite of obvious crudities of style 
and weakness of harmony, Cavalli's 42 operas 
are still noteworthy productions. Among his 
numerous works may be mentioned 'Le Nozze 
di Tetide e di Peleo> (1639): <I1 Giasone' 
(1649); <L'Artemisia> (1656). In 1656, a col- 
lection of his church music was printed at 

CAVALLO, Tiberias, Italian physician and 
inventor: b. Naples, March 1749: d. London 
December 1809. He early removea to England, 
where he published,, in 1775, a notice of 'Ex- 
traordinary Electricity Observed at Islington.* 
He invented several ingenious instruments for 
electrical and chemical experiments. His ap- 
paratus for measuring the force and quantity 
of electricity is remarkably delicate and ac- 
curate. In 1779 he was admitted to the Royal 
Society. His study of the influence of air and 
lig^t on plant development was brilliantly 
original, and paved the way for valuable dis- 
coveries in organic life. He wrote 'Medical 
Electricity* (1780); <A Treatise on the Nature 
and Properties of Air, etc.> n781) : ^Complete 
Treatise on Electricity* (1786); 'Treatise on 
Magnetism in Theory and Practice* (1787); 
'Elements of Natural and Experimental Phi- 
losophy* (1803), and other scientific works. 

CAVALLY, one of the popular names of 
the horse-mackerel, Carangus hippos, called 
also horse-crevalle and jack. It belongs to the 
family' Carangidce (q.v.), and is distinguished 
by the black spots on the operculum and the 
pectoral fin. 

CAVALOTTI. ka-vaUt'te, Felice. Italian 
statesman and poet: b. Milan, 6 Nov. 1842; d. 
Rome, 6 March 1898. ,He fought under Gari- 
baldi and gained celebrity; was a political jour- 
nalist. Elected to die, Italian Parliament 
(1868), he oDposed Crispi and became an ex- 
treme Republican, opposing the monarchy with 
^eat vigor. He was repeatedly sentenced to 
imprisonment. He fought 32 duels and was 
finally killed. The most noted of his trade- 
dies are 'Agnes de Gonzaga* ; and 'Alcibiades* 
(1874). He also published volumes of lyric 
verse, his best work being 'The Canticle of 

CAVALRY, term used to designate soldiers 
trained to fight mounted and sometimes em- 
ployed on foot. The decisive power and value 
of cavalry lie in its mobility and in opposing 
iirfantiy. On foot, the cavalry of to-day can 

attack po^ons with the same resolotton and 
determination as can, infantry. They use the 
same weapon — the rifle — and the cavalryman 
of to-day is the rifleman on horseback who can 
quickly convert himself into a rifleman on foot, 
ready to receive and repel the mounted charge 
of cavalry. There are enormous possibilities 
for the horseman of the future armed with the 
rifle, with a great extension of modem battle 
lines modified by the development of mounted 
infantry ready to throw itself on the rear or 
flanks of the distant enemy. The cavalry ac- 
tion of the future can be conceived by a com- 
parison of the cavalry of the Qvil War, the 
Boer War and the European War with that 
of Wagram and Waterloo. 

Cavalrv as a distinct military organization 
dates back prior to the Trojan War. Xene- 
phon relates that in the first Messenian , War, 
743 B.C, Lycurgus formed his cavalry in di- 
visions. In the war 371 B.C., Epaminondas bad 
a cavalry force of 5,000 men, and we know 
their cavalry contributed greatly to the victories 
of Philip and Alexander of Macedon. It had 
an important part in the battle of the Granicns, 
334 B.C.: and at the battle of Arbela, 331 B.C., 
Alexander, who led the Macedonian cavalry of 
7,000 men, dashed into a gap of the Persian 
army, and by this brilliant feat utterly routed 
the enemy. The Roman cavalry was very in- 
ferior to that of Hamilcar and Hannibal and 
most of the victories of these two generals 
Were won by cavalry over the splendid infan- 
try of the Romans. Publius Scipio's defeat at 
the Ticinus, 218 B.C., was due to the superior- 
ity of the Carthaginian horse; and the bitter 
experience at the Trebia and the battle of 
Cannae, 216 b.c., taught the Romans the value 
of cavalry, by whidi Scipio finally defeated 
Hannibal at Zama, 202 b.c. Vegetius states 
that the Roman cavalry was organized into 10 
troops or squadrons, forming a regnment of 
726 horses, generally attached to some special 
legion. It is a singular fact that saddles were 
not in use until the time of Constantine, and 
stirrups were introduced by the Franks in the 
5th century. During the Middle Ages cavalry 
may be said to have constituted almost the only 
efficient arm of battle. This was owing to the 
unwillingness of the nobility in all countries of 
western Europe to entrust any military power 
to the serfs; the upper classes went into battle 
mounted, and both riders and horses had heavy 
defensive armor. The 'feudal cavalry con- 
sisted of mail-clad knights with their men-at- 
arms. Their weapons were lances, battle-axes 
and swords. The infantry was looked down 
upon, during the Middle Ages, being composed 
principally of serfs and such as had not the 
means to keep a horse ; but with the invention 
of gunpowder, the introduction of muskets 
and the use of field artillery a complete change 
took place : the infantry gradually rose in repu- 
tation, and the number of this class of troops 
was augmented. It seems that light cavalry 
did not exist as a distinct body, with general 
officers and a staff, before the time of Louis 
XII. Montluc, however, mentions a general of 
12,000 lijiht horse in the time of that monarch ; 
and we bear of Henry II, in 1552, taking a 
troop of 3,000 cavalry in his expedition to 
(Jermany. In 1554 Marshal De Brissac formed 
a corps of mounted infantry, called Dragoons, 

Digitized by 



trained to fi^^t dther on horseback or on foot' 
Manrice of Nassau, who saw the importance of 
giving more mobility to this arm, was the first 
to organize cavalry regiments each regiment 
being composed of four squadrons, formed in 
five ranks, and numbering about 1,000 horses. 
Gustavus Adolphus was a great cavalry gen- 
eral, and nsed his cuirassiers and dragoons to 
good advantage. His tectics were much ad-- 
mired, and were adopted by many European 
nations. The French, espeaally, distinguished 
themselves after his death in the employment 
of cavalry. Turenne, Conde, Montecuculi and 
Marlborough were considered excellent cavalry 
leaders. Cromwell was indebted to his abilities 
as a cavalry officer for the victories of Marston 
Moor and Nasebv. Defensive armor for 
cavalry had been abolished in his time, and the 
cavalry troops were taught to use the carbine, 
darges of cavalry were seldom made in battle 
except^ by the French. Marshal Saxe made 
many improvements in this arm, and used guns 
in connection with cavalry at the battle of 
Fontenoy, although regular horse-artillerjr was 
not introduced till 1763. It was not until the 
wars of Frederick the Great, however, that the 
full importance of cavalry was developed; he 
saw the necessity of training these troops to 
use swords instead of firearms, and endeavored 
to make them perfect riders. No firing what- 
ever was allowed in the battle during the first 
charge; he claimed that the only two things 
required to beat the enemy were to charge hmt 
with the greatest possible speed and force, and 
then outnank him. The brilliant victories he 
obtained from the adoption of these tactics 
under the able leadership of Seydlitz have prob- 
ably never been excelled. At the battle of 
Hohenfriedberg the Prussian cavalry of 10 
squadrons brc^e 21 battalions, routed the en- 
tire left wing of the Austrian infantry and 
captured 66 standards, 5 guns and 4,000 prison- 
ers. Frederick had learned to appreciate the 
true principles of motmted warfare through 
long expenence and the occasional disasters 
which he had met. in the first and second 
Silesian wars; and it was due to the efficient 
reforms which he instituted in the Prussian 
cavalry that he was able to win the battles of 
Rossbach, Striegau, Kesselsdorf, Leuthen and 
others. One of the first improvements itiade 
in the French army by Napoleon was the re- 
or^nization of the cavalry. He increased the: 
cuirassiers from one regiment to 12, and re- 
introduced the use of the lance and defensive 
armor. Some of his splendid victories were 
due to this force, especially at Marengo and. 
Austerlitz ; and it was owing to the loss of the 
French cavalry in the Russian campaign of 

1812 that some of his finest achievements in 

1813 proved useless; he was well aware of 
this, and made the statement that had he pos- 
sessed cavalry at the battles of Liitzen and 
Bautzen the war would then have been brought 
to an end. 

In modem warfare it may be mentioned 
that cavalry was conspicuous at the battle of 
Solferino ; out in 1866^ the first great European 
war since Waterloo, neither the Austrian nor 
the Prussian cavalry won great distinction, al- 
though the manner in which the Austrian 
cavalry covered the retreat of their army at 
the battle of Koniggratz was a noble example 
of courage and devotion. In the Franco-Prus- 

sian War of 1870, however, the excellence of 
the Prussian cavalry was the chief means of 
Von Moltke's ability to carry out his strategic 
plans. The French cavalry were more remark- 
able for bravery than effiaency. Great progress 
was made in the cavalry of die United States 
during the Civil War; a large number of men 
of both armies were good riders, and under- 
stood the management of horses. They were 
at first, however, quite ignorant of military 
tactics, and were used as scouts, as orderlies 
and for otttjtost service. General Sheridan, 
acting tmder instructions from General Grant, 
made the _ first successful organization of 
cavalry, which was called the Cavalry Corps of 
the Army of the Potomac, comprising three di- 
visions of 5,000 mounted men each. Their 
weapons were repeating carbines and sabres. 
It was with this force that he defeated the Con< 
federate cavalry at Yellow Tavern, near Rich- 
mond; and it contributed largely to the defeat 
of Early at the battle of the Opequan, neai 
Winchester; and later, at the battles neat 
Petersburg and at Five Forks, the cavalry took 
an inutortant part. General Wilson, whom Gen- 
eral Sherman pttt in command of a force called 
the Cavalry Corps. of the Military Division of 
Mississippi, did good woilc in the organiza- 
tion toward the close of the war ; he had 12,000 
mounted cavalry and 3,000 who fought on foot 
at the battle of Nashville, not including a de- 
tachment of 3,000 men in Kentucky. 

Cavalry b usually placed in the rear of the 
infantry on grotmd favorable to its manoeuvres, 
and where it will be masked from fire until the 
moment arrives to bring it into action; here, 
if acting on the defensive, the cavalry watches 
its_ opportunity to su^mrt the 'other troops, 
driving back nie enemy, by prompt and vigor- 
ous charges, when these are hard pressed; or, 
if on the offensive, biding its time, to rush 
upon the assailant, and complete his destruc- 
tion, when his ranks commence to waver or 
show signs of disorganization from the assaults 
of the other arms. Its habitual formation for 
the attack is in a line of two ranks, with a 
reserve, or support, to its rear. The supports 
are indispensably requisite -to p;uard against 
those chances of danger in which cavalry is 
particularly exposed, if attacked in turn, when 
m a state . of partial disorganization, after a 
successful charge; or when threatened by an 
offensive novement against its flanks. The 
supports offer a safeguard against either of 
these dangers; for, if the front line is brought 
up t^ the enemy, after a successful charge, it 
can retire and rally in the rear of the supports ; 
and if the enemy makes a movement against 
the flanks, the supports, placed behind them and 
in column, can form and anticipate the enemy's 
charge. For the foregoing reasons, cavalry 
should not give way to a headlong purswt 
after a successful charge, unless its supports 
are at hand; and in cases where a charge Is 
made without supports, a portion only should 
engage in pursuit, the rest being rallied to form 
a support. 

A body of cavalry which waits to receive a 
charge of cavalnr, or is exposed to a fire of 
infantty or artillery, must either retire or be 
destroyed. This essential quality of cavalry 
renders its services invaluable in retreats where 
the enemy pursues with vigor. In such cases 
it should be held in constant readiness to t^ce 

Digitized by 




advantage of every spot favorable to its ac- 
tion, and, by short and energretic charges, force 
the enemy to move with circumspection. So 
long as infantry maintains its position firmly, 
particularly if the ground is at all unfavorable 
to the movements of cavalry, the chances are 
against a successful attack by the latter. 
Oivalry should therefore either wait patiently 
until a way is prepared for its action, by a fire 
of artillery on the enemy's infantry; or until 
the infantry has become crippled and exhausted 
by being kept in action for some time; or else, 
watching its opportunity, make a charge whilst 
the infantry is in motion, so as to surprise it 
before it can form to receive the attack 

Cavalry should direct its charge on that 
point of me enemy's infantry where it will it- 
self be exposed to the least column of fire. If 
the infantry is in line, the charge should be 
made on one of its flanks; if in square, on one 
of the angles of the square; and when several 
squares are formed, so as to afford mutual sup* 

Sort by their fire, selecting the squares on the 
anks as most vulnerable, from their position. 
The formation usually recommended for charg- 
ing against squares is that of three squadrons 
in line at double distance ; the leading squadron 
being followed by the others, either directly in 
its rear, or else the squadrons may be formed 
in echelon, successively overlapping each other 
by about the front of a platoon. The angle of 
the square is charged by each squadron in suc- 
cession, if the charge of the one preceding it 
fails; the repulsed squadrons each wheeling to 
the right or left on retiring, to leave the way 
clear for its successor. A fourth squadron in 
column follows those in line, to surround the 
square and niake prisoners if it should be 
broken by the charge. To draw the fire of the 
infantry before charging, a few skilful flankers 
may be thrown forward to open a fire on the 
square. Stratagem may also be tried, by mov- 
ing along the front of the infantry, and dien 
charging, if it is tempted to throw away its 

In attacks against artillery, the detachment 
of cavalry should be divided into three bodies: 
one- fourth of the- detachment being charged 
with carrying the guns, one-half to attack the 
supports of the battery and the remaining 
fourth acting as a reserve, to cover the parties 
in advance from an offensive movement 
against their flanks or rear. The party to se- 
cure the guns make their attack m dispersed 
order, and endeavor to gain the flanks of the 
battery. When the battery _ has a fair sweep 
over the ground alonsr which they must ad- 
vance, they should, by manoeuvring and false 
attacks, try to confuse the artillerists, and draw 
their fire before, making their charge. 

So far as concerns actual duties, heavy 
cavalry charge the enemy's cavalry and in- 
fantry, attack the g^uns and cover a retreat: 
while the light cavalry make reconnaissances, 
carry dispatches and messages, maintain out- 
posts, supply pickctSj scour the country for 
forage, and the commissariat, pursue the enemy 
and try to screen the movements of the in- 
fantry by their rapid manoEUvres on the front 
and nanks of their army. At the battle of 
Balaklava the heavy cavalry charge was within 
the reasonable duties of the troops, but tint of 
the light cavalry was not ; the former succeeded, 
the latter failed. Cavalry cannot wait to re- 

ceive an attack like infantry: they must either 
pursue or retreat; and on this account it has 
been said, *Rest is incompatible with cavalry;.* 
The infantry and artillery more frequendy win 
the victory; but the cavalry prepare the way 
for doing this, capture prisoners and trophies, 
pursue the flying enemy, rajMdly succor a 
menaced p<»nt and cover the retreat of infan- 
try and artillery, if retreat be necessary. 

If we study the conditions of modem 
cavalry action, it is clearly seen that no one 
particular formation can -be rigidly insisted 
upon for the mounted charge against cavalry. 
The development of long range firearms, their 
rapidity of fire and great accuracy, has made it 
possible for cavalry having time to dismount 
and form up to repel the attack of horsemen as 
effectively as can ^'unshaken infantry.* By 
dismounting and using the rifle on foot the 
cavalry will be able to decimate the attacking 
force and throw it into utter confusion long 
before it reaches its objective. Dismounted ac- 
tion in future wars will be the rule, mounted 
attack the exception. 

The battle attacks of the cavalry of the 
First Empire were simplicity itself. Placed 
close to the front, it was drawn up in succes- 
sive lines of regiments or brigades, with the 
li^t cavalry in front, behind them the dra- 
goons and in rear of all the cuirassiers. The 
lines thus placed one behind the other formed 
une colonne serrie. It attacked in successive 
lines of regiments or brigades at varying in- 
tervals, according to the course of events. 
After the charge or the tnelte the rally was to 
the flanks, where column was "rapidly formed 
in order, if necessary, to advance again by 
passing tnrough the intervals of the supporting 
lines. There was little occasion for manoeuvre, 
owing to the proximity of the cavalry to the 
front, but all movements were executed at the 
trot, the gallop only being sounded for the last 
too or 150 yards. Practically the only manoeu- 
vre attempted was to take ground to the right 
or left and form again to the front; the suc- 
cess of Ae charge was due to the irresistible 
onset of the successive lines and the skill in 
the melle of the individual swordsman, the 
whole constituting a moral factor of the first 
importance and value. 

The question is asked : Why, cavalry having 
attained such super-excellence under Napoleon, 
has it come to pass that in none of the succeed- 
ing wars from 1815 to 1870 is there any trace 
of the same emploi intensiff The same thing 
had already been noticed before in the Prussian 
cavalry of Frederick; in both cavalries there 
was a period of uniform success; in both of 
them when at their zenith the principles of 
organization were simple, the distribution sup- 
ple and elastic, the commanders young and 
brilliant and the employment of the arm was 
the actual emtx>diment of the offensive spirit. 
Either cavalry attained its apogee, followed by 
a period of decadence; each in turn was con- 
tent to restupon its past fame, to rely merely 
upon tradition, until reverses and disaster led 
each in succession to examine into and correct 
the causes which had resulted in its overthrow. 
It is found that during long years of peace men 
fall back upon mere formula, trust to theoty 
rather than to practice, consult schoolmen' 
rather than leaders ; that during peace time the 
natural tendency is to place undue reliance 

Digitized by 




vpoa reeulations, fonn and diUUantisme tac- 
lique, while overltxddoR the factors of enemr 
and over^wering moral force which, throuf^ 
all matenal chwiges in anoament, must ever 
remain, among the keenest weapons of cavalry- 
After the war of 1870 it was generally be- 
lieved that cavalry was no loi«er a wenpon 
for the battle, that all that could be asked of 
it were certain vaguely defined duties of recon- 
nabsance ;_ it was then recognized that oppos- 
ing cavalries must meet and fight, and by both 
German and French authorities it was con- 
ceded that the first duty of cavalry is to de- 
feat the cavalry of the opponent, while many 
efforts were made to formulate a doctrine of 
profitable employment. This heroic age, when 
It seemed that cavalry should be employed 
again in masses and by shock, was followed by 
the Russo-Turkish, the South African and the 
Manchurian campaigns, where such methods 
were impracticable, and a reaction set in in 
favor of the employment of smaller units and 
of fire actiotL 

The Franco-Prussian War put emphasis 
upon the reconnaissance duties of cavalry, be- 
cause the German cavalry took advantage of 
the fact that the French cavalry mostly was 
kept concentrated and with the infantry to 
spread out far in front of the German armies 
for reconnaissance purposes ; also because both 
cavalries disdained to fight on foot and, there- 
fore, contented themselves with waiting for 
opportimities to make mounted attacks. These 
opi>ortunities came but seldom, and in the 
maiority of cases furnished examples of the 
failure of the mounted attack rather than the 

Cavalry officers in all countries have felt for 
years that undue emphasis was being put on the 
reconnaissance duties of cavalry, and that 
cavalry should not consider^ itself an obsolete 
fighting arm merely because it cannot habitually 
use the sabre, any more than infantry should 
rule itself off the battlefield because it cannot 
habitually use the bayonet. These cavaliy offi- 
cers have welcomed the possibility of the 
aeroplane taking over the duties of reconnais- 
sance from the cavalry, as that means the end 
of the period in which cayalry has been split 
up into small bodies, and the return to its use 
in large bodies under cavalry leaders. In other 
words, its use would be on a much larger scale 
but in the same manner in which Sheridan in 
the closing days of the Qvil War cut off and 
destroyed Ewell, Lee's rear guard, and after- 
ward stopped Lee until the infantry could 

In the great European War cavalry was in- 
dispensable and variously employed as a 
cavalrjr screen; in reconnaissance; in patrol 
duty; in protecting flanks of armies: in filling 
gaps between armies ; in acting as aovance and 
rear guards; in pursuing the enemy as inde- 
pendent cavalry ; escorting large bodies of in- 
fantry and machine guns moving in automo- 
biles; seizing and holding important positions 
until the infantry could come up; holding long 
stretches of trenches; and acting as a mobile 
reserve in rear of the trenches. As a result of 
experience in the Boer War in 1901, in the 
British drill book the rifle was declared "the 
principal weapon of cavalry.'' But later when 
a new drill book was issued in 1907, the policy 
changed, and the arme bloHche was declared to 

be the cavalry's main reliance. The Boer War 
was the greatest demonstration of the value of 
the mounted rifleman the world has ever seen. 
It confirmed the experience of the American 
Civil War. But the lessons it taught Europe 
went unheeded and in 1914 thie Frendi, 
Austrian and Italian cavalry were armed with 
a carbine of little or no value, while in none of 
Aese armies was the cavalry properly or suf- 
ficiently trained in marksmanship or in dis- 
mounted action, and as a result, great masses of 
cavalry were obliged to stand helpless, useless 
and impotent spectators of fierce battles, 
vAmnaA had they been trained to use the rifle, 
they could have moved with the speed of horsc> 
men and fought with determination of infantry. 

Cavadnr played a significant role on boUi 
sides ia the Allied retreat and the German ad- 
vance to the Mame. During the battle of the 
Mame, the German cavalry held the gap ill 
the German line between von Kluck's nank 
guard north of Meaux and his main force on 
the right flank of the German line. When the 
Allies were endeavoring to extend their line to 
Antwerp, and the Germans were trying to 
reach the Belgian coast, the cavalry of both 
sides played an extremely im|K>rtant part in 
the region of LiUe and Ypres; in fact, a large 
part of all the early engagements in this region 
were fought by cava&y. See AifMUNmoK; 
AanuEBY; Infantry. 

Bibliograpfay<— Audibert, 'fitade sur le 
combat i pied> (Paris 1911) ; Childen, Erskine, 
<War and the Arme BlandM:> (London 1910) ; 
id., 'German Infhience on British Cavalry* 
(ib. 1911); French, 'Cavalry in Modem War* 
(London 1884) ; De Brack, 'Cavalry Outsost 
Dnties> (New York 1893) ; Roemer, 'Cavalry: 
Its History, Management, and Uses in War* 
(ib. 1863) ; Rimhigton, M. F., 'Our Cavalry* 
(London 1912); The Journal of the Military 
Service Institution (Governor's Island, N. Yl, 
1885 et seq.) ; Journal United States Cavalry 
Association (Leavenworth, Kan., 1890 et seq.^ ; 
Von Pelet-Narbonne, 'Role of Cavalry in 
Modem War' (London 1905) ; id., 'Cavalry on 
Service' (ib. 1906) ; Von Berahardi, 'Cavalry 
in Future Wars' (London 1906) ; id., 'Cavalry 
in War and Peace' (ib. 1910), and Bracket^ 
'History of the United States (^valry' (New 
York 1865). 

Edwakd S. Fabkow, 
Consulting Ciml and Military Engineer. 

CAVAN, Ireland, a county in the province 
of Ulster, having Fermanarii and Mona^ban 
on the north, Latrim on the west, Longford 
and Westmeath on the south and Louth 
on the east; area, 746 square miles. In the 
northwestern part is a range of hills called the 
Ballymageeta^ _ Mountains, but the remaining 
surface, which is undulating and irregular, is 
pervaded by bog and interspersed witn many 
fine lakes. The chief rivers are the Erne, the 
Woodford, the Blackwater and the Aniudee, 
and the chief lakes Lough Ramor, Lough Shee- 
lin. Lough Gowna, Lough Ouster and Upper 
Lous^ Erne. Mineral springs are numerous. 
Mudi of the soil of this coun^ is cold, spongy 
and inclined to be rushy, "rhe chief cereu 
crop is oats, the , chief green crop potatoes. 
Wheat is little cultivated ; flax is raised to some 
extent, and the high lands are ^od for grazing; 
Linen-bleaching and the distilling of whisl^ 

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are the chief industries. The prindml towns 
are Cavan, Cootehill and Belturbet. There are 
some interesting architectural remains. The 
county returns two members to Parliament. 
Pop. (1911) 74^1, of which 81.4 per cent is 
Roman Catholic 

CAVAN, Ireland, town, capital and chief 
business centre of the above county, 57 miles 
northwest of Dublin. It has an endowed school 
founded by Charles I, and a Roman Catholic 
college, and has some trade in linen. Pop. 
(1911) 2,961. 

CAVANILLBS, ka-va-nel'yes, Antonio 
Job£, Spanish derg^man and botanist: 
b. Valencia 1745; d. Madrid 1804. In 
1777 he went to Paris and remained there 
12 years, occupied with the study of sev- 
eral sdences, but chiefly with botany. In 
1785-86 he wrote his great botanical 
work, <Monadelphiz Classis Dissertationes 
decem> (Paris 1785-89; Madrid 1790, 4to, with 
engravings). After ius return to Spain he 
wrote 4cones et Descriptiones Plantarum, quee 
aut sponte in Hispania crescunt aut in Hortis 
hospitantur> (1791-99, 6 vols., folio, with 601 
engravings). In pursuance of a commission 
from the King, Cavanilles traveled in Valenda, 
and collected the materials for his ^Obser- 
vadones sobre la Historia Natural, Geograha, 
Agricultural Pofaladon, etc., dd Reino de Va- 
lencia* (1795-97, 2 vols., folio, with copper- 
plates from the drawings of the author). The 
work was published at the expense of the King, 
and intended as the first part of a similar wotic 
to embrace the whole of Spain. Thunberg has 
named a family of plants Cavanilla. Hts 
nephew Antonio Cavanilles (1805-64) was a 
distinguished advocate and the autihor of a 
history of Spain (Madrid 1869r«4). 

CAVATINA, k5v-9-te'na, in music, a short 
operatic air without a return or second part, 
maintaining the same tempo throughout, some- 
times relieved with recitative, but now extended 
to the aria generally, espedally if the character 
of expression is tender, hopeful or joyous. In 
this elegant and gracefully melodic class of 
composition the Italians naturally eclipse all 
other musicians; yet the_ // mio Tesoro of 
Mozart will bear comparison with the finest 
cayatinas ever written. 

CAVE, or CAVSRN, an cmening produced 
by nature in the solid crust of the earth. Caves 
are prindpally met with in limestone and gyp- 
sum as a result of the solvent action of ordinary 
circulating underground water. Less often they 
occur in sandstone, and in volcanic rocks (ba- 
salt, lava, tufa, etc.). The form of the caves 
depends partly u^n the nature of the substance 
in which they exist ; but it is frequently altered 
by external causes. Out of some caverns rivers 
take their course; others again admit rivers, or 
may be said to swallow them for a space. 
There are many and various causes for the 
formation of caves. Those in limestone and 
gjrpsum are unquestionably the results of the 
dissolving power of water; in fact the almost 
perfectly uniform direction, the gentle and 
equable declivity of most caves, appear to be 
die effect of the long continuance of water in 
them, the action of which has widened the ex- 
isting crevices. In trachyte and lava, caves 
appear to have been produced by the effects of 

gas. The caves of gypsum often contain fool 
air; the caves of limestone are commonly 
marked by various figures of stalactites, pro- 
duced by the deposit of the lime dissolved in 
the water. Many of these lime caves contain 
remnants of bones of animals, such as hyaenas, 
elephants and bears. See Cave-dwellers. 

Many caves are remarkable only on account 
of their great size, or sublime from the awful 
gloom which pervades them, and the echoes 
which roll like thunder through their vaulted 
passages. Some are of great depth, as that of 
Frederikshall, Norway, calculated to be several 
thousand feet in depth. One of the grandest 
natural caverns known is Fingal's Cave (q.v.) 
in Stajfa, one of the Western Islands of Scot- 
land. Its sides are formed of ranges of basaltic 
columns, which are almost as regular as hewn 
stone. The grotto of Antiparos, on the island 
of the same name, in the Grecian Archipelago, 
is celebrated for its magnificence. The roof is 
adorned with stalactites, many of them 20 feet 
long, and hung with festoons of various forms 
and brilliant appearance. In some parts im- 
mense columns descend to the floor; others 
present the appearance of trees and brooks 
turned to marble. The Peak Cavern in Derby- 
shire, England, is a celebrated curiosity of this 
kind. It IS nearly half a mile in length; an^ 
at its lowest part, 600 feet below the surface. 
Other famous stalactitic caves are the Luray 
Ovem (q.v.). Page County, Va.; one near Ma- 
tanzas, Cuba; one near Adelsberg, Camiola; 
the Wyandotte Cave (q.v.), Crawford County, 
Ind. ; and Madison's Cave, in Rockin^am 
County, Va. The caves of Kirkdale, in Eng- 
land, and (jailenrenth, in (Germany, are remark- 
able for the quantities of bones of the elephant, 
rhinoceros and hytena found in them. In the 
rock of Gibraltar there are a mmiber of stalacti- 
tic caverns, of which the prindpal is Saint 
Michael's Cave, many feet above the sea. Other 
celebrated caves in America are Weyer's Cave, 
in Augusta County, Va., extending 800 yards, 
but extremely irregular; the Colossal Cavern, 
Ky. (q.v.), mscovered in 1895, and the Mam- 
moth Cave (q.v.) in Eldmondson County, Ky., 
which encloses an extent of about^ 150 miles of 
subterraneous windings. One of its chambers, 
called the Temple, covers a space of nearly five 
acres, and is surmounted by a dome of solid 
rock 120 feet in hd^t. The Cumberiand 
Mountains, in Tennessee, contain some curious 
caverns, in one of which, at a depth of 400 feet, 
a stream was found wiUi a current sufficiently 
powerful to_ turn a mill. Another cave in tte 
same State is named Big Bone Cave, from the 
bones of the mastodon which have there been 
discovered. In the Raccoon Mountains, near 
the northwestern extremity of Georpa, is 
Nickojack Cave, SO feet high and 100 feet wide, 
which has been explored to the distance of three 
miles. A stream of considerable size, which is 
interrupted^ bv a fall, runs through it. Tlte 
Ozark region of Missouri is noted for its 
numerous caves, among which Onondaga cavern 
is perhaps the best known. Caves are some- 
times found which exhale poisonous vapors. 
The most remarkable known is the Grotto del 
Cane, a small cave near Naples. In Iceland and 
Hawaii there are many caves formed by the 
lava from volcanoes. In the volcanic country 
near Rome there are many natural cavities of 
great extent and coolness, which are sometimes 

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resorted to as a refage from the heat. In 
South America is the cavern of Guacharo, 
which is said to extend for leagues. For in- 
formation concerning human and animal re- 
mains in caves, see Cate-dwelless and consult 
works there referred to. See also section on 
work of ground water, in article on Geology. 

CAVE ANIMALS. The animal Ufe of 
caverns falls into three categories: 1. Animals, 
mostly extinct, that made their dens or left their 
bones in caves, and in life were members of 
the next group. 2. Animals that temporarily, 
but habitually, resort to caves for refuge, or 
sleep, or as breedbg-places. 3. Animals, de- 
generate, confined to an underground life 
throughout their whole existence. None of 
these classes include those making small cares 
for themselves, the burrowers; or whkh, like 
the mole and many insects, dwell in the soil: 
or, like the conies (Hyrax), the pikas and 
several sea-birds, spiders, etc., seek safe homes 
among dte interstices of loose rocks. 

Prehistoric Cave Beasts^— The first group 
will require little space, as it consists of such 
extinct animals as the cave bear, cave li<ms 
cave leopard, cave hy«na, cave wolf and some 
smaller ones that have been given these names 
because their bones and portraits have been 
found abundantly in the floors or on the walls 
of caverns in Europe and Africa. _ Indications 
trusted by geologists and archaeologists combine 
to show that these animals lived there in the 
latter part, at least, of the third later-glacial 
Epoch, and on through the fourth and last 
glacial advance, when, although central Euro^ 
was free from an ice-cap, an almost Arctic 
climate prevailed, with muui rain. This is what 
is known as the Reindeer Period, when humsm- 
ity was represented by the Neanderthal race 
(see Stone Age). The weaker part of the 
fauna disappeared, but those hardy carnivores, 
finding food still plentiful, gradually adapted 
themselves by increased hairiness to the cold 
climate; but apparently they resorted far more 
than previously to the shelter of caves. None 
of those mentioned above is regarded as ai^- 
thing but a larger, more vigorous varied 
(speltea) of the lion, leopard, wolf, spotted 
hysena, etc., except the cave bear (Ursus 
speltnts). This beast was the most thorougiily 
spelxan of all in its habits, and occupied caves 
before men began to do so. It was not much 
if any larger than the ordinary brown bear of 
to-day, and its claws were shorter and feebler. 
■Hence it would appear,* says Osborn, "that 
the Neanderthals had driven out from the caves 
a type of bear less formidable than the existing 
species, but nevertheless a serious opponent to 
men armed with the small weapons of the 
Mousterian period.' Probably fire and smoke 
were the most effective means. These bears 
were numerous, for game was abundant A 
sin^e cavern in western France has sddded re- 
mams of more than 800 skeletons; and from 
these bones and from prehistoric drawings it is 
possible to know this animal perfectly. WiA 
the close of the last period of partial glaciation, 
and the return in the early Pleistocene of the 
moderate climate that still continues,^ diese and 
the other cave-haunting beasts disai>peared. 
largely, no doubt, killed off by the better-annea 
Neolithic hunters. The gn'eat bear left no 
descendants, for the modem European brown 

bear traces its lineage to an older and smaller 
species, the Etruscan bear, whose bones also 
are occasionally exhumed from cave-floors. 

Caves in North America present different 
conditions from those of Europe. Those that 
have yielded animal remains, such as the Port 
Kennedy and Fraidcstown «caves» in Pennsyl- 
vania, and the Concord Fissure in Arkansas, 
■are hardly caverns,* says Scott, 'in the or- 
dinary sense of the word, but rather narrow 
fissures, into which bones and carcasses were 
washed by floods.* They contain a great 
varietjr of mid-Pleistocene species, at 'least half 
of wmch are extinct. Big Bone Lick Cave, in 
Kentnd^, is more truly a cave, and has fur- 
nished paueont<dopy wiUi an immense suppljr of 
bones of recent time, including several ancient 
species, such as mastodons, mammoths and the 
ground-sloth, Megalonyx, and with certain 
traces of human presence. Caves in northern 
California are also rich in animal remains, illus- 
trating the transition from glacial to modem 
faunas. Brazilian caverns have yielded much 
also; and a cavern near Last Hope Inlet, 
Patagonia, is noteworthy for the finding in it 
of the bones, and large pieces of the skin, of a 
great extinct sloth (Megatherium) with the 
hair still on. 

Temporary Teiu»ts of Cavet.^-In modem 
times, as anciently, bears and other carnivores 
use caves as sleeping-places when it is con- 
venient, but they are exclusively resorted to by 
a few kinds of creatures that may properly be 
called cave-tenants. The most characteristic of 
these probably are certain bats, especially such 
insect-eating kinds as the leaf-nosed, the horse- 
shoe and the trae bats of the family Vesper- 
tilionidie. Caves frequented by bats usually 
harbor enormous colonies, and one who enters 
and disturbs them will find himself in the midst 
of a whirring _ multitude that it taxes the 
powers of description to portray. Some caves 
kmg occupied contain vast deposits of the rich- 
est possible guano, and this has been extensive!^ 
utilued in some places as a fertilizer. Such 
artificial caverns as the deserted tombs of 
Egypt are filled with bats, one species of which 
is popularly called tomb-bat, and abounds in 
the interior of the Great Pyramid. 

Birds of two sorts are cave»-tenants. The 
most singular, probably, is the large guacharo, 
or oil-bird, of the family Steatomithiiae, classi- 
fied between the nightjars and the owls, and 
inhabiting northern South America and the 
island of Trinidad. It inhabits both sea-side 
and mountain caverns, goinj^ forth only at dusk 
to get its food, which. is mainly fruit. ''Visitors 
to the breeding-caves,'* says Evans ('Birds,* 
1900) 'are suddenly snrrotmded by a circling 
crowd of _ oil-birds uttering loud croaking or 
rasping cries. . . . The numerous nests . . . 
are flat, circular masses of a clay-like substance 
placed on ledges or in holes.* Great numbers 
of these birds are killed by torch-light for the 
sake of the oil obtained from them, which is 
excellent for illumination or for cooking pur- 
poses. The other birds choonng sea-caves as 
a breeding-place are swifts of the g^us CoWo- 
calia, whose nests are placed in the depths of 
caves on the coasts of Ceylon, and eastward 
and southward to northern Australia. The best 
known of the many species is that which pro- 
duces the edible nest of which the Chinese are 
so fond. Huge numbers of these swifts breed 

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in compaiiY in dark caves, where tliey are asso- 
ciated wiUi bats; but the bats go outside at 
ni^t and the swifts by day. Such caves con- 
tain exceedingly rich deposits of guano, and 
return to their owners a large rental for the 
right to gather the swifts' nests glued to their 
walls and roofs. See Swifts. 

Blind Inhabitants^— A special cave-fauna 
exists in all parts of the world, consisting of 
an assemblage of animals of dtfferent classes 
which are blind, and in most cases eyeless. This 
fauna is evidently of ^reat antiquity, since it 
exists most plentifully in caves, such as those 
of the limestone district of the South-Alle- 
ghanian region, and in southern Europe, which 
regions are south of the region of the Pleisto- 
cene ^aciation. Within suoi caves, formed l^ 
the action of water ^see Cave), are rivers, gink« 
holes and deep wells, all perfectly dark, in- 
habited by blind amphibians, fish, cravfish and 
other crustaceans, and by many lands of in- 
sects and spiders. No vegetation exists save a 
few scattered molds and fungi, and all the 
animals are carnivorous, preying on each other. 
Mammoth Cave in Kentucky contains about 
75 species of these blind creatures, to which 
40 or SO more may be added' from other south- 
em caves ;_ while several hundred kinds have 
been described from European caverns. 

The most striking and interesting form in 
Mammoth Cave is the blind-fish {Affiblyofsit 
spehnu). It is about four inches- lorig^ color- 
less and blind, the eyes being vesti{^al. This 
fish seeks the dark and shuns die lij^t, being 
much disturbed by a lighted match or bright 
sunlight, or even by a ray of light In well-fed 
adult specimens there is no external indication 
of an eye; but in young ones, before reaching 
a length of two tncnes, the eyes can be distinctly 
seen, owing to their pigment, which is lost in 
the adult The optic nerve can be traced in 
examples under an inch in length. This will 
apply to the eyes of other blind fishes and blind 
insects, Crustacea, etc While the sense of sight 
is lost, that of touch in die Uind-fish, as in 
most other cave animals, is exalted. Amblyopsis 
is provided with tactile papillte, arranged in 
ridges on the front and sides of the head. 
The^r are said to show extreme timidity and 
caution in their movements. 

A still higher type of vertebrate, two species 
of salamanders, have become adapted to cave 
life, losing their eyesight by disuse. The species 
of the genus SpeUrfes frequent damp, dark 
situations and the entrances to caves. An allied 
form {TypMotriton spektus) is distinctly a 
cavemicolotis as distinguidied from a twilight 
species, and has never been found outside of 
oives. Its eyes show early stages of degenera- 
tion._ It inhabits caves in southwestern Mis- 
souri, and occurs under rocks in and out of 
water. Still another salamander, whose eyes 
are the most degenerate known among am- 
phibians, is the Typhlomolge rathbuni. It lives 
tn subterranean streams, tapped by an artesian 
and also a surface well, near San Marcos, 
Tex., and in one of the caves near that town. 
Its remarkably long and slender legs are too 
weak to support its body when out of water. 

The lower animals tell the same story of de- 
generation, total or partial atrophv of the eve, 
toother with loss of color, ancC in a more 
striking way, the compensation for the loss of 
vision by a great increase in length of the 

asteniuB and other ai^iendages, or by the growth 
of long, slender taoile brisdes. 

The blind crayfish (Oreonectes pellucidus) 
is a common cave form. It differs from its 
out-of-door allies in being blind, deaf, slender- 
bodied and colorless. Other blind or eveless 
crustaceans are various kinds of amphipoas and 
isopods, both aquatic and terrestrial, of which 
species of Ceeadotea are the most abundant, 
and form the food-supply of the blind crayfish. 

The eyeless beetles of caves {Anophtkdmi) 
have no vestige of eye or of optic nerves, while 
their bodies and appendages are slender. They 
gcojft their way about by means of very long 
tactile bristles. Other beetles, such as Adelopf, 
which have retsuned vestiges of the outer eye: 
some spiders comprising an eyeless species, and 
others with eyes varying in size, 'some much 
reduced, spin little webs on the walls of the 
chambers. Among the harvestmen some (PAo- 
lanpidev) have extraordinarily long legs; 
while the Campodea (q.v.), a win^ess insect 
of the Mammoth and other caves of the United 
States and Europe, , differs from the outdoor 
form in its antennse and abdominal appendages, 
being ^rreatly exaggerated in length. There arc 
also mites, myriapods, primitive windless insects 
{Podurans'), a few flies, worms and infusorians. 

Origin and History.— The blind fauna of 
caves, according to Packard, is composed of 
the descendants of individuals which have been 
carried by various means into the subterranean 
passages, have become adapted to life in per- 
petual darkness, becoming isolated, and thus, 
as long as they are subjected to their peculiar 
environment, breed true to their specieS; and 
show no tendency to relapse to their originally 
eyed condition. The absence of the stimulus of 
It^t causes the eyes, through disuse, to under- 
go reduction and atrophy. With this goes, in 
certain forms, the loss of the optic ganglia and 
optic nerves. 

Bibliomphyv— Packard, A. S., <Cave 
Fauna of North America' (Washington 1888) : 
Eigeman, C. H., 'Cave Vertebrates of America' 
(Washington 1909} ; Scott, <Land Mammals of 
Western Hemisphere' JNew York 1913) ; 
Morgan, T. H., 'Evolution and Adaptation* 
(New Yoik 1903). 

Ernest Incebsou. 

CAVE-BBAS, an extiinct species of Eu- 
ropean bear closely allied to the living grizzly, 
but attaining a large size. Its remains are found 
in bone-beds in caverns, whence the name. The 
habits of the animal were probably not different 
from those of modem bears. The cave-bear of 
South America is a different animal. Both 
species are fotmd in the larger caverns of 
North and South America. See Beaks. 

CAVB-DWBLLBRS. This topic is nat- 
urally divisible into two parts — first, the pre- 
historic aspectand, second, the modern human 
occupation. The prehistoric use of shelters 
and subterranean chambers by the primitive 
savages, often called *cave-men,* was incidental 
to human existence before civilization, and is 
fully treated in the article Stone-Age. The 
present article therefore avoids that phase of 
cave histoty, and is confined to the use of tin-' 
derground chambers, natural or artificial, by 
civilized mankind for dwellings, refuges, wor- 
shipping places or sepulture. 

Caverns naturally occur in limestone regions^ 

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M ybetf tolt WeM-«f aididataiM d< vvlduiic 
debiia altccnate with harder layeca (ace Cave^i 
and are usually diy, weil-veotHatsdi oi a iair(y 
oven temperature throughoilt .the year, : and 
often coBitain atKams of running .^ater. Tlu^ 
art, tfaetefore, suitable endtigii'fior'httniaa haU* 
tatioi^.and .often art really attractive.' It:is ndt 
sntpruinoi then, that fram the .earliest tunes 
caves haw been adopted a» hnman residences 
and storehotises, and "that thw' continue to his 
to- ntiliaed in. varions partsi ot dw Old Wodd: 
In ' the /Western hemisphere this praotice has. 
never been foHowed, the .occasieaal exJceptioos 
here aad there bein^ negligible. The .reason 
is that the dviUsatwn bt both North and 
South America i».ain important one. The ear^ 
iouni^ants were , men: and- wooiien. nsed to 
building houses, and finding in the New Woi<M 
plenty of - room and matcnaU .for hoUse btnld- 
ing'bad no need of, and iettao caB to, ea(Te>ti£e: 
nor have th^ been, driven to it by fear. 

The people of the Old Wbrld,, iitom thd 
Mediterranean to the Chinti Sea, on- the other 
.hand^ iabeiited the practice, ixtai. remote an-> 
tiquity, and maintained it under the pressure o£ 
senti-Wbarous and crowded 'sociat conditions^ 
poverty, danger fromiiiccaaattt warsiand rtbber 
raids, until now in manyrplacts .residence in 
artificial or modified caves! is a mattei! of 
cC(»omy> or choice, or . both. This is nazvi 
ticula£ly true of 'soiwiwestem 'Europe, aniens 
peciaily of France^ '\frheie glMt areas of lin>en 
stone, sandstone, and volcanic breccia, underlie 
the soiL Throi^ these the rivers, espedalty 
in the valleys of the Loire,' Dordogne and 
Garonne, have cut deep channels with predpi- 
touB sides. Here scopes of natttral caves have 
been human habitations from prehistcKic .tmtil 
recent times — some even yet fnmislung hn« 
man homes. Baring-Gould pictnses a welt 
known example that has been egq)loted by 
antiquaries : 

*'At the bottom of all the deposits [constitut'H 
>ng_ its iloor-layers) . were di^overed tlie re- 
mains of the veo" earliest iidiabitants, with dieir 
hearths about which they sat in ntidity andsidit 
bones to extract the .marrow, trimmied flints 
worked horn, necklaces . of pierced wolf ana 
bear teeth; then potsherds, formed by hand 
long after the invention of the whed; hi^er 
np were the arms and utensils of the.Brome 
A^e, and the weights of nets. Above these came 
the remains of the Iron Age, and wheeL^tned 
crocks. A still higher stratum surrendered a! 
wdght of a scale stamped with an effigy of the 
crusading King, Saint Louis (12^/0), and 
finally francs bearing the iH«file oL' . . Leopold 
(oi Belgium].' 

Such a record of- almost continuous occupa- 
tion mig^ be multiplied by hundreds; and in 
many cases sudi ancient resorts have been 
enlarged and improved. The same is true of 
northern Africa and northern Asia. 

We have to do more especially with arti*- 
fid^ caves dug out by men for occupation in 
one or another way. Thousands of habitations, 
stables and workshops were. cut in the hillndes 
of Nottinghamshire and Staffordshire, in Eng- 
land, and many were occupied until, within a 
few years, the local health authorities cleared 
them out. Holy Austin's rock in Shropshire, 
a. mass of red sandstone, is honeycombed '«rith 
habitations, whbse neatly framed windows and 
doors are cut through the rode wair left for 

VOL. 6 — 10 

a ffont; and whkfi vieU Mw are greatly liked 

hy thdr- tenants.'' 

The vast expanse of dialk that nnderliea 
aoMthem. England, 'Flandera andnorthem France 
ia easily; 'wnriced,- yet firin enough not to fall 
in^ ctt crack . away, when ordinary precautions 
are :tafc«n by the. miner, and one nug^t afanost 
aay thai wherarcr-it is ej^osed in rivee ctittiMp 
Imog: Mwms 'have been dng int» the chBs; 
Often these are m nunerous ai^ deep, that an 
underground village exista Tlnis near lion'' 
taine,. m the deoariment of Loir et Cher, about 
ISDmaes aoath lof Farik,ts the little dQr of 
Tffoo, at the haac of a clifE of chalk. '«The whole 
height,* a recent visitor writes, "is like a sponge, 
perf brated with passages giving access to halls, 
lotne of which are drcular. and into stone 
chiUnben; and most of the homes are wbol^ 
or in part nndetgronnd. The cavies that are in- 
habited an staged one Above another, somie 
reached by stairs that are little, better Uiaa 
ladders, and the subterranean passages running 
frtmi. than form a labyrinth within the bowels 
of the. hill, and run in superposed storeys . . ; 
The. town . . ; partly buth ait die foot of the 
bhiff, but' very few hc^ises are without exca- 
vated chambers, > slore places, 6r stabfes. The 
caf^ k>oks ordinary en6ttgfa, but enter, and you 
find VQursdif in a dtuigeon.* 

The valley of the Loir, a northern tributarw 
of the Loire at Angers, abounds in . such 
rock villages, and they occur in many other 
pUces ia France, S^in and northern Italy. In 
the department of Maine et Loire, whole vil> 
lages are underground A man may utiUze 
vuuable hillside ground for a vin^ard, by 
building walla to retain Icrd terraces. He 

?>uarric8 the necessary stones- from the hill and 
encet bis property. Then for his own dwelling 
he cuts ont clumbers in the sides of his quarry, 
leaving a, thin frdnt wall with 'windows and 
doorways, and bores a chimnty up to the sur- 
face. Near Loudon the dry moat of a medieval 
castl^ cat into the rock, is alive with people 
inhabiting tenements dug into its sides. It is 
true that in nlost cases the families living in 
snch quarters are poor and mean — sometimes 
degraded; but a great many are the homes of 
families of honest, working folks; are decently 
furnished, and ornamented ontwardly by ledge 
gardens, hanging vines and neatly curtained 
windows; or regular house fronts may be 
erected before the caves, as is well known to 
tourists of the "chateau country* about Tonrs. 
Caves, natural and artificial, have been and 
are still valued elsewhere in the Eastern world. 
Villages like those described above exist in 
some parts of Italy, in Sidly, in Egypt and es- 
pecially in Syria. Southeast of Damascus, and 
not <far from Palmyra, is Edrei, the capital of 
the Amoritish King Og, ruler of Bashan, which 
was captured by the Israelites in the caurse of 
thdr conquest of Canaan. It was an under- 
ground dty cut out oi solid rock, which was 
explored some jrears ago hy Wetzstdn, who was 
astonished at its extent. .After threading a 
long, downward entrance-passage he found 
himself in a broad street, with dwdUngs on 
each side of comfortable height and width. 
*The temperature was mild, the air free from 
■npleasant odors,, and I felt not the smallest 
difficulty in breathing. Further along there 
were several cross streets, and my pniide called 
my attention to a bole in the ceiling for air, 

Digitized by 




like thtte othciv wfeick I aftertrafd «aw, now 
closed from above. Soon after we came to a 
marioet place, whet-e for a. long distance on 
both sides 'of the pretty broad street,^ were 
numerous shops in the' walls, exactly in the 
style of the shops seen in Syrian cities. After 
a wUle we turned' into a' side Istreet where a 
g^Tcat hall, whos^ roof was supported by. 'four 
pillars, attracted my attention. The roof, a ceiU 
mg, was formed of a single slab of jasper, per- 
fectly smooth and of immense size.* 

In this region, too. lies Petra,' hidden, m a 
gors^ of savage grandeur, and often visited by 
tourists. It also is an excavated city, where 
temples with their colonnades and facades are 
let' mto' the redclif!, superimposed bat above 
another. *From the earhest recorded times the 
inhabitants of the district were 'Horim,' thdt 
is to say Trogloc^es, whose first rude grottoes, 
shapeless caverns hollowed out of the hillside, 
have been transformed to architectural galleries 
decorated with statues and faasrrelief s.' 

. Many other most curious examples 'of the 
present occupation of oavie>-dwelling8 in the 
East and in northern China mi^xt be dted «s* 
pecially where banks ai|d steep hiilsides of the 
stiff earth called loess have been tthmeied into, 
and. are occupied by hundreds of dwelling places 
in which families now live in health and con- 

'Vast' numbers of caverns, with evidences of 
former domestic occupation, are to be seen also 
'm. the mountains about the faead'waters of the 
Yangtse Kiang (Blue River) in southwestern 
China. They are now left emp^, or used oc- 
casionally only as * refugees* ; but ih Kan^Su 
and Shen-Si precisely similar caverns are ex- 
cavated in the hillside,, and even to>-day they are 
favorite dwellings of the people. ' Africa is not 
in general a cavemoas region, because of its 
geology; but in south central Africa, Ae Bushf 
men were found dwelling to a considerable 
extent under ground. Doman (Trans, S. Afri- 
can Fhilos. Soc. 1909) writing of such inhabited 
caves in Basutoland says they were the rallying 
points of the various clans; and Stow reports 
that those inhabited by the head chiefs were 
adorned by paintings of totemic animals and 
the like. 

Caves M Refng«s<— Caverns and under- 
ground retreats, natural and artificial, ancient 
and modem, have, always been, resorted to as 
hiding pbices, not only 1^ individuals fleeing 
from persecution, or avoiding legal punish- 
ment, or for criminal concealment (as by smug- 
glers and robbers), but by great companies of 
people with their goods, in tiittes of war or 
other social disasters. Tne early history of the 
Jews as given in the Bible has - frequent refers- 
ences to this resort, as when Ahab persecuted 
the prophets and Obadiah hid them by fifties in 
a cave; and as when Joshua defeated the 
Amorites and their five kings hid themselves in 
the cave at Makkedah. The same sort of 
thing has occurred wherever men fought in a- 
cavernous region .from the beginning of 
humanity to the battles in northern France in 
1917, where whole regiments were concealed 
in subterranean duunbers north of the Aisne. 
Nowhere wa$ the value of snoh means of 
safety to a harassed population better illustrated 
than in dte civil wars that have raged in south- 
western China and in the tribal conflicts and 
blood-feuds of Afghanistan. 

The Roman amies were constantly bafilsd 
by this method of escape in conquering the 
Armenians and Arabs in Asia Minor, or Gauls 
of France and the Teutonic ttibes of South 
Germany. When the Saracens invaded France 
from Spain in the 8th centmy, they fonnd that 
the inhabitants, profiting by experience, had 
constructed mndcrgrotmd retreats inaccessible 
to them, and bgr this means, aUnost alone, was 
the country saved from utter depopulation. 
Scarcely a century passed for several hundred 
years that this dreadful experience was not 
repeated at the hands of the Northmen (9tb 
century) ; at the hands of English cobquerors 
ri2th century); at the hands of the Pope of 
Rome in the persecution of the Albigenses (14th 
century) and at the hands of local robber barons 
an th